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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9717
Porphyry, Life Of Pythagoras, 42-45


nanHe had also another kind of symbol, such as, pass not over a balance; that is, Shun avarice. Poke not the fire with a sword, that is, we ought not to excite a man full of fire and anger with sharp language. Pluck not a crown, meant not to violate the laws, which are the crowns of cities. Eat not the heart, signified not to afflict ourselves with sorrows. Do not sit upon a [pack]-measure, meant, do not live ignobly. On starting a journey, do not turn back, meant, that this life should not be regretted, when near the bourne of death. Do not walk in the public way, meant, to avoid the opinions of the multitude, adopting those of the learned and the few. Receive not swallows into your house, meant, not to admit under the same roof garrulous and intemperate men. Help a man to take up a burden, but not to lay it down, meant, to encourage no one to be indolent, but to apply oneself to labor and virtue. Do not carry the images of the Gods in rings, signified that one should not at once to the vulgar reveal one's opinions about the Gods, or discourse about them. Offer libations to the Gods, just to the ears of the cup, meant, that we ought to worship and celebrate the Gods with music, for that penetrates through the ears. Do not eat those things that are unlawful, sexual or increase, beginning nor end, nor the first basis of all things.


nanHe taught abstention from the loins, testicle, pudenda, marrow, feet and heads of victims. The loins he called basis, because on them as foundations living beings are settled. Testicles and pudenda he called generation, for no one is engendered without the help of these. Marrow he called increase as it is the cause of growth in living beings. The beginning was the feet, and the head the end; which have the most power in the government of the body. He likewise advised abstention from beans, as from human flesh.


nanBeans were interdicted, it is said, because the particular plants grow and individualize only after (the earth) which is the principle and origin of things, is mixed together, so that many things underground are confused, and coalesce; after which everything rots together. Then living creatures were produced together with plants, so that both men and beans arose out of putrefaction whereof he alleged many manifest arguments. For if anyone should chew a bean, and having ground it to a pulp with his teeth, and should expose that pulp to the warm sun, for a short while, and then return to it, he will perceive the scent of human blood. Moreover, if at the time when beans bloom, one should take a little of the flower, which then is black, and should put it into an earthen vessel, and cover it closely, and bury in the ground for ninety days, and at the end thereof take it up, and uncover it, instead of the bean he will find either the head of an infant, or the pudenda of a woman.


nanHe also wished men to abstain from other things, such as a swine's paunch, a mullet, and a sea-fish called a "nettle," and from nearly all other marine animals. He referred his origin to those of past ages, affirming that he was first Euphorbus, then Aethalides, then Hermotimus, then Pyrrhus, and last, Pythagoras. He showed to his disciples that the soul is immortal, and to those who were rightly purified he brought back the memory of the acts of their former lives.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Heraclitus of Ephesus, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

