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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9697
Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.16


nanTheopompus likewise narrates things similar to these, viz. that a certain Magnesian came from Asia to Delphi; a man very rich, and abounding in cattle, and that he was accustomed every year to make many and magnificent sacrifices to the Gods, partly through the abundance of his possessions, and partly through piety and wishing to please the Gods. But being thus disposed, he came to the divinity at Delphi, bringing with him a hecatomb for the God, and magnificently honouring Apollo, he consulted his oracle. Conceiving also that he worshipped the Gods in a manner more beautiful than that of all other men, he asked the Pythian deity who the man was that, with the greatest promptitude, and in the best manner, venerated divinity, and [53] made the most acceptable sacrifices, conceiving that on this occasion the God would deem him to be pre-eminent. The Pythian deity however answered, that Clearchus, who dwelt in Methydrium, a town of Arcadia, worshipped the Gods in a way surpassing that of all other men. But the Magnesian being astonished, was desirous of seeing Clearchus, and of learning from him the manner in which he performed his sacrifices. Swiftly, therefore, betaking himself to Methydrium, in the first place, indeed, he despised the smallness and vileness of the town, conceiving that neither any private person, nor even the whole city, could honour the Gods more magnificently and more beautifully than he did. Meeting, however, with the man, he thought fit to ask him after what manner he reverenced the Gods. But Clearchus answered him, that he diligently sacrificed to them at proper times in every month at the new moon, crowning and adorning the statues of Hermes and Hecate, and the other sacred images which were left to us by our ancestors, and that he also honoured the Gods with frankincense, and sacred wafers and cakes. He likewise said, that he performed public sacrifices annually, omitting no festive day; and that in these festivals he worshipped the Gods, not by slaying oxen, nor by cutting victims into fragments, but that he sacrificed whatever he might casually meet with, sedulously offering the first-fruits to the Gods of all the vegetable productions of the seasons, and of all the fruits with which he was supplied. He added, that some of these he placed before the Gods, but that he burnt others; and that, being studious of frugality, he avoided the sacrificing of oxen.


nan16.Theopompus likewise narrates things similar to these, viz. that a certain Magnesian came from Asia to Delphi; a man very rich, and abounding in cattle, and that he was accustomed every year to make many and magnificent sacrifices to the Gods, partly through the abundance of his possessions, and partly through piety and wishing to please the Gods. But being thus disposed, he came to the divinity at Delphi, bringing with him a hecatomb for the God, and magnificently honouring Apollo, he consulted his oracle. Conceiving also that he worshipped the Gods in a manner more beautiful than that of all other men, he asked the Pythian deity who the man was that, with the greatest promptitude, and in the best manner, venerated divinity, and |53 made the most acceptable sacrifices, conceiving that on this occasion the God would deem him to be pre-eminent. The Pythian deity however answered, that Clearchus, who dwelt in Methydrium, a town of Arcadia, worshipped the Gods in a way surpassing that of all other men. But the Magnesian being astonished, was desirous of seeing Clearchus, and of learning from him the manner in which he performed his sacrifices. Swiftly, therefore, betaking himself to Methydrium, in the first place, indeed, he despised the smallness and vileness of the town, conceiving that neither any private person, nor even the whole city, could honour the Gods more magnificently and more beautifully than he did. Meeting, however, with the man, he thought fit to ask him after what manner he reverenced the Gods. But Clearchus answered him, that he diligently sacrificed to them at proper times in every month at the new moon, crowning and adorning the statues of Hermes and Hecate, and the other sacred images which were left to us by our ancestors, and that he also honoured the Gods with frankincense, and sacred wafers and cakes. He likewise said, that he performed public sacrifices annually, omitting no festive day; and that in these festivals he worshipped the Gods, not by slaying oxen, nor by cutting victims into fragments, but that he sacrificed whatever he might casually meet with, sedulously offering the first-fruits to the Gods of all the vegetable productions of the seasons, and of all the fruits with which he was supplied. He added, that some of these he placed before the [statues of the] Gods,6 but that he burnt others on their altars; and that, being studious of frugality, he avoided the sacrificing of oxen.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

30 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 336 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

336. Should not be seized – god-sent, it’s better far.
2. Hesiod, Theogony, 536-557, 535 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

535. Upon her. So they sent her to rich Crete
3. Homer, Iliad, 1.34-1.42 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.34. /as she walks to and fro before the loom and serves my bed. But go, do not anger me, that you may return the safer. So he spoke, and the old man was seized with fear and obeyed his word. He went forth in silence along the shore of the loud-resounding sea, and earnestly then, when he had gone apart, the old man prayed 1.35. /to the lord Apollo, whom fair-haired Leto bore:Hear me, god of the silver bow, who stand over Chryse and holy Cilla, and rule mightily over Tenedos, Sminthian god, if ever I roofed over a temple to your pleasing, or if ever I burned to you fat thigh-pieces of bulls and goats 1.36. /to the lord Apollo, whom fair-haired Leto bore:Hear me, god of the silver bow, who stand over Chryse and holy Cilla, and rule mightily over Tenedos, Sminthian god, if ever I roofed over a temple to your pleasing, or if ever I burned to you fat thigh-pieces of bulls and goats 1.37. /to the lord Apollo, whom fair-haired Leto bore:Hear me, god of the silver bow, who stand over Chryse and holy Cilla, and rule mightily over Tenedos, Sminthian god, if ever I roofed over a temple to your pleasing, or if ever I burned to you fat thigh-pieces of bulls and goats 1.38. /to the lord Apollo, whom fair-haired Leto bore:Hear me, god of the silver bow, who stand over Chryse and holy Cilla, and rule mightily over Tenedos, Sminthian god, if ever I roofed over a temple to your pleasing, or if ever I burned to you fat thigh-pieces of bulls and goats 1.39. /to the lord Apollo, whom fair-haired Leto bore:Hear me, god of the silver bow, who stand over Chryse and holy Cilla, and rule mightily over Tenedos, Sminthian god, if ever I roofed over a temple to your pleasing, or if ever I burned to you fat thigh-pieces of bulls and goats 1.40. /fulfill this prayer for me: let the Danaans pay for my tears by your arrows So he spoke in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard him. Down from the peaks of Olympus he strode, angered at heart, bearing on his shoulders his bow and covered quiver. 1.41. /fulfill this prayer for me: let the Danaans pay for my tears by your arrows So he spoke in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard him. Down from the peaks of Olympus he strode, angered at heart, bearing on his shoulders his bow and covered quiver. 1.42. /fulfill this prayer for me: let the Danaans pay for my tears by your arrows So he spoke in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard him. Down from the peaks of Olympus he strode, angered at heart, bearing on his shoulders his bow and covered quiver.
4. Pindar, Fragments, 122 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Empedocles, Fragments, 139, 128 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Herodotus, Histories, 2.63, 4.186, 5.42 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.63. When the people go to Heliopolis and Buto, they offer sacrifice only. At Papremis sacrifice is offered and rites performed just as elsewhere; but when the sun is setting, a few of the priests hover about the image, while most of them go and stand in the entrance to the temple with clubs of wood in their hands; others, more than a thousand men fulfilling vows, who also carry wooden clubs, stand in a mass opposite. ,The image of the god, in a little gilded wooden shrine, they carry away on the day before this to another sacred building. The few who are left with the image draw a four-wheeled wagon conveying the shrine and the image that is in the shrine; the others stand in the space before the doors and do not let them enter, while the vow-keepers, taking the side of the god, strike them, who defend themselves. ,A fierce fight with clubs breaks out there, and they are hit on their heads, and many, I expect, even die from their wounds; although the Egyptians said that nobody dies. ,The natives say that they made this assembly a custom from the following incident: the mother of Ares lived in this temple; Ares had been raised apart from her and came, when he grew up, wishing to visit his mother; but as her attendants kept him out and would not let him pass, never having seen him before, Ares brought men from another town, manhandled the attendants, and went in to his mother. From this, they say, this hitting for Ares became a custom in the festival. 4.186. Thus from Egypt to the Tritonian lake, the Libyans are nomads that eat meat and drink milk; for the same reason as the Egyptians too profess, they will not touch the flesh of cows; and they rear no swine. ,The women of Cyrene, too, consider it wrong to eat cows' flesh, because of the Isis of Egypt; and they even honor her with fasts and festivals; and the Barcaean women refuse to eat swine too, as well as cows. 5.42. Now Cleomenes, as the story goes, was not in his right mind and really quite mad, while Dorieus was first among all of his peers and fully believed that he would be made king for his manly worth. ,Since he was of this opinion, Dorieus was very angry when at Anaxandrides' death the Lacedaemonians followed their custom and made Cleomenes king by right of age. Since he would not tolerate being made subject to Cleomenes, he asked the Spartans for a group of people whom he took away as colonists. He neither inquired of the oracle at Delphi in what land he should establish his settlement, nor did anything else that was customary but set sail in great anger for Libya, with men of Thera to guide him. ,When he arrived there, he settled by the Cinyps river in the fairest part of Libya, but in the third year he was driven out by the Macae, the Libyans and the Carchedonians and returned to the Peloponnesus.
7. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

