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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10009
Quintilian, Institutes Of Oratory, 11.3.138


nan Consequently it follows that in view of the fact that their arms were, like those of the Greeks, covered by the garment, they must have employed a different form of gesture in the exordium from that which is now in use. However, I am speaking of our own day. The speaker who has not the right to wear the broad stripe, will wear his girdle in such a way that the front edges of the tunic fall a little below his knees, while the edges in rear reach to the middle of his hams. For only women draw them lower and only centurions higher.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Cicero, Pro Caelio, 4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.31-1.32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Ovid, Tristia, 2.247-2.252 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Juvenal, Satires, 3.171-3.172 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Martial, Epigrams, 2.39, 10.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Martial, Epigrams, 2.39, 10.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 1.11.1-1.11.2, 2.5.10, 5.9.14, 5.12.19, 5.12.21, 8.3.6, 11.3.65-11.3.123, 11.3.128, 11.3.137, 11.3.139-11.3.149, 11.3.156, 11.3.160-11.3.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11.1.  The comic actor will also claim a certain amount of our attention, but only in so far as our future orator must be a master of the art of delivery. For I do not of course wish the boy, whom we are training to this end, to talk with the shrillness of a woman or in the tremulous accents of old age. 1.11.2.  Nor for that matter must he ape the vices of the drunkard, or copy the cringing manners of a slave, or learn to express the emotions of love, avarice or fear. Such accomplishments are not necessary to an orator and corrupt the mind, especially while it is still pliable and unformed. 2.5.10.  It will even at times be of value to read speeches which are corrupt and faulty in style, but still meet with general admiration thanks to the perversity of modern tastes, and to point out how many expressions in them are inappropriate, obscure, high-flown, grovelling, mean, extravagant or effeminate, although they are not merely praised by the majority of critics, but, worse still, praised just because they are bad. 5.9.14.  However, I fear that this line of reasoning will carry us too far. For if it is an indication of adultery that a woman bathes with men, the fact that she revels with young men or even an intimate friendship will also be indications of the same offence. Again depilation, a voluptuous gait, or womanish attire may be regarded as indications of effeminacy and unmanliness by anyone who thinks that such symptoms are the result of an immoral character, just as blood is the result of a wound: for anything, that springs from the matter under investigation and comes to our notice, may properly be called an indication. 5.12.19.  But I take Nature for my guide and regard any man whatsoever as fairer to view than a eunuch, nor can I believe that Providence is ever so indifferent to what itself has created as to allow weakness to be an excellence, nor again can I think that the knife can render beautiful that which, if produced in the natural course of birth, would be regarded as a monster. A false resemblance to the female sex may in itself delight lust, if it will, but depravity of morals will never acquire such ascendancy as to succeed in giving real value to that to which it has succeeded in giving a high price. 5.12.21.  When the masters of sculpture and hand desired to carve or paint forms of ideal beauty, they never fell into the error of taking some Bagoas or Megabyzus as models, but rightly selected the well-known Doryphorus, equally adapted either for the fields of war or for the wrestling school, and other warlike and athletic youths as types of physical beauty. Shall we then, who are endeavouring to mould the ideal orator, equip eloquence not with weapons but with timbrels? 8.3.6.  Cicero was right when, in one of his letters to Brutus, he wrote, "Eloquence which evokes no admiration is, in my opinion, unworthy of the name." Aristotle likewise thinks that the excitement of admiration should be one of our first aims. But such ornament must, as I have already said, be bold, manly and chaste, free from all artificial dyes, and must glow with health and vigour. 11.3.65.  But it will be raised to express violent emotion, and sink when our words are of a calmer nature, rising and falling according to the demands of its the me. However, for the moment I will defer speaking of the variations in tone required by different topics, and will proceed first to the discussion of gesture which conforms to the voice, and like it, obeys the impulse of the mind. Its importance in oratory is sufficiently clear from the fact that there are many things which it can express without the assistance of words. 11.3.66.  For we can indicate our will not merely by a gesture of the hands, but also with a nod from the head: signs take the place of language in the dumb, and the movements of the dance are frequently full of meaning, and appeal to the emotions without any aid from words. The temper of the mind can be inferred from the glance and gait, and even speechless animals show anger, joy, or the desire to please by means of the eye and other physical indications. 11.3.67.  Nor is it wonderful that gesture which depends on various forms of movement should have such power, when pictures, which are silent and motionless, penetrate into our innermost feelings with such power that at times they seem more eloquent than language itself. On the other hand, if gesture and the expression of the face are out of harmony with the speech, if we look cheerful when our words are sad, or shake our heads when making a positive assertion, our words will not only lack weight, but will fail to carry conviction. 11.3.68.  Gesture and movement are also productive of grace. It was for this reason that Demosthenes used to practise his delivery in front of a large mirror, since, in spite of the Greek that its reflexions are reversed, he trusted his eyes to enable him to judge accurately the effect produced. The head, being the chief member of the body, has a corresponding importance in delivery, serving not merely to produce graceful effect, but to illustrate our meaning as well. 11.3.69.  To secure grace it is essential that the head should be carried naturally and erect. For a droop suggests humility, while if it be thrown back it seems to express arrogance, if inclined to one side it gives an impression of languor, while if it is held too stiffly and rigidly it appears to indicate a rude and savage temper. Further, it should derive appropriate motion from the subject of our pleading, maintaining harmony with the gesture and following the movement of the hands and side. 11.3.70.  For the eyes are always turned in the same direction as the gesture, except when we are called upon to condemn or concede something or to express abhorrence, when we shall show our aversion by turning away the face and by thrusting out our hands as though to repel the thought, as in the lines: "Ye gods, such dread calamity avert!" or "Not for me To claim such honour! 