942d. must be utterly removed from the lives of all mankind, and of the beasts also that are subject to man. Moreover, with a view to excellence in war, they shall dance all kinds of dances, and with the same object they shall cultivate in general suppleness and dexterity, and endurance also in the matter of foods and drinks and cold and heat and hard beds; and, what is most important, they shall accustom themselves not to spoil the natural powers of head and feet by wrapping them in coverings of alien material, and thereby ruining the production and growth
3. Xenophon, Symposium, 3.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.6. But have you failed to observe, questioned Antisthenes, that the rhapsodes, These professional reciters of epic poetry are represented as being criticized by Socrates , in much the same way as here, in Xenophon ’s Memorabilia, IV. ii. 10 and in Plato ’s Ion. too, all know these poems? How could I, he replied, when I listen to their recitations nearly every day? Well, do you know any tribe of men, went on the other, more stupid than the rhapsodes? No, indeed, answered Niceratus; not I, I am sure. No, said Socrates ; and the reason is clear: they do not know the inner meaning of the poems. But you have paid a good deal of money to Stesimbrotus, Anaximander, and many other Homeric critics, so that nothing of their valuable teaching can have escaped your knowledge.
4. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.87 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.87. quare hoc hoc atque hoc Non. videndum est, possitne nobis hoc ratio philosophorum dare. pollicetur certe. nisi enim id faceret, cur Plato Aegyptum peragravit, ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et caelestia acciperet? cur post Tarentum ad Archytam? cur ad reliquos Pythagoreos, Echecratem, Timaeum, Arionem, Locros, ut, cum Socratem expressisset, adiungeret Pythagoreorum disciplinam eaque, quae Socrates repudiabat, addisceret? cur ipse Pythagoras et Aegyptum lustravit et Persarum magos adiit? cur tantas regiones barbarorum pedibus obiit, tot maria transmisit? cur haec eadem Democritus? qui —vere falsone, quaerere mittimus quaerere mittimus Se. quereremus BER queremus V quae- rere nolumus C.F.W. Mue. —dicitur oculis se se oculis BE privasse; privavisse R certe, ut quam minime animus a cogitationibus abduceretur, patrimonium neglexit, agros deseruit incultos, quid quaerens aliud nisi vitam beatam? beatam vitam R quam si etiam in rerum cognitione ponebat, tamen ex illa investigatione naturae consequi volebat, bono ut esset animo. id enim ille id enim ille R ideo enim ille BE id ille V id est enim illi summum bonum; eu)qumi/an cet. coni. Mdv. summum bonum eu)qumi/an et saepe a)qambi/an appellat, id est animum terrore liberum. 5.87.  On this your cousin and I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm.
6. Cicero, Republic, 1.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.16. Dein Tubero: Nescio, Africane, cur ita memoriae proditum sit, Socratem omnem istam disputationem reiecisse et tantum de vita et de moribus solitum esse quaerere. Quem enim auctorem de illo locupletiorem Platone laudare possumus? cuius in libris multis locis ita loquitur Socrates, ut etiam, cum de moribus, de virtutibus, denique de re publica disputet, numeros tamen et geometriam et harmoniam studeat Pythagorae more coniungere. Tum Scipio: Sunt ista, ut dicis; sed audisse te credo, Tubero, Platonem Socrate mortuo primum in Aegyptum discendi causa, post in Italiam et in Siciliam contendisse, ut Pythagorae inventa perdisceret, eumque et cum Archyta Tarentino et cum Timaeo Locro multum fuisse et Philoleo commentarios esse ctum, cumque eo tempore in iis locis Pythagorae nomen vigeret, illum se et hominibus Pythagoreis et studiis illis dedisse. Itaque cum Socratem unice dilexisset eique omnia tribuere voluisset, leporem Socraticum subtilitatemque sermonis cum obscuritate Pythagorae et cum illa plurimarum artium gravitate contexuit.
7. Cicero, Timaeus, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.36, 4.55 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.36. quid iaces aut quid maeres aut cur succumbis cedisque fortunae? quae quae om. G 1 pervellere te forsitan potuerit et pungere, non potuit certe vires frangere. magna vis est in virtutibus; eas excita, si forte dormiunt. iam tibi aderit princeps fortitudo, quae te animo tanto esse coget, ut omnia, quae possint homini evenire, contemnas et pro nihilo putes. aderit temperantia, quae est eadem moderatio, a me quidem paulo ante appellata frugalitas, quae te turpiter et nequiter facere nihil patietur. patiatur X ( cf. coget 21 dicet 28) quid est autem nequius aut turpius ecfeminato eff. G 1 e corr. R 2 V rec viro? ne iustitia quidem sinet te ista facere, cui minimum esse videtur in hac causa loci; loqui X corr. V c? quae tamen ita dicet dupliciter esse te iniustum, cum et alienum adpetas, appetas V 2 qui mortalis natus condicionem conditionem GKV postules inmortalium et graviter feras te, quod utendum acceperis, reddidisse. 