405a. Hermogenes. Go on; you seem to imply that it is a remarkable name. Socrates. His name and nature are in harmony; you see he is a musical god. For in the first place, purification and purgations used in medicine and in soothsaying, and fumigations with medicinal and magic drugs
8. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

252d. And so it is with the follower of each of the other gods; he lives, so far as he is able, honoring and imitating that god, so long as he is uncorrupted, and is living his first life on earth, and in that way he behaves and conducts himself toward his beloved and toward all others. Now each one chooses his love from the ranks of the beautiful according to his character, and he fashions him and adorns him
10. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

190c. Ephialtes and Otus, that scheming to assault the gods in fight they essayed to mount high heaven.
12. Theopompus of Chios, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 3.1.5-3.1.8, 5.3.7, 6.1.22, 6.1.24, 6.2.15, 7.6.44 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.1.5. After reading Proxenus’ letter Xenophon conferred with Socrates, The philosopher, whose follower and friend Xenophon had been from his youth. the Athenian, about the proposed journey; and Socrates, suspecting that his becoming a friend of Cyrus might be a cause for accusation against Xenophon on the part of the Athenian government, for the reason that Cyrus was thought to have given the Lacedaemonians zealous aid in their war against Athens, See Introd., pp. 231-233. advised Xenophon to go to Delphi and consult the god in regard to this journey. 3.1.6. So Xenophon went and asked Apollo to what one of the gods he should sacrifice and pray in order best and most successfully to perform the journey which he had in mind and, after meeting with good fortune, to return home in safety; and Apollo in his response told him to what gods he must sacrifice. 3.1.7. When Xenophon came back from Delphi, he reported the oracle to Socrates; and upon hearing about it Socrates found fault with him because he did not first put the question whether it were better for him to go or stay, but decided for himself that he was to go and then asked the god as to the best way of going. However, he added, since you did put the question in that way, you must do all that the god directed. 3.1.8. Xenophon, accordingly, after offering the sacrifices to the gods that Apollo’s oracle prescribed, set sail, overtook Proxenus and Cyrus at Sardis as they were on the point of beginning the upward march, and was introduced to Cyrus . 5.3.7. Such were his words. And the soldiers—not only his own men, but the rest also—when they heard that he said he would not go on to the King’s capital, commended him; and more than two thousand of the troops under Xenias and Pasion took their arms and their baggage train and encamped with Clearchus. 5.3.7. In the time of Xenophon’s exile Which was probably due to his taking part in the expedition of Cyrus . cp. Xen. Anab. 3.1.5 . and while he was living at Scillus, near Olympia, where he had been established as a colonist by the Lacedaemonians, Megabyzus came to Olympia to attend the games and returned to him his deposit. Upon receiving it Xenophon bought a plot of ground for the goddess in a place which Apollo’s oracle appointed. 6.1.22. Quite unable as he was to decide the question, it seemed best to him to consult the gods; and he accordingly brought two victims to the altar and proceeded to offer sacrifice to King Zeus, the very god that the oracle at Delphi had prescribed for him; cp. Xen. Anab. 3.1.5 ff. and it was likewise from this god, as he believed, that the dream cp. Xen. Anab. 3.1.11 f. came which he had at the time when he took the first steps toward assuming a share in the charge of the army. 6.1.24. So it was, then, that Xenophon made sacrifice, and the god signified to him quite clearly that he should neither strive for the command nor accept it in case he should be chosen. Such was the issue of this matter. 6.2.15. For a time, indeed, Xenophon did try to get clear of the army and sail away home; but when he sacrificed to Heracles the Leader, consulting him as to whether it was better and more proper for him to continue the journey with such of the soldiers as had remained with him, or to be rid of them, the god indicated to him by the sacrifices that he should stay with them. 7.6.44. Many other people also sent Xenophon this message, saying that he had been traduced and would better be on his guard. And he, hearing these reports, took two victims and proceeded to offer sacrifice to Zeus the King, to learn whether it was better and more profitable for him to remain with Seuthes on the conditions that Seuthes proposed, or to depart with the army. The god directed him to depart.
14. Xenophon, Apology, 11 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

15. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.1.2, 1.1.20, 1.3.3, 2.2.13, 4.3.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1.2. First then, that he rejected the gods acknowledged by the state — what evidence did they produce of that? He offered sacrifices constantly, and made no secret of it, now in his home, now at the altars of the state temples, and he made use of divination with as little secrecy. Indeed it had become notorious that Socrates claimed to be guided by the deity: That immanent divine something, as Cicero terms it, which Socrates claimed as his peculiar possession. it was out of this claim, I think, that the charge of bringing in strange deities arose. 1.1.20. I wonder, then, how the Athenians can have been persuaded that Socrates was a freethinker, when he never said or did anything contrary to sound religion, and his utterances about the gods and his behaviour towards them were the words and actions of a man who is truly religious and deserves to be thought so. 1.3.3. Though his sacrifices were humble, according to his means, he thought himself not a whit inferior to those who made frequent and magnificent sacrifices out of great possessions. The gods (he said) could not well delight more in great offerings than in small — for in that case must the gifts of the wicked often have found more favour in their sight than the gifts of the upright — and man would not find life worth having, if the gifts of the wicked were received with more favour by the gods than the gifts of the upright. No, the greater the piety of the giver, the greater (he thought) was the delight of the gods in the gift. He would quote with approval the line: According to thy power render sacrifice to the immortal gods, Hes. WD 336 and he would add that in our treatment of friends and strangers, and in all our behaviour, it is a noble principle to render according to our power. 2.2.13. And yet, when you are resolved to cultivate these, you don’t think courtesy is due to your mother, who loves you more than all? Don’t you know that even the state ignores all other forms of ingratitude and pronounces no judgment on them, Cyropaedia I. ii. 7. caring nothing if the recipient of a favour neglects to thank his benefactor, but inflicts penalties on the man who is discourteous to his parents and rejects him as unworthy of office, holding that it would be a sin for him to offer sacrifices on behalf of the state and that he is unlikely to do anything else honourably and rightly? Aye, and if one fail to honour his parents’ graves, the state inquires into that too, when it examines the candidates for office. 4.3.17. Only he must fall no whit short of his power. For when he does that, it is surely plain that he is not then honouring the gods. Therefore it is by coming no whit short of his power in honouring the gods that he is to look with confidence for the greatest blessing. Cyropaedia I. vi. 4. For there are none from whom a man of prudence would hope for greater things than those who can confer the greatest benefits, nor can he show his prudence more clearly than by pleasing them. And how can he please them better than by obeying them strictly?
16. Xenophon, On Household Management, 5.3, 5.19 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.3. Secondly, she supplies all the things with which they decorate altars and statues and themselves, along with most pleasant sights and scents. Thirdly, she produces or feeds the ingredients of many delicate dishes; for the art of breeding stock is closely linked with husbandry; so that men have victims for propitiating the gods with sacrifice and cattle for their own use. 5.19. Well, said Socrates in reply, Mem. I. iv. 15; iv. iii. 12. Cyrop. I. vi. 46. I thought you knew, Critobulus, that the operations of husbandry no less than those of war are in the hands of the gods. And you observe, I suppose, that men engaged in war try to propitate the gods before taking action; and with sacrifices and omens seek to know what they ought to do and what they ought not to do;
17. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

18. Theophrastus, De Pietate, 3.8-3.18, 8.1-8.3 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19. Plutarch, On The Eating of Flesh I, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

997e. Ido not yet go so far as to say that it may well be the life of your mother or father or some friend or child, as Empedocles declared. Yet it does, at least, possess some perception, hearing, seeing, imagination, intelligence, which last every creature receives from Nature to enable it to acquire what is proper for it and to evade what is not. Do but consider which are the philosophers who serve the better to humanize us: those who bid us eat our children and friends and fathers and wives after their death, or Pythagoras and Empedocles who try to accustom us to act justly towards other creatures also? You ridicule a man who abstains from eating mutton. But are we, they will say, to refrain from laughter when we see you slicing off portions from a dead father or mother
20. Plutarch, Whether Land Or Sea Animals Are More Clever, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Aelian, Varia Historia, 3.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

23. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 9.127-9.129 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

24. Tertullian, On Baptism, 5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5. Well, but the nations, who are strangers to all understanding of spiritual powers, ascribe to their idols the imbuing of waters with the self-same efficacy. (So they do) but they cheat themselves with waters which are widowed. For washing is the channel through which they are initiated into some sacred rites- of some notorious Isis or Mithras. The gods themselves likewise they honour by washings. Moreover, by carrying water around, and sprinkling it, they everywhere expiate country-seats, houses, temples, and whole cities: at all events, at the Apollinarian and Eleusinian games they are baptized; and they presume that the effect of their doing that is their regeneration and the remission of the penalties due to their perjuries. Among the ancients, again, whoever had defiled himself with murder, was wont to go in quest of purifying waters. Therefore, if the mere nature of water, in that it is the appropriate material for washing away, leads men to flatter themselves with a belief in omens of purification, how much more truly will waters render that service through the authority of God, by whom all their nature has been constituted! If men think that water is endued with a medicinal virtue by religion, what religion is more effectual than that of the living God? Which fact being acknowledged, we recognise here also the zeal of the devil rivalling the things of God, while we find him, too, practising baptism in his subjects. What similarity is there? The unclean cleanses! The ruiner sets free! The damned absolves! He will, forsooth, destroy his own work, by washing away the sins which himself inspires! These (remarks) have been set down by way of testimony against such as reject the faith; if they put no trust in the things of God, the spurious imitations of which, in the case of God's rival, they do trust in. Are there not other cases too, in which, without any sacrament, unclean spirits brood on waters, in spurious imitation of that brooding of the Divine Spirit in the very beginning? Witness all shady founts, and all unfrequented brooks, and the ponds in the baths, and the conduits in private houses, or the cisterns and wells which are said to have the property of spiriting away, through the power, that is, of a hurtful spirit. Men whom waters have drowned or affected with madness or with fear, they call nymph-caught, or lymphatic, or hydro-phobic. Why have we adduced these instances? Lest any think it too hard for belief that a holy angel of God should grant his presence to waters, to temper them to man's salvation; while the evil angel holds frequent profane commerce with the selfsame element to man's ruin. If it seems a novelty for an angel to be present in waters, an example of what was to come to pass has forerun. An angel, by his intervention, was wont to stir the pool at Bethsaida. They who were complaining of ill-health used to watch for him; for whoever had been the first to descend into them, after his washing, ceased to complain. This figure of corporeal healing sang of a spiritual healing, according to the rule by which things carnal are always antecedent as figurative of things spiritual. And thus, when the grace of God advanced to higher degrees among men, John 1:16-17 an accession of efficacy was granted to the waters and to the angel. They who were wont to remedy bodily defects, now heal the spirit; they who used to work temporal salvation now renew eternal; they who did set free but once in the year, now save peoples in a body daily, death being done away through ablution of sins. The guilt being removed, of course the penalty is removed too. Thus man will be restored for God to His likeness, who in days bygone had been conformed to the image of God; (the image is counted (to be) in his form: the likeness in his eternity:) for he receives again that Spirit of God which he had then first received from His afflatus, but had afterward lost through sin.
25. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 8.33, 8.36 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries. 8.36. This is what Alexander says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs. What follows is Aristotle's.But Pythagoras's great dignity not even Timon overlooked, who, although he digs at him in his Silli, speaks ofPythagoras, inclined to witching works and ways,Man-snarer, fond of noble periphrase.Xenophanes confirms the statement about his having been different people at different times in the elegiacs beginning:Now other thoughts, another path, I show.What he says of him is as follows:They say that, passing a belaboured whelp,He, full of pity, spake these words of dole:Stay, smite not ! 'Tis a friend, a human soul;I knew him straight whenas I heard him yelp !
26. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 4.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

27. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 24.108 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

28. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.5-2.15, 2.17-2.32, 2.34.2, 3.2.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.5. 5.It seems that the period is of immense antiquity, from which a nation the most learned of all others 1 as Theophrastus says, and who inhabit the most sacred region made by the Nile, began first, from the vestal hearth, to sacrifice to the celestial Gods, not myrrh, or cassia, nor the first-fruits of things mingled with the crocus of frankincense; for these were assumed many generations afterwards, in consequence of error gradually increasing, when men, wanting the necessaries of life, offered, with great labour and many tears, some drops of these, as first-fruits to the Gods. Hence, they did not at first sacrifice these, but grass, which, as a certain soft wool of prolific nature, they plucked with their hands. For the earth produced trees prior to animals; and long before trees grass, which germinates annually. Hence, gathering the blades and roots, and all the germs of this herb, they committed them to the flames, as a sacrifice to the visible celestial Gods, to whom they paid |47 immortal honour through fire. For to these, also, we preserve in temples an immortal fire, because it is especially most similar to these divinities. But from the exhalation or smoke (εκ δε της θυμιασεως) of things produced in the earth, they called the offerings θυμιατηρια, thumiateria; to sacrifice, they called θυειν, thuein, and the sacrifices, θυσιαι, thusiai; all which, as if unfolding the error which was afterwards introduced, we do not rightly interpret; since we call the worship of the Gods through the immolation of animals thusia. But so careful were the ancients not to transgress this custom, that against those who, neglecting the pristine, introduced novel modes of sacrificing, they employed execrations 2 and therefore they now denominate the substances which are used for fumigations αρωματα, aromata, i.e. aromatics, [or things of an execrable nature.] The antiquity, however, of the before-mentioned fumigations may be perceived by him who considers that many now also sacrifice certain portions of odoriferous wood. Hence, when after grass, the earth produced trees, and men at first fed on the fruits of the oak; they offered to the Gods but few of the fruits on account of their rarity, but in sacrifices they burnt many of its leaves. After this, however, when human life proceeded to a milder nutriment, and sacrifices from nuts were introduced, they said enough of the oak. SPAN 2.6. 6.But as barley first appeared after leguminous substances, the race of men used it in primitive sacrifices, moistening it for this purpose with water. Afterwards, when they had broken and bruised it, so as to render it eatable, as the instruments of this operation afforded a divine assistance to human life, they concealed them in an arcane place, and approached them as things of a sacred nature. But esteeming the food produced from it when bruised to be blessed, when compared with their former nutriment, they offered, in fine, the first-fruits of it to the Gods. Hence also now, at the end of the sacrifices, we use fruits that are bruised or ground; testifying by this how much fumigations have departed from their ancient simplicity; at the same time not perceiving on what account we perform each of these. Proceeding, however, from hence, and being more abundantly supplied, both with other fruits and wheat, the first-fruits of cakes, made of the fine flour of wheat, and of everything else, were offered in sacrifices to the Gods; many flowers being collected for this purpose, and with these all that was conceived to be beautiful, and adapted, by its odour, to a divine sense, being |48 mingled. From these, also, some were used for garlands, and others were given to the fire. But when they had discovered the use of the divine drops of wine, and honey, and likewise of oil, for the purposes of human life, then they sacrificed these to their causes, the Gods. SPAN 2.7. 7.And these things appear to be testified by the splendid procession in honour of the Sun and the Hours, which is even now performed at Athens, and in which there were other herbs besides grass, and also acorns, the fruit of the crab-tree, barley, wheat, a heap of dried figs, cakes made of wheaten and barley flour; and, in the last place, an earthen pot. This mode, however, of offering first-fruits in sacrifices, having, at length, proceeded to great illegality, the assumption of immolations, most dire and full of cruelty, was introduced; so that it would seem that the execrations, which were formerly uttered against us, have now received their consummation, in consequence of men slaughtering animals, and defiling altars with blood; and this commenced from that period in which mankind tasted of blood, through having experienced the evils of famine and war. Divinity, therefore, as Theophrastus says, being indigt, appears to have inflicted a punishment adapted to the crime. Hence some men became atheists; but others, in consequence of forming erroneous conceptions of a divine nature, may be more justly called κακοφρονες, kakophrones, than κακοθεοι, kakotbeoi 3, because they think that the Gods are depraved, and in no respect naturally more excellent than we are. Thus, therefore, some were seen to live without sacrificing any thing, and without offering the first-fruits of their possessions to the Gods; but others sacrificed improperly, and made use of illegal oblations. SPAN 2.8. 8.Hence the Thoes 4, who dwell in the confines of Thrace, as they neither offered any first-fruits, nor sacrificed to the Gods, were at that time suddenly taken away from the rest of mankind; so that neither the inhabitants, nor the city, nor the foundations of the houses, could by any one be found. "Men prone to ill, denied the Gods their due, And by their follies made their days but few. The altars of the bless'd neglected stand, |49 Without the offerings which the laws demand; But angry Jove in dust this people laid, Because no honours to the Gods they paid." Hesiod. Op. et Di. lib. i. v. 133. Nor did they offer first-fruits to the Gods, as it was just that they should. But with respect to the Bassarians, who formerly were not only emulous of sacrificing bulls, but also ate the flesh of slaughtered men, in the same manner as we now do with other animals; for we offer to the Gods some parts of them as first-fruits; and eat the rest; --- with respect to these men, who has not heard, that insanely rushing on and biting each other, and in reality feeding on blood, they did not cease to act in this manner till the whole race was destroyed of those who use sacrifices of this kind? SPAN 2.9. 9.The sacrifice, therefore, through animals is posterior and most recent, and originated from a cause which is not of a pleasing nature, like that of the sacrifice from fruits, but received its commencement either from famine, or some other unfortunate circumstance. The causes, indeed, of the peculiar mactations among the Athenians, had their beginning, either in ignorance, or anger, or fear. For the slaughter of swine is attributed to an involuntary error of Clymene, who, by unintentionally striking, slew the animal. Hence her husband, being terrified as if he had perpetrated an illegal deed, consulted the oracle of the Pythian God about it. But as the God did not condemn what had happened, the slaughter of animals was afterwards considered as a thing of an indifferent nature. The inspector, however, of sacred rites, who was the offspring of prophets, wishing to make an offering of first-fruits from sheep, was permitted to do so, it is said, by an oracle, but with much caution and fear. For the oracle was as follows:--- "offspring of prophets, sheep by force to slay, The Gods permit not thee: but with wash'd hands For thee 'tis lawful any sheep to kill, That dies a voluntary death." SPAN 2.10. 10.But a goat was first slain in Icarus, a mountain of Attica, because it had cropped a vine. And Diomus, who was a priest of Jupiter Polieus, was the first that slew an ox; because, when the festival sacred to Jupiter, and called Diipolia, was celebrated, and fruits were prepared after the |50 ancient manner, an ox approaching tasted the sacred cake. But the priest, being aided by others who were present, slew the ox. And these are the causes, indeed, which are assigned by the Athenians for this deed; but by others, other causes are narrated. All of them however, are full of explanations that are not holy. But most of them assign famine, and the injustice with which it is attended, as the cause. Hence men having tasted of animals, they offered them in sacrifice, as first-fruits, to the Gods; but prior to this, they were accustomed to abstain from animal food. Whence, since the sacrifice of animals is not more ancient than necessary food, it may be determined from this circumstance what ought to be the nutriment of men. But it does not follow, because men have tasted of and offered animals in sacrifices as first-fruits, that it must necessarily be admitted to be pious to eat that which was not piously offered to the Gods. SPAN 2.11. 11.But what especially proves that every thing of this kind originated from injustice, is this, that the same things are neither sacrificed nor eaten in every nation, but that they conjecture what it is fit for them to do from what they find to be useful to themselves. With the Egyptians, therefore, and Phoenicians, any one would sooner taste human flesh than the flesh of a cow. The cause, however, is that this animal being useful, is also rare among them. Hence, though they eat bulls, and offer them in sacrifice as first-fruits, yet they spare cows for the sake of their progeny, and ordain that, if any one kill them, it shall be considered as an expiation. And thus, for the sake of utility in one and the same genus of animals, they distinguish what is pious, and what is impious. So that these particulars subsisting after this manner, Theophrastus reasonably forbids those to sacrifice animals who wish to be truly pious; employing these, and other similar arguments, such as the following. SPAN 2.12. 