11.3.71.  The methods by which the head may express our meaning are manifold. For in addition to those movements which indicate consent, refusal and affirmation, there are those expressive of modesty, hesitation, wonder or indignation, which are well known and common to all. But to confine the gesture to the movement of the head alone is regarded as a fault by those who teach acting as well as by professors of rhetoric. Even the frequent nodding of the head is not free from fault, while to toss or roll it till our hair flies free is suggestive of a fanatic. 11.3.72.  By far the greatest influence is exercised by the glance. For it is by this that we express supplication, threats, flattery, sorrow, joy, pride or submission. It is on this that our audience hang, on this that they rivet their attention and their gaze, even before we begin to speak. It is this that inspires the hearer with affection or dislike, this that conveys a world of meaning and is often more eloquent than all our words. 11.3.73.  Consequently in plays destined for the stage, the masters of the art of delivery design even their masks to enhance the emotional effect. Thus, in tragedy, Aerope will be sad, Medea fierce, Ajax bewildered, Hercules truculent. 11.3.74.  In comedy, on the other hand, over and above the methods adopted to distinguish between slaves, pimps, parasites, rustics, soldiers, harlots, maidservants, old men stern and mild, youths moral or luxurious, married women and girls, we have the important rôle of the father who, because at times he is excited and at others calm, has one eyebrow raised and the other normal, the custom among actors being to turn that side of the face to the audience which best suits the rôle. 11.3.75.  But of the various elements that go to form the expression, the eyes are the most important, since they, more than anything else, reveal the temper of the mind, and without actual movement will twinkle with merriment or be clouded with grief. And further, nature has given them tears to serve as interpreters of our feelings, tears that will break forth sorrow or stream for very joy. But, when the eyes move, they become intent, indifferent, proud, fierce, mild, or angry; and they will assume all these characters according as the pleading may demand. 11.3.76.  But they must never be fixed or protruding, languid or sluggish, lifeless, lascivious, restless, nor swim with a moist voluptuous glance, nor look aslant nor leer in amorous fashion, nor yet must they seem to promise or ask a boon. As for keeping them fully or partially closed while speaking, surely none save an uneducated man or a fool would dream of doing such a thing. 11.3.77.  And in addition to all these forms of expression, the upper and lower eyelids can render service in support of the eyes. 11.3.78.  The eyebrows also may be used with great effect. For to some extent they mould the expression of the eyes and determine that of the forehead. It is by means of the eyebrows that we contract, raise or smooth the latter: in fact, the only thing which has greater influence over it is the blood, which moves in conformity with the emotions that control the mind, causing a blush on a skin that is sensitive to shame, and giving place to an icy pallor under the influence of fear, whereas, when it is under control, it produces a peaceful complexion, intermediate between the two. 11.3.79.  Complete immobility in the eyebrows, as also is excess of mobility or the tendency to raise one and lower the other, as in the comic mask which I mentioned just now: while it is a further blemish if they express a feeling out of keeping with the words we utter. For they show anger by contraction, grief by depression and cheerfulness by their expansion. They are also dropped or raised to express consent or refusal respectively. 11.3.80.  It is not often that the lips or nostrils can be becomingly employed to express our feelings, although they are often used to indicate derision, contempt or loathing. For to "wrinkle the nostrils" (as Horace says), or blow them out, or twitch them, or fret them with anger, or snort through them with a sudden expulsion of the breath, or stretch them wide or push them up with the flat of the hand are all indecorous, since it is not without reason that censure is passed even on blowing the nose too frequently. 11.3.81.  It is also an ugly habit to protrude the lips, open them with a sudden smack, compress them, draw them apart and bare the teeth, or twist them awry to one side till they almost reach the ear, or to curl them in scorn, or let them droop, or allow the voice to escape only on one side. It is also unbecoming to lick or bite them, since their motion should be but slight even when they are employed in forming words. For we must speak with the mouth rather than the lips. 11.3.82.  The neck must be straight, not stiff or bent backward. As regards the throat, contraction and stretching are equally unbecoming, though in different ways. If it be stretched, it causes strain as well, and weakens and fatigues the voice, while if the chin be pressed down into the chest it makes the voice less distinct and coarsens it, owing to the pressure on the windpipe. 11.3.83.  It is, as a rule, unbecoming to raise or contract the shoulders. For it shortens the neck and produces a mean and servile gesture, which is even suggestive of dishonesty when men assume an attitude of flattery, admiration or fear. 11.3.84.  In continuous and flowing passages a most becoming gesture is slightly to extend the arm with shoulders well thrown back and the fingers opening as the hand moves forward. But when we have to speak in specially rich or impressive style, as, for example, in the passage saxa atque solitudines voci respondent, the arm will be thrown out in a stately sidelong sweep and the words will, as it were, expand in unison with the gesture. 11.3.85.  As for the hands, without which all action would be crippled and enfeebled, it is scarcely possible to describe the variety of their motions, since they are almost as expressive as words. For other portions of the body may help the speaker, whereas the hands may almost be said to speak. 11.3.86.  Do we not use them to demand, promise, summon, dismiss, threaten, supplicate, express aversion or fear, question or deny? Do we not employ them to indicate joy, sorrow, hesitation, confession, penitence, measure, quantity, number and time? 11.3.87.  Have they not power to excite and prohibit, to express approval, wonder or shame? Do they not take the place of adverbs and pronouns when we point at places and things? In fact, though the peoples and nations of the earth speak a multitude of tongues, they share in common the universal language of the hands. 11.3.88.  The gestures of which I have thus far spoken are such as naturally proceed from us simultaneously with our words. But there are others which indicate things by means of mimicry. For example, you may suggest a sick man by mimicking the gesture of a doctor feeling the pulse, or a harpist by a movement of the hands as though they were plucking the strings. But this is a type of gesture which should be rigorously avoided in pleading. 11.3.89.  