4.55. Oratorem vero irasci minime decet, simulare non dedecet. simulare n. dedecet om. V decet X an tibi irasci tum videmur, cum quid in causis acrius et vehementius dicimus? quid? cum iam rebus transactis et praeteritis orationes scribimus, num irati scribimus? ecquis ecquis s etquis X hoc animadvertit? Accius Atr. 233 animadvortet de orat. 3, 217 M (animum advertit L), quod hic quoque fort. restituendum vincite! —num aut egisse umquam iratum Aesopum aut scripsisse existimas existimamus KR iratum Accium? aguntur ista praeclare, et ab oratore quidem melius, si modo est orator, est orator melius G 1 quam ab ullo histrione, istrione X ( str. G 1 ) sed aguntur leniter et mente tranquilla. Libidinem vero laudare cuius est libidinis? lubid. GRK c Themistoclem mihi et Demosthenen demostenen X proferri G 1 profertis, additis Pythagoran Democritum Platonem. quid? vos studia libidinem libidine GK vocatis? quae vel optimarum rerum, ut ea sunt quae profertis, sedata tamen et et add. G 2 tranquilla esse debent. Iam aegritudinem laudare, unam rem maxime detestabilem, quorum est tandem philosophorum? at ad KR commode dixit Afranius: dum modo doleat aliquid, fr. 409 cf. p. 383, 13 doleat doleat lateat G 1 quidlibet. quidlibet hic X dixit enim de adulescente perdito ac dissoluto, nos autem de constanti viro ac sapienti sapienti ex -e V 1 quaerimus. et quidem ipsam illam iram centurio habeat aut signifer vel ceteri, de quibus dici non necesse est, ne rhetorum aperiamus mysteria. utile est enim uti motu utinmotu K 1 animi, qui uti ratione non potest. nos autem, ut testificor saepe, de sapiente quaerimus. quoque ( item post Afranii versum )
9. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.1-15.478 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. Now it is said, that the most sacred sect of the Pythagoreans, among many other excellent doctrines, taught this one also, that it was not well to proceed by the plain ordinary roads, not meaning to urge us to talk among precipices (for it was not their object to weary our feet with labour), but intimating, by a figurative mode of speech, that we ought not, either in respect of our words or actions, to use only such as are ordinary and unchanged;
11. Plutarch, On Having Many Friends, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Plutarch, On The Education of Children, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. This also I assert, that children ought to be led to honourable practices by means of encouragement and reasoning, and most certainly not by blows or ill-treatment, for it surely is agreed that these are fitting rather for slaves than for the freeborn; for so they grow numb and shudder at their tasks, partly from the pain of the blows, partly from the degradation. Praise and reproof are more helpful for the free-born than any sort of ill-usage, since the praise incites them toward what is honourable, and reproof keeps them from what is disgraceful. But rebukes and praise should be used alternately and in a variety of ways; it is well to choose some time when the children are full of confidence to put them to shame by rebuke, and then in turn to cheer them up by praises, and to imitate the nurses, who, when they have made their babies cry, in turn offer them the breast for comfort. Moreover in praising them it is essential not to excite and puff them up, for they are made conceited and spoiled by excess of praise. 12. This also I assert, that children ought to be led to honourable practices by means of encouragement and reasoning, and most certainly not by blows or ill-treatment, for it surely is agreed that these are fitting rather for slaves than for the free-born; for so they grow numb and shudder at their tasks, partly from the pain of the blows, partly from the degradation. Praise and reproof are more helpful for the free-born than any sort of ill-usage, since the praise incites them toward what is honourable, and reproof keeps them from what is disgraceful. But rebukes and praises should be used alternately and in a variety of ways; it is well to choose some time when the children are full of confidence to put them to shame by rebuke, and then in turn to cheer them up by praises, and to imitate the nurses, who, when they have made their babies cry, in turn offer them the breast for comfort. Moreover in praising them it is essential not to excite and puff them up, for they are made conceited and spoiled by excess of praise.
13. Aelian, Varia Historia, 4.17 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14. Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries On Metaphysics, 38.12, 38.14-38.15 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

15. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.5.27-5.5.31, 5.9.59 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 8.1, 8.17-8.19, 8.24-8.35 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.1. BOOK 8: 1. PYTHAGORASPythagoras Having now completed our account of the philosophy of Ionia starting with Thales, as well as of its chief representatives, let us proceed to examine the philosophy of Italy, which was started by Pythagoras, son of the gem-engraver Mnesarchus, and according to Hermippus, a Samian, or, according to Aristoxenus, a Tyrrhenian from one of those islands which the Athenians held after clearing them of their Tyrrhenian inhabitants. Some indeed say that he was descended through Euthyphro, Hippasus and Marmacus from Cleonymus, who was exiled from Phlius, and that, as Marmacus lived in Samos, so Pythagoras was called a Samian. 8.17. The following were his watchwords or precepts: don't stir the fire with a knife, don't step over the beam of a balance, don't sit down on your bushel, don't eat your heart, don't help a man off with a load but help him on, always roll your bed-clothes up, don't put God's image on the circle of a ring, don't leave the pan's imprint on the ashes, don't wipe up a mess with a torch, don't commit a nuisance towards the sun, don't walk the highway, don't shake hands too eagerly, don't have swallows under your own roof, don't keep birds with hooked claws, don't make water on nor stand upon your nail-and hair-trimmings, turn the sharp blade away, when you go abroad don't turn round at the frontier. 8.18. This is what they meant. Don't stir the fire with a knife: don't stir the passions or the swelling pride of the great. Don't step over the beam of a balance: don't overstep the bounds of equity and justice. Don't sit down on your bushel: have the same care of to-day and the future, a bushel being the day's ration. By not eating your heart he meant not wasting your life in troubles and pains. By saying do not turn round when you go abroad, he meant to advise those who are departing this life not to set their hearts' desire on living nor to be too much attracted by the pleasures of this life. The explanations of the rest are similar and would take too long to set out. 8.19. Above all, he forbade as food red mullet and blacktail, and he enjoined abstinence from the hearts of animals and from beans, and sometimes, according to Aristotle, even from paunch and gurnard. Some say that he contented himself with just some honey or a honeycomb or bread, never touching wine in the daytime, and with greens boiled or raw for dainties, and fish but rarely. His robe was white and spotless, his quilts of white wool, for linen had not yet reached those parts. 8.24. to respect all divination, to sing to the lyre and by hymns to show due gratitude to gods and to good men. To abstain from beans because they are flatulent and partake most of the breath of life; and besides, it is better for the stomach if they are not taken, and this again will make our dreams in sleep smooth and untroubled.Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs the following tenets as well. 8.25. The principle of all things is the monad or unit; arising from this monad the undefined dyad or two serves as material substratum to the monad, which is cause; from the monad and the undefined dyad spring numbers; from numbers, points; from points, lines; from lines, plane figures; from plane figures, solid figures; from solid figures, sensible bodies, the elements of which are four, fire, water, earth and air; these elements interchange and turn into one another completely, and combine to produce a universe animate, intelligent, spherical, with the earth at its centre, the earth itself too being spherical and inhabited round about. There are also antipodes, and our down is their up. 8.26. Light and darkness have equal part in the universe, so have hot and cold, and dry and moist; and of these, if hot preponderates, we have summer; if cold, winter; if dry, spring; if moist, late autumn. If all are in equilibrium, we have the best periods of the year, of which the freshness of spring constitutes the healthy season, and the decay of late autumn the unhealthy. So too, in the day, freshness belongs to the morning, and decay to the evening, which is therefore more unhealthy. The air about the earth is stagt and unwholesome, and all within it is mortal; but the uppermost air is ever-moved and pure and healthy, and all within it is immortal and consequently divine. 8.27. The sun, the moon, and the other stars are gods; for, in them, there is a preponderance of heat, and heat is the cause of life. The moon is illumined by the sun. Gods and men are akin, inasmuch as man partakes of heat; therefore God takes thought for man. Fate is the cause of things being thus ordered both as a whole and separately. The sun's ray penetrates through the aether, whether cold or dense – the air they call cold aether, and the sea and moisture dense aether – and this ray descends even to the depths and for this reason quickens all things. 