12.In the first place, indeed, because we sacrificed animals through the occurrence, as we have said, of a greater necessity. For pestilence and war were the causes that introduced the necessity of eating them. Since, therefore, we are supplied with fruits, what occasion is there to use the sacrifice of necessity? In the next place, the remunerations of, and thanks for benefits, are to be given differently to different persons, according to the worth of the benefit conferred; so that the greatest remunerations, and from things of the most honourable nature, are to be given to those who have benefited us in the greatest degree, and especially if they are the causes of these gifts. But the most beautiful and honourable of those things, by which the Gods benefit us, are the fruits of the earth. For through these they preserve us, and enable us to |51 live legitimately; so that, from these we ought to venerate them. Besides, it is requisite to sacrifice those things by the sacrifice of which we shall not injure any one. For nothing ought to be so inoxious to all things as sacrifice. But if someone should say, that God gave animals for our use, no less than the fruits of the earth, yet it does not follow that they are, therefore, to be sacrificed, because in so doing they are injured, through being deprived of life. For sacrifice is, as the name implies, something holy.5 But no one is holy who requites a benefit from things which are the property of another, whether he takes fruits or plants from one who is unwilling to be deprived of them. For how can this be holy, when those are injured from whom they are taken? If, however, he who takes away fruit from others does not sacrifice with sanctity, it cannot be holy to sacrifice things taken from others, which are in every respect more honourable than the fruits of the earth. For a more dire deed is thus perpetrated. But soul is much more honourable than the vegetable productions of the earth, which it is not fit, by sacrificing animals, that we should take away. SPAN 2.13. 13.Some one, however, perhaps may say, that we also take away something from plants [when we eat, and sacrifice them to the Gods]. But the ablation is not similar; since we do not take this away from those who are unwilling that we should. For, if we omitted to gather them, they would spontaneously drop their fruits. The gathering of the fruits, also, is not attended with the destruction of the plants, as it is when animals lose their animating principle. And, with respect to the fruit which we receive from bees, since this is obtained by our labour, it is fit that we should derive a common benefit from it. For bees collect their honey from plants; but we carefully attend to them. On which account it is requisite that such a division should be made [of our attention and their labour] that they may suffer no injury. But that which is useless to them, and beneficial to us, will be the reward which we receive from them [of our attention to their concerns]. In sacrifices, therefore, we should abstain from animals. For, though all things are in reality the property of the Gods, yet plants appear to be our property; since we sow and cultivate them, and nourish them by other attentions which we pay to them. We ought to sacrifice, therefore, from our own property, and not from the property of others; since that which may be procured at a small expense, and which may easily be obtained, is more holy, more acceptable to the Gods, and better adapted |52 to the purposes of sacrifice, and to the exercise of continual piety. Hence, that which is neither holy, nor to be obtained at a small expense, is not to be offered in sacrifice, even though it should be present. SPAN 2.14. 14.But that animals do not rank among things which may be procured easily, and at a small expense, may be seen by directing our view to the greater part of our race: for we are not now to consider that some men abound in sheep, and others in oxen. In the first place, therefore, there are many nations that do not possess any of those animals which are offered in sacrifice, some ignoble animals, perhaps, excepted. And, in the second place, most of those that dwell in cities themselves, possess these but rarely. But if some one should say that the inhabitants of cities have not mild fruits in abundance; yet, though this should be admitted, they are not in want of the other vegetable productions of the earth; nor is it so difficult to procure fruits as it is to procure animals. Hence an abundance of fruits, and other vegetables, is more easily obtained than that of animals. But that which is obtained with facility, and at a small expense, contributes to incessant and universal deity. SPAN 2.15. 15.Experience also testifies that the Gods rejoice in this more than in sumptuous offerings. For when that Thessalian sacrificed to the Pythian deity oxen with gilt horns, and hecatombs, Apollo said, that the offering of Hermioneus was more gratifying to him, though he had only sacrificed as much meal as he could take with his three fingers out of a sack. But when the Thessalian, on hearing this, placed all the rest of his offerings on the altar the God again said, that by so doing his present was doubly more unacceptable to him than his former offering. Hence the sacrifice which is attended with a small expense is pleasing to the Gods, and divinity looks more to the disposition and manners of those that sacrifice, than to the multitude of the things which are sacrificed. SPAN 2.17. 17.By some writers, also, it is related, that certain tyrants, after the Carthaginians were conquered, having, with great strife among themselves, placed hetacombs before Apollo. Afterwards inquired of the God with which of the offerings he was most delighted; and that he answered, contrary to all their expectation, that he was most pleased with the cakes of Docimus. But this Docimus was an inhabitant of Delphi, and cultivated some rugged and stony land. Docimus, therefore, coming on that day from the place which he cultivated, took from a bag which was fastened round him a few handfuls of meal, and sacrificed them to the God, who was more delighted with his offering than with the magnificent sacrifices of the tyrants. Hence, also a certain poet, |54 because the affair was known, appears to have asserted things of a similar kind, as we are informed by Antiphanes in his Mystics: In simple offerings most the Gods delight: For though before them hecatombs are placed, Yet frankincense is burnt the last of all. An indication this that all the rest, Preceding, was a vain expense, bestowed Through ostentation, for the sake of men; But a small offering gratifies the Gods. Meder likewise, in the comedy called the Morose, says, Pious th'oblation which with frankincense And Popanum7 is made; for in the fire Both these, when placed, divinity accepts. SPAN 2.18. 18.On this account also, earthen, wooden, and wicker vessels were formerly used, and especially in public sacrifices, the ancients being persuaded that divinity is delighted with things of this kind. Whence, even now, the most ancient vessels, and which are made of wood, are thought to be more divine, both on account of the matter and the simplicity of the art by which they were fashioned. It is said, therefore, that Aeschylus, on his brother's asking him to write a Paean in honour of Apollo, replied, that the best Paean was written by Tynnichus8; and that if his composition were to be compared with that of Tynnichus, the same thing would take place as if new were compared with ancient statues. For the latter, though they are simple in their formation, are conceived to be divine; but the former, though they are most accurately elaborated, produce indeed admiration, but are not believed to possess so much of a divine nature. Hence Hesiod, praising the law of ancient sacrifices, very properly says, |55 Your country's rites in sacrifice observe: [In pious works] the ancient law is best 9. SPAN 2.19. 19.But those who have written concerning sacred operations and sacrifices, admonish us to be accurate in preserving what pertains to the popana, because these are more acceptable to the Gods than the sacrifice which is performed through the mactation of animals. Sophocles also, in describing a sacrifice which is pleasing to divinity, says in his Polyidus: The skins of sheep in sacrifice were used, Libations too of wine, grapes well preserved, And fruits collected in a heap of every kind; The olive's pinguid juice, and waxen work Most variegated, of the yellow bee. Formerly, also, there were venerable monuments in Delos of those who came from the Hyperboreans, bearing handfuls [of fruits]. It is necessary, therefore, that, being purified in our manners, we should make oblations, offering to the Gods those sacrifices which are pleasing to them, and not such as are attended with great expense. Now, however, if a man's body is not pure and invested with a splendid garment, he does not think it is qualified for the sanctity of sacrifice. But when he has rendered his body splendid, together with his garment, though his soul at the same time is not, purified from vice, yet he betakes himself to sacrifice, and thinks that it is a thing of no consequence; as if divinity did not especially rejoice in that which is most divine in our nature, when it is in a pure condition, as being allied to his essence. In Epidaurus, therefore, there was the following inscription on the doors of the temple: Into an odorous temple, he who goes Should pure and holy be; but to be wise In what to sanctity pertains, is to be pure. SPAN 2.20. 