For the orator should be as unlike a dancer as possible, and his gesture should be adapted rather to his thought than to his actual words, a practice which was indeed once upon a time even adopted by the more dignified performers on the stage. I should, therefore, permit him to direct his hand towards his body to indicate that he is speaking of himself, or to point it at some one else to whom he is alluding, together with other similar gestures which I need not mention. But, on the other hand, I would not allow him to use his hands to imitate attitudes or to illustrate anything he may chance to say. 11.3.90.  And this rule applies not merely to the hands, but to all gesture and to the voice as well. For in delivering the period stetit soleatus praetor populi Romani, it would be wrong to imitate Verres leaning on his mistress, or in uttering the phrase caedebatur in medio foro Messanae to make the side writhe, as it does when quivering beneath the lash, or to utter shrieks, such as are extorted by pain. 11.3.91.  For even comic actors seem to me to commit a gross offence against the canons of their art when, if they have in the course of some narrative to quote either the words of an old man (as, for example, in the prologue to the Hydria), or of a woman (as in the Georgus), they utter them in a tremulous or a treble voice, notwithstanding the fact that they are playing the part of a young man. So true is it that certain forms of imitation may be a blemish even in those whose art consists in imitation. 11.3.92.  One of the commonest of all the gestures consists in placing the middle finger against the thumb and extending the remaining three: it is suitable to the exordium, the hand being moved forward with an easy motion a little distance both to right and left, while the head and shoulders gradually follow the direction of the gesture. It is also useful in the statement of facts, but in that case the hand must be moved with firmness and a little further forward, while, if we are reproaching or refuting our adversary, the same movement may be employed with some vehemence and energy, since such passages permit of greater freedom of extension. 11.3.93.  On the other hand, this same gesture is often directed sideways towards the left shoulder: this is a mistake, although it is a still worse fault to thrust the arm across the chest and gesticulate with the elbow. The middle and third fingers are also sometimes turned under the thumb, producing a still more forcible effect than the gesture previously described, but not well adapted for use in the exordium or statement of facts. 11.3.94.  But when three fingers are doubled under the thumb, the finger, which Cicero says that Crassus used to such effect, is extended. It is used in denunciation and in indication (whence its name of index finger), while if it be slightly dropped after the hand has been raised toward the shoulder, it signifies affirmation, and if pointed as it were face downwards toward the ground, it expresses insistence. 11.3.95.  Again, if its top joint is lightly gripped on either side, with the two outer fingers slightly curved, the little finger rather less than the third, we shall have a gesture well suited for argument. But for this purpose the same gesture is rendered more emphatic by holding the middle joint of the finger and contracting the last two fingers still further to match the lower position of the middle finger and thumb. 11.3.96.  The following gesture is admirably adapted to accompany modest language: the thumb and the next three fingers are gently converged to a point and the hand is carried to the neighbourhood of the mouth or chest, then relaxed palm downwards and slightly advanced. 11.3.97.  It was with this gesture that I believe Demosthenes to have commenced the timid and subdued exordium of his speech in defence of Ctesiphon, and it was, I think, in such a position that Cicero held his hand, when he said, "if I have any talent, though I am conscious how little it is." Slightly greater freedom may be given to the gesture by pointing the fingers down and drawing the hand in towards the body and then opening it somewhat more rapidly in the opposite direction, so that it seems as though it were delivering our words to the audience. 11.3.98.  Sometimes we may hold the first two fingers apart without, however, inserting the thumb between them, the remaining two pointing inwards, while even the two former must not be fully extended. 11.3.99.  Sometimes, again, the third and little finger may be pressed in to the palm near the base of the thumb, which in its turn is pressed against the middle joints of the first and middle fingers; at others the little finger is sometimes drooped obliquely, or the four fingers may be relaxed rather than extended and the thumb slanted inwards: this last gesture is well adapted to pointing to one side or marking the different points which we are making, the hand being carried palm-upwards to the left and swept back to the right face-downwards. 11.3.100.  The following short gestures are also employed: the hand may be slightly hollowed as it is when persons are making a vow, and then moved slightly to and fro, the shoulders swaying gently in unison: this is adapted to passages where we speak with restraint and almost with timidity. Wonder is best expressed as follows: the hand turns slightly upwards and the fingers are brought in to the palm, one after the other, beginning with the little finger; the hand is then opened and turned round by a reversal of this motion. 11.3.101.  There are various methods of expressing interrogation; but, as a rule, we do so by a turn of the hand, the arrangement of the fingers being indifferent. If the first finger touch the middle of the right-hand edge of the thumb-nail with its extremity, the other fingers being relaxed, we shall have a graceful gesture well suited to express approval or to accompany statements of facts, and to mark the distinction between our different points. 11.3.102.  There is another gesture not unlike the preceding, in which the remaining three fingers are folded: it is much employed by the Greeks both for the left hand and the right, in rounding off their enthymemes, detail by detail. A gentle movement of the hand expresses promise or assent, a more violent movement suggests exhortation or sometimes praise. There is also that familiar gesture by which we drive home our words, consisting in the rapid opening and shutting of the hand: but this is a commander rather than an artistic gesture. 11.3.103.  Again, there is the somewhat unusual gesture in which the hand is hollowed and raised well above the shoulder with a motion suggestive of exhortation. The tremulous motion now generally adopted by foreign schools is, however, fit only for the stage. I do not know why some persons disapprove of the movement of the fingers, with their tops converging, towards the mouth. For we do this when we are slightly surprised, and at times also employ it to express fear or entreaty when we are seized with sudden indignation. 11.3.104.  Further, we sometimes clench the hand and press it to our breast when we are expressing regret or anger, an occasion when it is not unbecoming even to force the voice through the teeth in phrases such "What shall I do now?" "What would you do?" To point at something with the thumb turned back is a gesture which is in general use, but is not, in my opinion, becoming to an orator. 