8.28. All things live which partake of heat – this is why plants are living things – but all have not soul, which is a detached part of aether, partly the hot and partly the cold, for it partakes of cold aether too. Soul is distinct from life; it is immortal, since that from which it is detached is immortal. Living creatures are reproduced from one another by germination; there is no such thing as spontaneous generation from earth. The germ is a clot of brain containing hot vapour within it; and this, when brought to the womb, throws out, from the brain, ichor, fluid and blood, whence are formed flesh, sinews, bones, hairs, and the whole of the body, while soul and sense come from the vapour within. 8.29. First congealing in about forty days, it receives form and, according to the ratios of harmony, in seven, nine, or at the most ten, months, the mature child is brought forth. It has in it all the relations constituting life, and these, forming a continuous series, keep it together according to the ratios of harmony, each appearing at regulated intervals. Sense generally, and sight in particular, is a certain unusually hot vapour. This is why it is said to see through air and water, because the hot aether is resisted by the cold; for, if the vapour in the eyes had been cold, it would have been dissipated on meeting the air, its like. As it is, in certain [lines] he calls the eyes the portals of the sun. His conclusion is the same with regard to hearing and the other senses. 8.30. The soul of man, he says, is divided into three parts, intelligence, reason, and passion. Intelligence and passion are possessed by other animals as well, but reason by man alone. The seat of the soul extends from the heart to the brain; the part of it which is in the heart is passion, while the parts located in the brain are reason and intelligence. The senses are distillations from these. Reason is immortal, all else mortal. The soul draws nourishment from the blood; the faculties of the soul are winds, for they as well as the soul are invisible, just as the aether is invisible. 8.31. The veins, arteries, and sinews are the bonds of the soul. But when it is strong and settled down into itself, reasonings and deeds become its bonds. When cast out upon the earth, it wanders in the air like the body. Hermes is the steward of souls, and for that reason is called Hermes the Escorter, Hermes the Keeper of the Gate, and Hermes of the Underworld, since it is he who brings in the souls from their bodies both by land and sea; and the pure are taken into the uppermost region, but the impure are not permitted to approach the pure or each other, but are bound by the Furies in bonds unbreakable. 8.32. The whole air is full of souls which are called genii or heroes; these are they who send men dreams and signs of future disease and health, and not to men alone, but to sheep also and cattle as well; and it is to them that purifications and lustrations, all divination, omens and the like, have reference. The most momentous thing in human life is the art of winning the soul to good or to evil. Blest are the men who acquire a good soul; they can never be at rest, nor ever keep the same course two days together. 8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries. 8.34. According to Aristotle in his work On the Pythagoreans, Pythagoras counselled abstinence from beans either because they are like the genitals, or because they are like the gates of Hades . . . as being alone unjointed, or because they are injurious, or because they are like the form of the universe, or because they belong to oligarchy, since they are used in election by lot. He bade his disciples not to pick up fallen crumbs, either in order to accustom them not to eat immoderately, or because connected with a person's death; nay, even, according to Aristophanes, crumbs belong to the heroes, for in his Heroes he says:Nor taste ye of what falls beneath the board !Another of his precepts was not to eat white cocks, as being sacred to the Month and wearing suppliant garb – now supplication ranked with things good – sacred to the Month because they announce the time of day; and again white represents the nature of the good, black the nature of evil. Not to touch such fish as were sacred; for it is not right that gods and men should be allotted the same things, any more than free men and slaves. 8.35. Not to break bread; for once friends used to meet over one loaf, as the barbarians do even to this day; and you should not divide bread which brings them together; some give as the explanation of this that it has reference to the judgement of the dead in Hades, others that bread makes cowards in war, others again that it is from it that the whole world begins.He held that the most beautiful figure is the sphere among solids, and the circle among plane figures. Old age may be compared to everything that is decreasing, while youth is one with increase. Health means retention of the form, disease its destruction. of salt he said it should be brought to table to remind us of what is right; for salt preserves whatever it finds, and it arises from the purest sources, sun and sea.
17. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 81-86, 93, 256 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

