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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9717
Porphyry, Life Of Pythagoras, 38


nanHe ordained that his disciples should speak well and think reverently of the Gods, muses and heroes, and likewise of parents and benefactors; that they should obey the laws; that they should not relegate the worship of the Gods to a secondary position, performing it eagerly, even at home; that to the celestial divinities they should sacrifice uncommon offerings; and ordinary ones to the inferior deities. (The world he Divided into) opposite powers; the "one" was a better monad, light, right, equal, stable and straight; while the "other" was an inferior duad, darkness, left, unequal, unstable and movable.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Philolaus of Croton, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE

2. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

717a. Therefore all the great labor that impious men spend upon the gods is in vain, but that of the pious is most profitable to them all. Here, then, is the mark at which we must aim; but as to shafts we should shoot, and (so to speak) the flight of them,—what kind of shafts, think you, would fly most straight to the mark? First of all, we say, if—after the honors paid to the Olympians and the gods who keep the State—we should assign the Even and the Left as their honors to the gods of the under-world, we would be aiming most straight at the mark of piety—
3. Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. Now it is said, that the most sacred sect of the Pythagoreans, among many other excellent doctrines, taught this one also, that it was not well to proceed by the plain ordinary roads, not meaning to urge us to talk among precipices (for it was not their object to weary our feet with labour), but intimating, by a figurative mode of speech, that we ought not, either in respect of our words or actions, to use only such as are ordinary and unchanged;
6. Aelian, Varia Historia, 4.17 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.5.31.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.118, 8.1, 8.17-8.19, 8.22-8.24, 8.33-8.34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.118. The man gave the message; a day later the Ephesians attacked and defeated the Magnesians; they found Pherecydes dead and buried him on the spot with great honours. Another version is that he came to Delphi and hurled himself down from Mount Corycus. But Aristoxenus in his work On Pythagoras and his School affirms that he died a natural death and was buried by Pythagoras in Delos; another account again is that he died of a verminous disease, that Pythagoras was also present and inquired how he was, that he thrust his finger through the doorway and exclaimed, My skin tells its own tale, a phrase subsequently applied by the grammarians as equivalent to getting worse, although some wrongly understand it to mean all is going well. 8.1. BOOK 8: 1. PYTHAGORASPythagoras Having now completed our account of the philosophy of Ionia starting with Thales, as well as of its chief representatives, let us proceed to examine the philosophy of Italy, which was started by Pythagoras, son of the gem-engraver Mnesarchus, and according to Hermippus, a Samian, or, according to Aristoxenus, a Tyrrhenian from one of those islands which the Athenians held after clearing them of their Tyrrhenian inhabitants. Some indeed say that he was descended through Euthyphro, Hippasus and Marmacus from Cleonymus, who was exiled from Phlius, and that, as Marmacus lived in Samos, so Pythagoras was called a Samian. 8.17. The following were his watchwords or precepts: don't stir the fire with a knife, don't step over the beam of a balance, don't sit down on your bushel, don't eat your heart, don't help a man off with a load but help him on, always roll your bed-clothes up, don't put God's image on the circle of a ring, don't leave the pan's imprint on the ashes, don't wipe up a mess with a torch, don't commit a nuisance towards the sun, don't walk the highway, don't shake hands too eagerly, don't have swallows under your own roof, don't keep birds with hooked claws, don't make water on nor stand upon your nail-and hair-trimmings, turn the sharp blade away, when you go abroad don't turn round at the frontier. 8.18. This is what they meant. Don't stir the fire with a knife: don't stir the passions or the swelling pride of the great. Don't step over the beam of a balance: don't overstep the bounds of equity and justice. Don't sit down on your bushel: have the same care of to-day and the future, a bushel being the day's ration. By not eating your heart he meant not wasting your life in troubles and pains. By saying do not turn round when you go abroad, he meant to advise those who are departing this life not to set their hearts' desire on living nor to be too much attracted by the pleasures of this life. The explanations of the rest are similar and would take too long to set out. 8.19. Above all, he forbade as food red mullet and blacktail, and he enjoined abstinence from the hearts of animals and from beans, and sometimes, according to Aristotle, even from paunch and gurnard. Some say that he contented himself with just some honey or a honeycomb or bread, never touching wine in the daytime, and with greens boiled or raw for dainties, and fish but rarely. His robe was white and spotless, his quilts of white wool, for linen had not yet reached those parts. 8.22. He is said to have advised his disciples as follows: Always to say on entering their own doors:Where did I trespass? What did I achieve?And unfulfilled what duties did I leave?Not to let victims be brought for sacrifice to the gods, and to worship only at the altar unstained with blood. Not to call the gods to witness, man's duty being rather to strive to make his own word carry conviction. To honour their elders, on the principle that precedence in time gives a greater title to respect; for as in the world sunrise comes before sunset, so in human life the beginning before the end, and in all organic life birth precedes death. 8.23. And he further bade them to honour gods before demi-gods, heroes before men, and first among men their parents; and so to behave one to another as not to make friends into enemies, but to turn enemies into friends. To deem nothing their own. To support the law, to wage war on lawlessness. Never to kill or injure trees that are not wild, nor even any animal that does not injure man. That it is seemly and advisable neither to give way to unbridled laughter nor to wear sullen looks. To avoid excess of flesh, on a journey to let exertion and slackening alternate, to train the memory, in wrath to restrain hand and tongue 8.24. to respect all divination, to sing to the lyre and by hymns to show due gratitude to gods and to good men. To abstain from beans because they are flatulent and partake most of the breath of life; and besides, it is better for the stomach if they are not taken, and this again will make our dreams in sleep smooth and untroubled.Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs the following tenets as well. 8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries. 8.34. According to Aristotle in his work On the Pythagoreans, Pythagoras counselled abstinence from beans either because they are like the genitals, or because they are like the gates of Hades . . . as being alone unjointed, or because they are injurious, or because they are like the form of the universe, or because they belong to oligarchy, since they are used in election by lot. He bade his disciples not to pick up fallen crumbs, either in order to accustom them not to eat immoderately, or because connected with a person's death; nay, even, according to Aristophanes, crumbs belong to the heroes, for in his Heroes he says:Nor taste ye of what falls beneath the board !Another of his precepts was not to eat white cocks, as being sacred to the Month and wearing suppliant garb – now supplication ranked with things good – sacred to the Month because they announce the time of day; and again white represents the nature of the good, black the nature of evil. Not to touch such fish as were sacred; for it is not right that gods and men should be allotted the same things, any more than free men and slaves.
9. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 183, 237, 251, 37-57, 100 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