11.3.105.  Motion is generally divided into six kinds, but circular motion must be regarded as a seventh. The latter alone is faulty when applied to gesture. The remaining motions — that is, forward, to right or left and up or down — all have their significance, but the gesture is never directed to what lies behind us, though we do at times throw the hand back. 11.3.106.  The best effect is produced by letting the motion of the hand start from the left and end on the right, but this must be done gently, the hand sinking to rest and avoiding all appearance of giving a blow, although at the end of a sentence it may sometimes be allowed to drop, but must be quickly raised again: or it may occasionally, when we desire to express wonder or dissent, spring back with a rapid motion. In this connexion the earlier instructors in the art of gesture rightly added that the movement of the hand should begin and end with the thought that is expressed. Otherwise the gesture will anticipate or lag behind the voice, both of which produce an unpleasing effect. 11.3.107.  Some, through excess of subtlety, have erroneously prescribed that there should be an interval of three words between each movement; but this rule is never observed, nor can it be. These persons, however, were desirous that there should be some standard of speed or slowness (a most rational desire), with a view to avoid prolonged inactivity on the part of the hands as well as the opposite fault, into which so many fall, of breaking up the natural flow of their delivery by continual motion. 11.3.108.  There is another still more common error, which is less easy of detection. Language possesses certain imperceptible stresses, indeed we might almost call them feet, to which the gesture of most speakers conforms. Thus there will be one movement at novum crimen, another at Gai Caesar, a third at et ante hanc diem, a fourth at non auditum, a fifth at propinquus meus, a sixth at ad te and others at Quintus Tubero and detulit. 11.3.109.  From this springs a further error, namely, that young men, when writing out their speeches, devise all their gesture in advance and consider as they compose how the hand is to fall at each particular point. A further unfortunate result is that the movement of the hand, which should end on the right, frequently finishes on the left. 11.3.110.  It is therefore better, in view of the fact that all speech falls into a number of brief clauses, at the end of which we can take breath, if necessary, to arrange our gesture to suit these occasions. For example, the words novum crimen, Gaius Caesar, in a sense form a phrase complete in itself, since they are followed by a conjunction, while the next words, et ante hanc diem non auditum, are also sufficiently self-contained. To these phrases the motions of the hand must be conformed, before the speech has passed beyond the calmness of tone on which it opens. 11.3.111.  But when increasing warmth of feeling has fired the orator, the gesture will become more frequent, in keeping with the impetus of the speech. Some places are best suited by a rapid, and others by a restrained delivery. In the one case we pass rapidly one, fire a volley of arguments and hurry upon our way; in the other, we drive home our points, force them on the hearer and implant them in his mind. But the slower the delivery, the greater its emotional power: thus Roscius was rapid and Aesopus weighty in his delivery, because the former was a comic and the latter a tragic actor. 11.3.112.  The same rule applies to the movements. Consequently on the stage young men and old, soldiers and married women all walk sedately, while slaves, maidservants, parasites and fishermen are more lively in their movements. But instructors in the art of gesture will not permit the hand to be raised above the level of the eyes or lowered beneath that of the breast; since it is thought there are grave blemish to lift it to the top of the head or lower it to the lower portions of the belly. 11.3.113.  It may be moved to the left within the limits of the shoulder, but no further without loss of decorum. On the other hand, when, to express our aversion, we thrust our hand out to the left, the left shoulder must be brought forward in unison with the head, which will incline to the right. 11.3.114.  It is never correct to employ the left hand alone in gesture, though it will often conform its motion to that of the right, as, for example, when we are counting our arguments on the fingers, or turn the palms of the hands to the left to express our horror of something 11.3.115.  or thrust them out in front or spread them out to right and left, or lower them in apology or supplication (though the gesture is not the same in these two cases), or raise them in adoration, or stretch them out in demonstration or invocation, as in the passage, "Ye hills and groves of Alba," or in the passage from Gracchus: "Whither, alas! shall I turn me? To the Capitol? Nay, it is wet with my brother's blood. To my home?" etc. 11.3.116.  For in such passages greater emotional effect is produce if both hands co-operate, short gestures being best adapted to matters of small importance and themes of a gentle or melancholy character, and longer gestures to subjects of importance or themes calling for joy or horror. 11.3.117.  It is desirable also that I should mention the faults in the use of the hands, into which even experienced pleaders are liable to fall. As for the gesture of demanding a cup, threatening a flogging, or indicating the number 500 by crooking the thumb, all of which are recorded by writers on the subject, I have never seen them employed even by uneducated rustics. 11.3.118.  But I know that it is of frequent occurrence for a speaker to expose his side by stretching his arm too far, to be afraid in one case of extend eu his hand beyond the folds of his cloak, and in another to stretch it as far as it will go, to raise it to the roof, or by swinging it repeatedly over his left shoulder to deliver such a rain of blows to the rear that it is scarcely safe to stand behind him, or to make a circular sweep to the left, or by casting our his hand at random to strike the standers-by or to flap both elbows against his sides. 11.3.119.  There are others, again, whose hands are sluggish or tremulous or inclined to saw the air; sometimes, too, the fingers are crooked and brought down with a run from the top of the head, or tossed up into the air with the hand turned palm upwards. There is also a gesture, which consists in inclining the head to the right shoulder, stretching out the arm from the ear and extending the hand with the thumb turned down. This is a special favourite with those who boast that they speak "with uplifted hand. 11.3.120.  To these latter we may add those speakers who hurl quivering epigrams with their fingers or denounce with the hand upraised, or rise on tiptoe, whenever they say something of which they are specially proud. This last proceeding may at times be adopted by itself, but they convert it into a blemish by simultaneously raising one or even two fingers as high as they can reach, or heaving up both hands as if they were carrying something. 11.3.121.  