18. Iamblichus, Protrepticus, 21 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

19. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 15-17, 20, 32-41, 43-47, 54, 57, 11 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

11. He sent the boy to a lute-player, a wrestler and a painter. Later he sent him to Anaximander at Miletus, to learn geometry and astronomy. Then Pythagoras visited the Egyptians, the Arabians, the Chaldeans and the Hebrews, from whom he acquired expertery in the interpretation of dreams, and he was the first to use frankincense in the worship of divinities. SPAN
20. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None

21. Golden Verses (Pseudo-Pythagoras), Carmen Aurem, 11, 9-10

22. Heraclitus Lesbius, Fragments, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abominations Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 123
acusmata Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
acusmata (pythagorean), dietary taboos Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 12
acusmata (pythagorean), history of interpretation Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 6, 15
acusmata (pythagorean), interpretation of ethical allegories Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 12, 13, 15
acusmata (pythagorean), religious precepts Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
acusmata (pythagorean) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 6, 9, 12, 13, 15
aithalides Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 144, 145
alexander polyhistor Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
anarchy Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
anaximander the younger Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 83
androcydes Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 83
anger, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 13
antonius diogenes the incredible things beyond thule Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146
archytas of tarentum Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
aristokleia Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
aristotle Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82, 96; Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
aristoxenus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
asia minor deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 120
astraios Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112, 143, 145
bean taboo Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
bears Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
biography, of philosophers Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
boehm, f. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 96, 97; Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 6, 9, 13, 15
borders Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 123
burkert, w. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 83, 96, 97
burkert, walter Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 6, 9, 15, 707
cicero Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
courage (andreia), in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 13
david deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 120
death, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 13, 15
delatte, a. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
delphi Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 142, 143
demeter Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
deubner, l. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 83
diet, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 12
diogenes Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
diogenes laertius Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 96; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
erinyes Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 123
euphorbos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 144, 145
friendship (philia), pythagorean Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 13
fritz, k. von Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 83, 97
funerary practices, pythagorean Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
gemelli marciano, m. l. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
giangiulio, m. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
glory Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
greco-roman political theory, law and the principle of authority Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
greco-roman political theory, philosopher-ruler, ideal of Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
heraclitus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 97
herakles Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
hermotimos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 144, 145
hesiod Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
homer Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
horomazos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
hymettan Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
hüffmeier, a. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82, 83
iamblichus, life of pythagoras Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
iamblichus, political theory of Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
iamblichus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82, 96; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
iconography deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 120
idleness and sloth Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 15
italy Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 146
johnlydus Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
julian, letter to themistius Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
justice (dikē), in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 12
killing, in pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
kirk, g.s. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 97
krete Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138
kroton Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 146
law (nomos), in pythagorean precepts Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
libya Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
looking back Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 123
marriage, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 12
metempsychosis (transmigration of soul, reincarnation), pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 12
minar, e. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
mountains Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 123
muses Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 140, 141, 142, 143
music, and pythagorean precepts on desire and procreation Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
music deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 120
nigidius figulus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
oaths, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 12
opinion Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 342
oracles, in neoplatonism Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
orpheus / david / christ deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 120
orphism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 13
ovid Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
parker, r. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 13
persephone Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
philolaus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
philosophy, and prophecy Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
photios Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
pindar Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 97
places, e. des Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
plants, wild Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 123
plato, relationship to pythagorean precepts Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
pleasure (ἡδονή\u200e), in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 13
pleiad Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
porphyry, and biography Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
porphyry, life of pythagoras Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
porphyry Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82, 97; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
proportion Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
pseudepigrapha Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
purification Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138
purity Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 6
pyrrhos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 144, 145
pythagoras, as divine Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64
pythagoras Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 123; Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82, 83, 97; Niccolai, Christianity, Philosophy, and Roman Power: Constantine, Julian, and the Bishops on Exegesis and Empire (2023) 64; Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112, 138, 139, 145, 146; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoras / (neo-)pythagoreanism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 120
pythagorean precepts (aristoxenus), ethical principles of Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
pythagorean precepts (aristoxenus) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
pythagoreanism Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
pythagoreanism xxv, acumsatici and mathematici Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 6, 15
pythagoreanism xxv, and friendship Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 13
pythagoreanism xxv, and mystery cults Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
pythagoreans, division of mathematici and acousmati Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoreans, writings of Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
raven, j.e. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 97
religion, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
rhea Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
rohde, e. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
rose, v. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82, 96
samos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138
schofield, m. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 97
sirens Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 140, 141
syncretism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 120
teen love Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
teiresias Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 123
thales Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
thom, j. c. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 6
zeus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 120
zhmud, l.' Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 97
zhmud, l. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 96