20.But that God is not delighted with the amplitude of sacrifices, but with any casual offering, is evident from this, that of our daily food, whatever it may be that is placed before us, we all of us make an |56 offering to the Gods, before we have tasted it ourselves; this offering being small indeed, but the greatest testimony of honour to divinity. Moreover, Theophrastus shows, by enumerating many of the rites of different countries, that the sacrifices of the ancients were from fruits, and he narrates what pertains to libations in the following manner: "Ancient sacrifices were for the most part performed with sobriety. But those sacrifices are sober in which the libations are made with water. Afterwards, however, libations were made with honey. For we first received this liquid fruit prepared for us by the bees. In the third place, libations were made with oil; and in the fourth and last place with wine." SPAN 2.21. 21.These things, however, are testified not only by the pillars which are preserved in Cyrbe 10, and which contain, as it were, certain true descriptions of the Cretan sacred rites of the Corybantes; but also by Empedocles, who, in discussing what pertains to sacrifices and theogony, or the generation of the Gods, says: With them nor Mars nor tumult dire was found, Nor Saturn, Neptune, or the sovereign Jove, But Venus [beauty's] queen. And Venus is friendship. Afterwards he adds, With painted animals, and statues once of sacred form, with unguents sweet of smell, The fume of frankincense and genuine myrrh, And with libations poured upon the ground of yellow honey, Venus was propitious made. Which ancient custom is still even now preserved by some persons as a certain vestige of the truth. And in the last place, Empedocles says, Nor then were altars wet with blood of bulls Irrationally slain. SPAN 2.22. 22.For, as it appears to me, when friendship and a proper sense of the duties pertaining to kindred natures, was possessed by all men, no one slaughtered any living being, in consequence of thinking that other |57 animals were allied to him. But when strife, and tumult, every kind of contention, and the principle of war, invaded mankind, then, for the first time, no one in reality spared any one of his kindred natures. The following particulars, likewise, ought to be considered: For, as though there is an affinity between us and noxious men, who, as it were, by a certain impetus of their own nature and depravity, are incited to injure anyone they may happen to meet, yet we think it requisite that all of them should be punished and destroyed; thus also, with respect to those irrational animals that are naturally malefic and unjust, and who are impelled to injure those that approach them, it is perhaps fit that they should be destroyed. But with respect to other animals who do not at all act unjustly, and are not naturally impelled to injure us, it is certainly unjust to destroy and murder them, no otherwise than it would be to slay men who are not iniquitous. And this seems to evince that the justice between us and other animals does not arise from some of them being naturally noxious and malefic, but others not, as is also the case with respect to men. SPAN 2.23. 23.Are therefore those animals to be sacrificed to the Gods which are thought to be deserving of death? But how can this be possible, if they are naturally depraved? For it is no more proper to sacrifice such as these, than it would be to sacrifice mutilated animals. For thus, indeed, we shall offer the first-fruits of things of an evil nature, but we shall not sacrifice for the sake of honouring the Gods. Hence, if animals are to be sacrificed to the Gods, we should sacrifice those that are perfectly innoxious. It is however acknowledged, that those animals are not to be destroyed who do not at all injure us, so that neither are they to be sacrificed to the Gods. If, therefore, neither these, nor those that are noxious, are to be sacrificed, is it not evident that we should abstain from them more than from any thing else, and that we should not sacrifice any one of them, though it is fit that some of them should be destroyed? SPAN 2.24. 24.To which may be added, that we should sacrifice to the Gods for the sake of three things, viz. either for the sake of honouring them, or of testifying our gratitude, or through our want of good. For, as we offer first-fruits to good men, thus also we think it is necessary that we should offer them to the Gods. But we honour the Gods, either exploring the means of averting evils, and obtaining good, or when we have been previously benefited, or in order that we may obtain some present advantage and assistance, or merely for the purpose of venerating the goodness of their nature. So that if the first-fruits of animals are to be |58 offered to the Gods, some of them for the sake of this are to be sacrificed. For whatever we sacrifice, we sacrifice for the sake of some one of the above mentioned particulars. Is it therefore to be thought that God is honoured by us, when we are directly seen to act unjustly through the first-fruits which we offer to him? Or will he not rather think that he is dishonoured by such a sacrifice, in which, by immolating animals that have not at all injured us, we acknowledge that we have acted unjustly. So that no one of other animals is to be sacrificed for the sake of honouring divinity. Nor yet are they to be sacrificed for the purpose of testifying our gratitude to the Gods. For he who makes a just retribution for the benefits he has received, ought not to make it by doing an injury to certain other animals. For he will no more appear to make a retribution than he who, plundering his neighbour of his property, should bestow it on another person for the sake of honour. Neither are animals to be sacrificed for the sake of obtaining a certain good of which we are in want. For he who endeavours to be benefited by acting unjustly, is to be suspected as one who would not be grateful even when he is benefited. So that animals are not to be sacrificed to the Gods through the expectation of deriving advantage from the sacrifice. For he who does this, may perhaps elude men, but it is impossible that he can elude divinity. If, therefore, we ought to sacrifice for the sake of a certain thing, but this is not to be done for the sake of any of the before mentioned particulars, it is evident that animals ought not to be sacrificed. SPAN 2.25. 25.For, by endeavouring to obliterate the truth of these things through the pleasures which we derive from sacrifices, we deceive ourselves, but cannot deceive divinity. of those animals, therefore, which are of an ignoble nature, which do not impart to our life any superior utility, and which do not afford us any pleasure, we do not sacrifice any one to the Gods. For who ever sacrificed serpents, scorpions, and apes, or any one of such like animals? But we do not abstain from any one of those animals which afford a certain utility to our life, or which have something in them that contributes to our enjoyments; since we, in reality, cut their throats, and excoriate them, under the patronage of divinity 11. For we sacrifice to the Gods oxen and sheep, and besides these, stags and birds, and fat hogs, though they do not at all participate of purity, but afford us delight. And of these animals, indeed, some, by co-operating with our labours, afford assistance to our life, but others supply us with |59 food, or administer to our other wants. But those which effect neither of these, yet, through the enjoyment which is derived from them, are slain by men in sacrifices similarly with those who afford us utility. We do not, however, sacrifice asses or elephants, or any other of those animals that co-operate with us in our labours, but are not subservient to our pleasure; though, sacrificing being excepted, we do not abstain from such like animals, but we cut their throats on account of the delight with which the deglutition of them is attended; and of those which are fit to be sacrificed, we do not sacrifice such as are acceptable to the Gods, but such as in a greater degree gratify the desires of men; thus testifying against ourselves, that we persist in sacrificing to the Gods, for the sake of our own pleasure, and not for the sake of gratifying the Gods. SPAN 2.26. 26.But of the Syrians, the Jews indeed, through the sacrifice which they first made, even now, says Theophrastus, sacrifice animals, and if we were persuaded by them to sacrifice in the same way that they do, we should abstain from the deed. For they do not feast on the flesh of the sacrificed animals, but having thrown the whole of the victims into the fire, and poured much honey and wine on them during the night, they swiftly consume the sacrifice, in order that the all-seeing sun may not become a spectator of it. And they do this, fasting during all the intermediate days, and through the whole of this time, as belonging to the class of philosophers, and also discourse with each other about the divinity 12. But in the night, they apply themselves to the theory of the stars, surveying them, and through prayers invoking God. For these make offerings both of other animals and themselves, doing this from necessity, and not from their own will. The truth of this, however, may be learnt by any one who directs his attention to the Egyptians, the most learned of all men; who are so far from slaying other animals, that they make the images of these to be imitations of the Gods; so adapted and allied do they conceive these to be both to Gods and men. SPAN 2.27. 