In addition to these faults, there are those which spring not from nature, but from nervousness, such as struggling desperately with our lips when they refuse to open, making inarticulate sounds, as though something were sticking in our throat, when our memory fails us, or our thoughts will not come at our call; rubbing the end of our nose, walking up and down in the midst of an unfinished sentence, stopping suddenly and courting applause by silence, with many other tricks which it would take too long to detail, since everybody has his own particular faults. 11.3.122.  We must take care not to protrude the chest or stomach, since such an attitude arches back, and all bending backwards is unsightly. The flanks must conform to the gesture; for the motion of the entire body contributes to the effect: indeed, Cicero holds that the body is more expressive than even the hands. For in the de Orator he says, "There must be no quick movements of the fingers, but the orator should control himself by the poise of the whole trunk and by a manly inclination of the side. 11.3.123.  Slapping the thigh, which Cleon is said to have been the first to introduce at Athens, is in general use and is becoming as a mark of indignation, while it also excites the audience. Cicero regrets its absence in Calidius, "There was no striking of the forehead," he complains, "nor of the thigh." With regard to the forehead I must beg leave to differ from him: for it is a purely theatrical trick even to clap the hands or to beat the breast. 11.3.128.  Stamping the foot is, as Cicero says, effective when done on suitable occasions, that is to say, at the commencement or close of a lively argument, but if it be frequently indulged in, it brands the speaker as a fool and ceases to attract the attention of the judge. There is also the unsightly habit of swaying to right and left, and shifting the weight from one foot to the other. Above all, we must avoid effeminate movements, such as Cicero ascribes to Titius, a circumstance which led to a certain kind of dance being nicknamed Titius. 11.3.137.  With regard to dress, there is no special garb peculiar to the orator, but his dress comes more under the public eye than that of other men. It should, therefore, be distinguished and manly, as, indeed, it ought to be with all men of position. For excessive care with regard to the cut of the toga, the style of the shoes, or the arrangement of the hair, is just as reprehensible as excessive carelessness. There are also details of dress which are altered to some extent by successive changes in fashion. The ancients, for example, wore no folds, and their successors wore them very short. 11.3.139.  If we wear the purple stripe, it requires but little care to see that it falls becomingly; negligence in this respect sometimes excites criticism. Among those who wear the broad stripe, it is the fashion to let it hang somewhat lower than in garments that are retained by the girdle. The toga itself should, in my opinion, be round, and cut to fit, otherwise there are a number of ways in which it may be unshapely. Its front edge should by preference reach to the middle of the shin, while the back should be higher in proportion as the girdle is higher behind than in front. 11.3.140.  The fold is most becoming, if it fall to a point a little above the lower edge of the tunic, and should certainly never fall below it. The other fold which passes obliquely like a belt under the right shoulder and over the left, should neither be too tight nor too loose. The portion of the toga which is last to be arranged should fall rather low, since it will sit better thus and be kept in its place. A portion of the tunic also should be drawn back in order that it may not fall over the arm when we are pleading, and the fold should be thrown over the shoulder, while it will not be unbecoming if the edge be turned back. 11.3.141.  On the other hand, we should not cover the shoulder and the whole of the throat, otherwise our dress will be unduly narrowed and will lose the impressive effect produced by breadth at the chest. The left arm should only be raised so far as to form a right angle at the elbow, while the edge of the toga should fall in equal lengths on either side. 11.3.142.  The hand should not be overloaded with rings, which should under no circumstances encroach upon the middle joint of the finger. The most becoming attitude for the hand is produced by raising the thumb and slightly curving the fingers, only it is occupied with holding manuscript. But we should not go out of our way to carry the latter, for it suggests an acknowledgment that we do not trust our memory, and is a hindrance to a number of gestures. 11.3.143.  The ancients used to let the toga fall to the heels, as the Greeks are in the habit of doing with the cloak: Plotius and Nigidius both recommend this in the books which they wrote about gesture as practised in their own day. I am consequently all the more surprised at the view expressed by so learned a man as Plinius Secundus, especially since it occurs in a book which carries minute research almost to excess: for he asserts that Cicero was in the habit of wearing his toga in such a fashion to conceal his varicose veins, despite the fact that this fashion is to be seen in the statues of persons who lived after Cicero's day. 11.3.144.  As regards the short cloak, bandages used to protect the legs, mufflers and coverings for the ears, nothing short of ill-health can excuse their use. But such attention to our dress is only possible at the beginning of a speech, since, as the pleading develops, in fact, almost from the beginning of the statement of facts, the fold will slip down from the shoulder quite naturally and as it were of its own accord, while when we come to arguments and commonplaces, it will be found convenient to throw back the toga from the left shoulder, and even to throw down the fold if it should stick. 11.3.145.  The left hand may be employed to pluck the toga from the throat and the upper portion of the chest, for by now the whole body will be hot. And just as at this point the voice becomes more vehement and more varied in its utterance, so the clothing begins to assume something of a combative pose. 11.3.146.  Consequently, although to wrap the toga round the left hand or to pull it about us as a girdle would be almost a symptom of madness, while to throw back the fold from its bottom over the right shoulder would be a foppish and effeminate gesture, and there are yet worse effects than these, there is, at any rate, no reason why we should not place the looser portions of the fold under the left arm, since it gives an air of vigour and freedom not ill-suited to the warmth and energy of our action. 11.3.147.  When, however, our speech draws near its close, more especially if fortune shows herself kind, practically everything is becoming; we may stream with sweat, show signs of fatigue, and let our dress fall in careless disorder and the toga slip loose from us on every side. 11.3.148.  This fact makes me all the more surprised that Pliny should think it worth while to enjoin the orator to dry his brow with a handkerchief in such a way as not to disorder the hair, although a little later he most properly, and with a certain gravity and sternness of language, forbids us to rearrange it. For my own part, I feel that the dishevelled locks make an additional appeal to the emotions, and that neglect of such precautions creates a pleasing impression. 