10. Iamblichus, Protrepticus, 21 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

11. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 15-17, 31-37, 39-47, 54, 57, 11 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

11. He sent the boy to a lute-player, a wrestler and a painter. Later he sent him to Anaximander at Miletus, to learn geometry and astronomy. Then Pythagoras visited the Egyptians, the Arabians, the Chaldeans and the Hebrews, from whom he acquired expertery in the interpretation of dreams, and he was the first to use frankincense in the worship of divinities. SPAN


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acusmata (pythagorean), religious precepts Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 10
acusmata (pythagorean) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 10
advantageous, the Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 58
aithalides Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 144, 145
alcmaeon Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
anarchy Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
anaxagoras Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
anger Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 56
animals Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
antonius diogenes the incredible things beyond thule Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146
aristokleia Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
aristotle Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341; Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
astraios Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112, 143, 145
bean taboo Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
beans Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 56
bears Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
beneficial, the Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
boehm, f. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
burkert, w. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
burkert, walter Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 707
daimones, in pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 10
daimones Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 54, 56
delphi Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 142, 143
demeter Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
dependence on aristoxenus Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 58
diogenes Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
diogenes laertius Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 53, 54, 56
dyad Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 56
elders Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 54
euphemia, and xenophanes Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
euphemos mythos Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
euphorbos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 144, 145
euphron, euphrosyne Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
fire, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 10
friends and friendship Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 54
funerary practices, pythagorean Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 10
gemelli marciano, m. l. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 10
gods Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 54, 56, 57
herakles Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
hermotimos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 144, 145
heroes, in pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 10
heroes Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 54, 56
hesiod Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
homer Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
honorable, the Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
horomazos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
hymettan Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
hymn Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
iamblichus, influence of the precepts on Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 52
idleness and sloth Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 10
italy Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 146
johnlydus Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
justice, object of prayer Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
katharos logos Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
killing, in pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
krete Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138
kroton Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 146
law Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 56, 57
law (nomos), in pythagorean precepts Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
libya Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
magi Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
menestor Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
metempsychosis, and pythagoras Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
mewaldt, j. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 53, 54, 56
monad Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 56
muses Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57; Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 140, 141, 142, 143
music, and pythagorean precepts on desire and procreation Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
natural phenomena, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 10
noble, the Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
ovid Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
parents Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 54, 56, 57
parmenides Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
persephone Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
philolaus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
philosophers on objects of prayer, in pythagoras Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
philosophers on objects of prayer, in xenophanes Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
photios Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
plants Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
plato, relationship to pythagorean precepts Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
plato Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
pleasure Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57, 58
pleiad Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
plutarch Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
porphyry Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341; Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 53, 54, 56, 57, 58; Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
precepts, in the pythagorean tradition Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58
proportion Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
purification Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138
pyrrhos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 144, 145
pythagoras Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113; Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112, 138, 139, 145, 146
pythagorean precepts (aristoxenus), ethical principles of Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
pythagorean precepts (aristoxenus) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 707
pythagoreanism Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
pythagoreanism xxv, and mystery cults Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
religion, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 10
rhea Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 142, 143
ross, w.d. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
samos Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138
schöpsdau, k. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
seemly, the Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 58
sex Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
sirens Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57; Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 140, 141
sleep Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
speusippus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
stobaeus, influence of the precepts on Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 52
symbola, pythagorean Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
symposium, in xenophanes Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113
tarán, l. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
teen love Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 112
thales Stephens and Winkler, Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary (1995) 138, 139
truth Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 57
xenocrates' Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 341
xenophanes Petrovic and Petrovic, Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion (2016) 113