27.For at first, indeed, sacrifices of fruits were made to the Gods; but, in the course of time, men becoming negligent of sanctity, in consequence of fruits being scarce, and through the want of legitimate nutriment, being impelled to eat each other, then supplicating divinity with many prayers, they first began to make oblations of themselves to |60 the Gods, not only consecrating to the divinities whatever among their possessions was most beautiful, but, proceeding beyond this, they sacrificed those of their own species. Hence, even to the present time, not only in Arcadia, in the Lupercal festivals, and in Carthage, men are sacrificed in common to Saturn, but periodically, also, for the sake of remembering the legal institute, they sprinkle the altars of those of the same tribe with blood, although the rites of their sacrifices exclude, by the voice of the crier, him from engaging in them who is accused of human slaughter. Proceeding therefore from hence, they made the bodies of other animals supply the place of their own in sacrifices, and again, through a satiety of legitimate nutriment, becoming oblivious of piety, they were induced by voracity to leave nothing untasted, nothing un-devoured. And this is what now happens to all men with respect to the aliment from fruits. For when, by the assumption of them, they have alleviated their necessary indigence, then searching for a superfluity of satiety, they labour to procure many things for food which are placed beyond the limits of temperance. Hence, as if they had made no ignoble sacrifices to the Gods, they proceeded also to taste the animals which they immolated; and from this, as a principle of the deed, the eating of animals became an addition to men to the nutriment derived from fruits. As, therefore, antiquity offered the first produce of fruits to the Gods, and gladly, after their pious sacrifice, tasted what they offered, thus also, when they sacrificed the firstlings of animals to the divinities, they thought that the same thing ought to be done by them, though ancient piety did not ordain these particulars after this manner, but venerated each of the Gods from fruits. For with such oblations, both nature, and every sense of the human soul, are delighted. No altar then was wet with blood of bulls Irrationally slain; but this was thought To be of every impious deed the worst, Limbs to devour of brutes deprived of life. SPAN 2.28. 28.The truth of this may also be perceived from the altar which is even now preserved about Delos, which, because no animal is brought to, or is sacrificed upon it, is called the altar of the pious. So that the inhabitants not only abstain from sacrificing animals, but they likewise conceive, that those who established, are similarly pious with those who use the altar. Hence, the Pythagoreans having adopted this mode of sacrifice, abstained from animal food through the whole of life. But when they distributed to the Gods a certain animal instead of themselves, they merely tasted of it, living in reality without touching other |61 animals. We, however, do not act after this manner; but being filled with animal diet, we have arrived at this manifold illegality in our life by slaughtering animals, and using them for food. For neither is it proper that the altars of the Gods should be defiled with murder, nor that food of this kind should be touched by men, as neither is it fit that men should eat one another; but the precept which is still preserved at Athens, should be obeyed through the whole of life. SPAN 2.29. 29.For formerly, as we have before observed, when men sacrificed to the Gods fruits and not animals, and did not assume the latter for food, it is said, that a common sacrifice being celebrated at Athens, one Diomus, or Sopater, who was not a native, but cultivated some land in Attica, seizing a sharp axe which was near to him, and being excessively indigt, struck with it an ox, who, coming from his labour, approached to a table, on which were openly placed cakes and other offerings which were to be burnt as a sacrifice to the Gods, and ate some, but trampled on the rest of the offerings. The ox, therefore, being killed, Diomus, whose anger was now appeased, at the same time perceived what kind of deed he had perpetrated. And the ox, indeed, he buried. But embracing a voluntary banishment, as if he had been accused of impiety, he fled to Crete. A great dryness, however, taking place in the Attic land from vehement heat, and a dreadful sterility of fruit, and the Pythian deity being in consequence of it consulted by the general consent, the God answered, that the Cretan exile must expiate the crime; and that, if the murderer was punished, and the statue of the slain ox was erected in the place in which it fell, this would be beneficial both to those who had and those who had not tasted its flesh. An inquiry therefore being made into the affair, and Sopater, together with the deed, having been discovered, he, thinking that he should be liberated from the difficulty in which he was now involved, through the accusation of impiety, if the same thing was done by all men in common, said to those who came to him, that it was necessary an ox should be slain by the city. But, on their being dubious who should strike the ox, he said that he would undertake to do it, if they would make him a citizen, and would be partakers with him of the slaughter. This, therefore, being granted, they returned to the city, and ordered the deed to be accomplished in such a way as it is performed by them at present, [and which was as follows:] SPAN 2.30. 30.They selected virgins who were drawers of water; but these brought water for the purpose of sharpening an axe and a knife. And these being sharpened, one person gave the axe, another struck with it the ox, |62 and a third person cut the throat of the ox. But after this, having excoriated the animal, all that were present ate of its flesh. These things therefore being performed, they sewed up the hide of the ox, and having stuffed it with straw, raised it upright in the same form which it had when alive, and yoked it to a plough, as if it was about to work with it. Instituting also a judicial process, respecting the slaughter of the ox, they cited all those who were partakers of the deed, to defend their conduct. But as the drawers of water accused those who sharpened the axe and the knife, as more culpable than themselves, and those who sharpened these instruments accused him who gave the axe, and he accused him who cut the throat of the ox, and this last person accused the knife,---hence, as the knife could not speak, they condemned it as the cause of the slaughter. From that time also, even till now, during the festival sacred to Jupiter, in the Acropolis, at Athens, the sacrifice of an ox is performed after the same manner. For, placing cakes on a brazen table, they drive oxen round it, and the ox that tastes of the cakes that are distributed on the table, is slain. The race likewise of those who perform this, still remains. And all those, indeed, who derive their origin from Sopater are called boutupoi [i.e. slayers of oxen]; but those who are descended from him that drove the ox round the table, are called kentriadai, [or stimulators.] And those who originate from him that cut the throat of the ox, are denominated daitroi, [or dividers,] on account of the banquet which takes place from the distribution of flesh. But when they have filled the hide, and the judicial process is ended, they throw the knife into the sea. SPAN 2.31. 31.Hence, neither did the ancients conceive it to be holy to slay animals that co-operated with us in works beneficial to our life, and we should avoid doing this even now. And as formerly it was not pious for men to injure these animals, so now it should be considered as unholy to slay them for the sake of food. If, however, this is to be done from motives of religious reference of the Gods, yet every passion or affection which is essentially produced from bodies is to be rejected, in order that we may not procure food from improper substances, and thus have an incentive to violence as the intimate associate of our life. For by such a rejection we shall, at least, all of us derive great benefit in what pertains to be our mutual security, if we do not in anything else. For those whose sense is averse to the destruction of animals of a species different from their own, will evidently abstain from injuring those of their own kind. Hence it would perhaps have been best, if men in after-times had immediately abstained from slaughtering these animals; but since no one is free from error, it remains for posterity to take away by |63 purifications the crime of their ancestors, respecting nutriment. This, however, will be effected, if, placing before our eyes, the dire nature of such conduct, we exclaim with Empedocles: Ah me, while yet exempt from such a crime, Why was I not destroyed by cruel Time, Before these lips began the guilty deed, On the dire nutriment of flesh to feed? For in those only the appropriate sense sympathetically grieves for errors that have been committed, who endeavour to find a remedy for the evils with which they are afflicted; so that every one, by offering pure and holy sacrifices to the divinity, may through sanctity obtain the greatest benefits from the Gods. SPAN 2.32. 32.But the benefit derived from fruits is the first and the greatest of all others, and which, as soon as they are matured, should alone be offered to the Gods, and to Earth, by whom they are produced. For she is the common Vesta of Gods and men; and it is requisite that all of us, reclining on her surface, as on the bosom of our mother and nurse, should celebrate her divinity, and love her with a parental affection, as the source of our existence. For thus, when we exchange this life for another, we shall again be thought worthy of a residence in the heavens, and of associating with all the celestial Gods, whom, now beholding 13, we ought to venerate with those fruits of which they are the causes, sacrificing indeed to them from all these, when they have arrived at maturity, but not conceiving all of us to be sufficiently worthy to sacrifice to the Gods. For as all things are not to be sacrificed to the Gods, so neither perhaps are the Gods gratified by the sacrifice of everyone. This, therefore, is the substance of the arguments adduced by Theophrastus, to show that animals ought not to be sacrificed; exclusive |64 of the interspersed fabulous narrations, and a few things which we have added to what he has said. SPAN
29. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 485.7