11.3.149.  On the other hand, if the toga falls down at the beginning of our speech, or when we have only proceeded but a little way, the failure to replace it is a sign of indifference, or sloth, or sheer ignorance of the way in which clothes should be worn. The above are the chief adornments and faults of delivery. But there are a number of further considerations which the orator must bear in mind. 11.3.156.  The method of arousing the emotions depends on our power to represent or imitate the passions. Therefore when the judge in private, or the usher in public cases, calls upon us to speak, we must rise with deliberation. We shall then, to make our garb the more becoming, and to secure a moment for reflexion, devote a brief space to the arrangement of our toga or even, if necessary, to throwing it on afresh; but it must be borne in mind that this injunction applies only to cases in the courts; for we must not do this if we are speaking before the emperor or a magistrate, or in cases where the judge sits in a position of superior authority. 11.3.160.  For it is a mistake to look at the ceiling, to rub the face and give it a flush of impudence, to crane it boldly forward, to frown in order to secure a fierce expression, or brush back the hair from the forehead against its natural direction in order to produce a terrifying effect by making it stand on end. Again, there are other unseemly tricks, such as that so dear to the Greeks of twitching our fingers and lips as though studying what to say, clearing the throat with a loud noise, thrusting out one foot to a considerable distance, grasping a portion of the toga in the left hand, standing with feet wide apart, holding ourselves stiffly, leaning backwards, stooping, or hunching our shoulders toward the back of the head, as wrestlers do when about to engage. 11.3.161.  A gentle delivery is most often best suited to the exordium. For there is nothing better calculated than modesty to win the good-will of the judge, although there are exceptions to the rule, since, as I have already pointed out, all exordia are not delivered in the same manner. But, generally speaking, a quiet voice, a modest gesture, a toga sitting well upon the shoulder, and a gentle motion of the sides to right and left, accompanied by a corresponding movement of the eyes, will all be found to produce a becoming effect.
8. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 1.11.1-1.11.2, 5.9.14, 5.12.19, 11.3.137-11.3.139, 11.3.144, 11.3.146 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11.1.  The comic actor will also claim a certain amount of our attention, but only in so far as our future orator must be a master of the art of delivery. For I do not of course wish the boy, whom we are training to this end, to talk with the shrillness of a woman or in the tremulous accents of old age. 1.11.2.  Nor for that matter must he ape the vices of the drunkard, or copy the cringing manners of a slave, or learn to express the emotions of love, avarice or fear. Such accomplishments are not necessary to an orator and corrupt the mind, especially while it is still pliable and unformed. 5.9.14.  However, I fear that this line of reasoning will carry us too far. For if it is an indication of adultery that a woman bathes with men, the fact that she revels with young men or even an intimate friendship will also be indications of the same offence. Again depilation, a voluptuous gait, or womanish attire may be regarded as indications of effeminacy and unmanliness by anyone who thinks that such symptoms are the result of an immoral character, just as blood is the result of a wound: for anything, that springs from the matter under investigation and comes to our notice, may properly be called an indication. 5.12.19.  But I take Nature for my guide and regard any man whatsoever as fairer to view than a eunuch, nor can I believe that Providence is ever so indifferent to what itself has created as to allow weakness to be an excellence, nor again can I think that the knife can render beautiful that which, if produced in the natural course of birth, would be regarded as a monster. A false resemblance to the female sex may in itself delight lust, if it will, but depravity of morals will never acquire such ascendancy as to succeed in giving real value to that to which it has succeeded in giving a high price. 11.3.137.  With regard to dress, there is no special garb peculiar to the orator, but his dress comes more under the public eye than that of other men. It should, therefore, be distinguished and manly, as, indeed, it ought to be with all men of position. For excessive care with regard to the cut of the toga, the style of the shoes, or the arrangement of the hair, is just as reprehensible as excessive carelessness. There are also details of dress which are altered to some extent by successive changes in fashion. The ancients, for example, wore no folds, and their successors wore them very short. 11.3.138.  Consequently it follows that in view of the fact that their arms were, like those of the Greeks, covered by the garment, they must have employed a different form of gesture in the exordium from that which is now in use. However, I am speaking of our own day. The speaker who has not the right to wear the broad stripe, will wear his girdle in such a way that the front edges of the tunic fall a little below his knees, while the edges in rear reach to the middle of his hams. For only women draw them lower and only centurions higher. 11.3.139.  If we wear the purple stripe, it requires but little care to see that it falls becomingly; negligence in this respect sometimes excites criticism. Among those who wear the broad stripe, it is the fashion to let it hang somewhat lower than in garments that are retained by the girdle. The toga itself should, in my opinion, be round, and cut to fit, otherwise there are a number of ways in which it may be unshapely. Its front edge should by preference reach to the middle of the shin, while the back should be higher in proportion as the girdle is higher behind than in front. 11.3.144.  As regards the short cloak, bandages used to protect the legs, mufflers and coverings for the ears, nothing short of ill-health can excuse their use. But such attention to our dress is only possible at the beginning of a speech, since, as the pleading develops, in fact, almost from the beginning of the statement of facts, the fold will slip down from the shoulder quite naturally and as it were of its own accord, while when we come to arguments and commonplaces, it will be found convenient to throw back the toga from the left shoulder, and even to throw down the fold if it should stick. 11.3.146.  Consequently, although to wrap the toga round the left hand or to pull it about us as a girdle would be almost a symptom of madness, while to throw back the fold from its bottom over the right shoulder would be a foppish and effeminate gesture, and there are yet worse effects than these, there is, at any rate, no reason why we should not place the looser portions of the fold under the left arm, since it gives an air of vigour and freedom not ill-suited to the warmth and energy of our action.
9. Suetonius, Augustus, 82.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Suetonius, Caligula, 52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tacitus, Annals, 14.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.21.  It was this very prospect of licence which attracted the majority; and yet their pretexts were decently phrased:— "Even our ancestors had not been averse from amusing themselves with spectacles in keeping with the standard of wealth in their day; and that was the reason why actors had been imported from Etruria and horse-races from Thurii. Since the annexation of Achaia and Asia, games had been exhibited in a more ambitious style; and yet, at Rome, no one born in a respectable rank of life had condescended to the stage as a profession, though it was now two hundred years since the triumph of Lucius Mummius, who first gave an exhibition of the kind in the capital. But, more than this, it had been a measure of economy when the theatre was housed in a permanent building instead of being reared and razed, year after year, at enormous expense. Again, the magistrates would not have the same drain upon their private resources, nor the populace the same excuse for demanding contests in the Greek style from the magistrates, when the cost was defrayed by the state. The victories of orators and poets would apply a spur to genius; nor need it lie heavy on the conscience of any judge, if he had not turned a deaf ear to reputable arts and to legitimate pleasures. It was to gaiety, rather than to wantonness, that a few nights were being given out of five whole years — nights in which, owing to the blaze of illuminations, nothing illicit could be concealed." The display in question, it must be granted, passed over without any glaring scandal; and there was no outbreak, even slight, of popular partisanship, since the pantomimic actors, though restored to the stage, were debarred from the sacred contests. The first prize for eloquence was not awarded, but an announcement was made that the Caesar had proved victorious. The Greek dress, in which a great number of spectators had figured during the festival, immediately went out of vogue.
12. Tacitus, Dialogus De Oratoribus, 7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 4.11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.11. To Cornelius Minicianus. Have you heard that Valerius Licinianus is teaching rhetoric in Sicily? I do not think you can have done, for the news is quite fresh. He is of praetorian rank, and he used at one time to be considered one of our most eloquent pleaders at the bar, but now he has fallen so low that he is an exile instead of being a senator, and a mere teacher of rhetoric instead of being a prominent advocate. Consequently in his opening remarks he exclaimed, sorrowfully and solemnly You will say that this is all very sad and pitiful, but that a man who defiled his profession of letters by the guilt of incest deserves to suffer. It is true that he confessed his guilt, but it is an open question whether he did so because he was guilty or because he feared an even heavier punishment if he denied it. For Domitian was in a great rage and was boiling over with fury because his witnesses had left him in the lurch. His mind was set upon burying alive Cornelia, the chief of the Vestal Virgins, as he thought to make his age memorable by such an example of severity, and, using his authority as pontifex maximus, or rather exercising the cruelty of a tyrant and the wanton caprice of a ruler, he summoned the rest of the pontiffs not to the Palace but to his Villa at Alba. There, with a wickedness just as monstrous as the crime which he pretended to be punishing, he declared her guilty of incest, without summoning her before him and giving her a hearing, though he himself had not only committed incest with his brother's daughter but had even caused her death, for she died of abortion during her widowhood. He immediately despatched some of the pontiffs to see that his victim was buried alive and put to death. Cornelia invoked in turns the aid of Vesta and of the rest of the deities, and amid her many cries this was repeated most frequently Moreover, when Celer, the Roman knight who was accused of having intrigued with Cornelia, was being scourged with rods in the forum, he did nothing but cry out, "What have I done? I have done nothing." Consequently Domitian's evil reputation for cruelty and injustice blazed up on all hands. He fastened upon Licinianus for hiding a freedwoman of Cornelia on one of his farms. Licinianus was advised by his friends who interested themselves on his behalf to take refuge in making a confession and beg for pardon, if he wished to escape being flogged in the forum, and he did so. Herennius Senecio spoke for him in his absence very much in the words of Homer, "Patroclus is fallen;" ** for he said, "Instead of being an advocate, I am the bearer of news You see how careful I am to obey your wishes, as I not only give you the news of the town, but news from abroad, and minutely trace a story from its very beginning. I took for granted that, as you were away from Rome at the time, all you heard of Licinianus was that he had been banished for incest. For rumour only gives one the gist of the matter, not the various stages through which it passes. Surely I deserve that you should return the compliment and write and tell me what is going on in your town and neighbourhood, for something worthy of note is always happening. But say what you will, provided you give me the news in as long a letter as I have written to you. I shall count up not only the pages, but the lines and the syllables. Farewell.
14. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 4.11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.11. To Cornelius Minicianus. Have you heard that Valerius Licinianus is teaching rhetoric in Sicily? I do not think you can have done, for the news is quite fresh. He is of praetorian rank, and he used at one time to be considered one of our most eloquent pleaders at the bar, but now he has fallen so low that he is an exile instead of being a senator, and a mere teacher of rhetoric instead of being a prominent advocate. Consequently in his opening remarks he exclaimed, sorrowfully and solemnly You will say that this is all very sad and pitiful, but that a man who defiled his profession of letters by the guilt of incest deserves to suffer. It is true that he confessed his guilt, but it is an open question whether he did so because he was guilty or because he feared an even heavier punishment if he denied it. For Domitian was in a great rage and was boiling over with fury because his witnesses had left him in the lurch. His mind was set upon burying alive Cornelia, the chief of the Vestal Virgins, as he thought to make his age memorable by such an example of severity, and, using his authority as pontifex maximus, or rather exercising the cruelty of a tyrant and the wanton caprice of a ruler, he summoned the rest of the pontiffs not to the Palace but to his Villa at Alba. There, with a wickedness just as monstrous as the crime which he pretended to be punishing, he declared her guilty of incest, without summoning her before him and giving her a hearing, though he himself had not only committed incest with his brother's daughter but had even caused her death, for she died of abortion during her widowhood. He immediately despatched some of the pontiffs to see that his victim was buried alive and put to death. Cornelia invoked in turns the aid of Vesta and of the rest of the deities, and amid her many cries this was repeated most frequently Moreover, when Celer, the Roman knight who was accused of having intrigued with Cornelia, was being scourged with rods in the forum, he did nothing but cry out, "What have I done? I have done nothing." Consequently Domitian's evil reputation for cruelty and injustice blazed up on all hands. He fastened upon Licinianus for hiding a freedwoman of Cornelia on one of his farms. Licinianus was advised by his friends who interested themselves on his behalf to take refuge in making a confession and beg for pardon, if he wished to escape being flogged in the forum, and he did so. Herennius Senecio spoke for him in his absence very much in the words of Homer, "Patroclus is fallen;" ** for he said, "Instead of being an advocate, I am the bearer of news You see how careful I am to obey your wishes, as I not only give you the news of the town, but news from abroad, and minutely trace a story from its very beginning. I took for granted that, as you were away from Rome at the time, all you heard of Licinianus was that he had been banished for incest. For rumour only gives one the gist of the matter, not the various stages through which it passes. Surely I deserve that you should return the compliment and write and tell me what is going on in your town and neighbourhood, for something worthy of note is always happening. But say what you will, provided you give me the news in as long a letter as I have written to you. I shall count up not only the pages, but the lines and the syllables. Farewell.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adulteresses Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
amphitheatre Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
antonius, m (marc antony) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
anulus aureus Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
apuleius Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249; Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
arena Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
augustus, policy Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
augustus (roman emperor) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
banquets (convivia), private Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
banquets (convivia) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
boyhood Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
bulla (normally gold) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
calasis, calasiris (gloss) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
calcei, senatorial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
calcei Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
caligula (roman emperor) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
calpurnius piso, l. Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
candidus Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
capite velato Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
childhood Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
class status Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 123, 249
claudius (roman emperor) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
cosmetics Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
crus (calf) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245, 251
curling iron Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
delivery, quintilian on Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 290
depilation Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
deportment Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
deviance Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 123
dress, boys Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
dress, centurions Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
dress, citizens Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 123
dress, elite Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, embroidered Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
dress, emperors Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
dress, equestrian (knights) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
dress, female Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, foreign Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
dress, freeborn Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 123
dress, girls Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
dress, gladiatorial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
dress, greek Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
dress, imperial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 41, 94, 249
dress, luxury Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
dress, masculine Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 41, 94, 123, 249
dress, matrons (veste maritali) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
dress, military Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, mourning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 249
dress, orators Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 249
dress, ordinary Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 123, 249
dress, philosophers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, plebeian Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
dress, public ceremonial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 41, 94
dress, senatorial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
dress, triumphal Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 94, 249
effeminacy Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 123, 249
epigram (literary genre) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
etruscan Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
eunuchs Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
fascia pectoralis (breast wrap) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
fashion Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
flammeum (bridal scarf) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
flavian period (literature, dress) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
footwear Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
forum Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
gellius, aulus Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
gender Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
gens togata Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 123
girdle Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
girlhood Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
gladiators Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 123
gold, golden Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
hairstyles, masculine Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 249
hairstyles Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
identity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 41, 94, 249
indusium (gloss) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
infames Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41, 123
infamia Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
instita Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
jewellery Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
julius caesar, c. Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
juvenal Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 123
knees Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 251
knots (see nodi, noduli) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
law courts Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 94, 249
legislation Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
lex, iulia theatralis Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
ludus (gladiatorial school) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
macedonia Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
manica (cuff) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
manuleus Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
martial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94; Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
masculinity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
matrons Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
morality Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 94, 123, 249
mothers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
mourning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 249
nets Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
nodi, noduli (knots) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
north africa, roman Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
nudity, gladiatorial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
nudity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
opening (clothing) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 251
pallium Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
panels (of fabric) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
pearls Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
philosophers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
plagulae (fabric panels) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
pliny, the elder Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
portraits, principate Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123, 249
portraits, private Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
portraits, public Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
portraits Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
prostitutes Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 41
purple Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 94
quintilian Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 94, 123, 249
regilla (gloss) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
retiarius Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
rings Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
romanitas Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
salutatio, morning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
sandals Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
satire Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
saturnalia Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
secutor Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
self-fashioning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 249
shoes Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
sicily Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
silk Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
slaves Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
sleeves, faux Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
slippers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
social control Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 41, 94
soleae Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
spain Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 41
spectacle Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
statues, capite velato Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
statues, togate Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
statues Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41, 94
stereotypes vii Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223, 245
stola Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41, 94
straps, shoe (straps, shoulder (see analemptris) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 245
suetonius Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
tacitus Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223, 245
talus (ankle) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 251
toga, candida Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
toga, in the sense of peace, Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
toga, picta Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 94
toga, praetexta Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
toga, pulla Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41, 94
toga, virilis Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
toga Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 41, 94, 123, 249
togatus (pl. togati) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
trident Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
tullius Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 123
tunic, mens Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 123, 249
tunic, womens Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
tunic Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35, 123, 249
tunica, talaris Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
tunica, turpis Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
undress Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 123
vergil Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94, 123
verres, c. Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 35
vestal virgins Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 223
vittae Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
weaving Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
white Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 94
widows Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
wife, wives Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41
wood' Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 41