30. Papyri, Derveni Papyrus, 5.6, 7.3-7.4, 9.2, 12.5, 13.5-13.6, 18.14, 20.2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
"fragments of historiography, classical" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
"historiography, classical" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
"justice, divine" Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
alexander the great Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), in the derveni papyrus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
amenthes Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 288
animals, sacrificial Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
animals Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
aphrodite Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 71
apollo, of homer Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
apollo, of magnesia Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
apollo of delphi on, and pollution Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
apollo of delphi on, determining elements of cult Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135, 165
argos amphilochikon Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 281
aristophanes Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
aristotle, on charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
artemisium (delos) Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 71
audience Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
barbaroi Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 281
cattle Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
charis, aristotle on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
charis, as human-god relationship Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
chersonese, thrakian Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
chthonic deities Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
clearchus Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154, 165
cosmogony Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
daimones, of plato Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135, 154
daimones, of the dead Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
damagetos, king of ialysos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
dances, honouring the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
dead, the, as daimones Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
dead, the, divine guidance concerning Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
dead, the, funerals for Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
dead, the, making propitious Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
dead, the, service to Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
dead, the Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
dedications, proper kinds of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
delphic oracle Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
demeter Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
demoklos the delphian Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
derveni author Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
derveni poem Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
destiny, of souls Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
didyma Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 71
dionysia, priestess of isis Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 288
divination, and pollution Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
divination, establishing elements of cult Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
dreams, interpretation of oracular dreams Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
empedocles Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
euchesthai Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
eumaeus Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
europa Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
eusebius, attacks apollonius Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 313
experts, expertise, derveni author as expert Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
festivals, honouring the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
festivals, theopompus on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
fire, connected with water, baptism of Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 288
golden age Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
good speech, and proper respect for gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
good speech, at sacrifices Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
hades, terrors of hades Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
hecate Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
herakles Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
hermes Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
herodotus Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
heroes, as deities, as class of deities Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
heroes, as deities, proper respect for Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
hesiod, and zeno Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
hesiod, gods of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
hesiod, on sacrifice Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
hesiod Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
homer, prayer in Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
homer Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
honouring the gods, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
honouring the gods, and religious correctness Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
honouring the gods, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
honouring the gods, through sacrifices Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154, 165
honouring the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154, 165
horus, and baptism Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 288
hymns Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
inachos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
indetermined Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
initiates, hope of the initiates Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
initiates Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
initiations, fees for Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
initiations Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
io Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
iphitos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
isis, and baptism Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 288
kadmos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
kroisos, lydian king Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267, 281
kydippe Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
libations Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
locri Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 71
luxury Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
lysippos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
mardonios, persian general Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
megalepolis, arcadia Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 288
melanthos the messenian Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
meleos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
menelaos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
mithras, cult of, and rebirth, and baptism Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 288
mnesarchos of samos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
moderation Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
mystery cults Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
officiants (in the mysteries) Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
olympus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
omens Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
oracles Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268; Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
orestes Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
orpheus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
orphic poems Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
parents, and proper respect Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
parents, and religious correctness Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
parents, honour to Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
paris Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
philip king of makedonia Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
piety Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
plato Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
pollution, and divination Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
pollution, and funerals Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
pollution, of priests Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
polykrates of thebes Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
porphyry Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
prayer Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
prayers, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
prayers, to apollo Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
priests and priestesses, and platos auditors Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
priests and priestesses, and pollution Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
priests and priestesses, in magnesia Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
profane Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
professionals, of the sacred Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
proper respect for gods, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods, and good speech Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods, and honouring the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods, and socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods, and sound thinking Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods, rewards from Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods, theopompus on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods, through festivals Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods, through sacrifice Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
proper respect for gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154, 165
propitiousness of gods, of the dead Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
pythagoras, doctrine of justice Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 313
pythagoras Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267; Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
pythagoreanism Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 313
recognizing the gods, and sacrifices Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
recognizing the gods, and socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
religion, in the georgics Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
religious correctness, and honouring the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
religious correctness, and proper respect for gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
religious correctness, and sound thinking Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
rhea Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
rites, rituals Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
sacrifice Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 165
sacrifices, and apollo of delphi Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135, 165
sacrifices, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14, 154
sacrifices, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
sacrifices, and socrates Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
sacrifices, expensive Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135
sacrifices, hesiod on Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
sacrifices, private Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
sacrifices Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
seleucus i Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 71
service to gods'" "162.0_165@service to gods', theopompus on" Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
service to gods', and apollo of delphi" Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
sicily Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 71
sky Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
solon Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 281
speeches Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
spending Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268
straton Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
swallowing, zeus swallowing of the phallus of uranus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
telesilla Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
temples, and charis Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 14
teukros Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
theophrastus, on honouring the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
theophrastus, on sacrifice Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135, 165
theophrastus Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition (2000) 103
theopompus, and apollo of delphi Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135, 165
theopompus, and clearchus Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154, 165
theopompus, and festivals Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
theopompus, and honouring the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
theopompus, and proper respect for gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 154
theopompus, and service to gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
theopompus, on expensive offerings Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 135, 165
theopompus Hau, Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus (2017) 268; Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
theseus Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
tlepolemos Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
touna el-gebel' Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 288
zeno, and hesiod Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
zeno, gods of Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
zeno, on honouring the gods Mikalson, Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy (2010) 165
zeno of kition Eidinow, Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks (2007) 267
zeus Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
zeus new creation of the world Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
δρώμενα Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138
λεγόμενα Alvarez, The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries (2018) 138