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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9595
Plutarch, Pericles, 9.1


ἐπεὶ δὲ Θουκυδίδης μὲν ἀριστοκρατικήν τινα τὴν τοῦ Περικλέους ὑπογράφει πολιτείαν, λόγῳ μὲν οὖσαν δημοκρατίαν, ἔργῳ δʼ ὑπὸ τοῦ πρώτου ἀνδρὸς ἀρχήν, ἄλλοι δὲ πολλοὶ πρῶτον ὑπʼ ἐκείνου φασὶ τὸν δῆμον ἐπὶ κληρουχίας καὶ θεωρικὰ καὶ μισθῶν διανομὰς προαχθῆναι, κακῶς ἐθισθέντα καὶ γενόμενον πολυτελῆ καὶ ἀκόλαστον ὑπὸ τῶν τότε πολιτευμάτων ἀντὶ σώφρονος καὶ αὐτουργοῦ, θεωρείσθω διὰ τῶν πραγμάτων αὐτῶν ἡ αἰτία τῆς μεταβολῆς.Thucydides describes In the encomium on Pericles, Thuc. 2.65.9 . the administration of Pericles as rather aristocratic,— in name a democracy, but in fact a government by the greatest citizen. But many others say that the people was first led on by him into allotments of public lands, festival-grants, and distributions of fees for public services, thereby falling into bad habits, and becoming luxurious and wanton under the influence of his public measures, instead of frugal and self-sufficing. Let us therefore examine in detail the reason for this change in him. The discussion of this change in Pericles from the methods of a demagogue to the leadership described by Thucydides, continues through chapter 15.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.140.4-1.140.5, 2.65, 2.65.9, 4.28, 4.65, 7.48 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.140.4. I hope that you will none of you think that we shall be going to war for a trifle if we refuse to revoke the Megara decree, which appears in front of their complaints, and the revocation of which is to save us from war, or let any feeling of self-reproach linger in your minds, as if you went to war for slight cause. 1.140.5. Why, this trifle contains the whole seal and trial of your resolution. If you give way, you will instantly have to meet some greater demand, as having been frightened into obedience in the first instance; while a firm refusal will make them clearly understand that they must treat you more as equals. 2.65.9. Whenever he saw them unseasonably and insolently elated, he would with a word reduce them to alarm; on the other hand, if they fell victims to a panic, he could at once restore them to confidence. In short, what was nominally a democracy became in his hands government by the first citizen.
2. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 25.4, 26.2, 26.4 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Aristotle, Politics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 18.74.2-18.74.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18.74.2.  At first a clamour was raised, some opposing and some supporting his proposal, but when they had considered more carefully what was the expedient course, it was uimously determined to send an embassy to Cassander and to arrange affairs with him as best they could. 18.74.3.  After several conferences peace was made on the following terms: the Athenians were to retain their city and territory, their revenues, their fleet, and everything else, and to be friends and allies of Cassander; Munychia was to remain temporarily under the control of Cassander until the war against the kings should be concluded; the government was to be in the hands of those possessing at least ten minae; and whatever single Athenian citizen Cassander should designate was to be overseer of the city. Demetrius of Phalerum was chosen, who, when he became overseer, ruled the city peacefully and with goodwill toward the citizens.
5. Strabo, Geography, 9.1.20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9.1.20. It suffices, then, to add thus much: According to Philochorus, when the country was being devastated, both from the sea by the Carians, and from the land by the Boeotians, who were called Aonians, Cecrops first settled the multitude in twelve cities, the names of which were Cecropia, Tetrapolis, Epacria, Deceleia, Eleusis, Aphidna (also called Aphidnae, in the plural), Thoricus, Brauron, Cytherus, Sphettus, Cephisia. And at a later time Theseus is said to have united the twelve into one city, that of today. Now in earlier times the Athenians were ruled by kings; and then they changed to a democracy; but tyrants assailed them, Peisistratus and his sons; and later an oligarchy arose, not only that of the four hundred, but also that of the thirty tyrants, who were set over them by the Lacedemonians; of these they easily rid themselves, and preserved the democracy until the Roman conquest. For even though they were molested for a short time by the Macedonian kings, and were even forced to obey them, they at least kept the general type of their government the same. And some say that they were actually best governed at that time, during the ten years when Cassander reigned over the Macedonians. For although this man is reputed to have been rather tyrannical in his dealings with all others, yet he was kindly disposed towards the Athenians, once he had reduced the city to subjection; for he placed over the citizens Demetrius of Phalerum, one of the disciples of Theophrastus the philosopher, who not only did not destroy the democracy but even improved it, as is made clear in the Memoirs which Demetrius wrote concerning this government. But the envy and hatred felt for oligarchy was so strong that, after the death of Cassander, Demetrius was forced to flee to Egypt; and the statues of him, more than three hundred, were pulled down by the insurgents and melted, and some writers go on to say that they were made into chamber pots. Be that as it may, the Romans, seeing that the Athenians had a democratic government when they took them over, preserved their autonomy and liberty. But when the Mithridatic War came on, tyrants were placed over them, whomever the king wished. The most powerful of these, Aristion, who violently oppressed the city, was punished by Sulla the Roman commander when he took this city by siege, though he pardoned the city itself; and to this day it is free and held in honor among the Romans.
6. Plutarch, Cimon, 16.9-16.10, 17.3-17.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Plutarch, Comparison of Aemilius Paulus And Timoleon, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Plutarch, Comparison of Fabius With Pericles, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Plutarch, Demetrius, 9.3, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Plutarch, Nicias, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Plutarch, Pericles, 7.3-7.4, 9.2-9.5, 11.1-11.2, 11.4, 15.1-15.2, 16.1, 27.2, 31.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.2. In the beginning, as has been said, pitted as he was against the reputation of Cimon, he tried to ingratiate himself with the people. And since he was the inferior in wealth and property, by means of which Cimon would win over the poor,—furnishing a dinner every day to any Athenian who wanted it, bestowing raiment on the elderly men, and removing the fences from his estates that whosoever wished might pluck the fruit,—Pericles, outdone in popular arts of this sort, had recourse to the distribution of the people’s own wealth. This was on the advice of Damonides, of the deme Oa, as Aristotle has stated. Aristot. Const. Ath. 27.4 . 11.1. Then the aristocrats, aware even some time before this that Pericles was already become the greatest citizen, but wishing nevertheless to have some one in the city who should stand up against him and blunt the edge of his power, that it might not be an out and out monarchy, put forward Thucydides of Alopece, a discreet man and a relative of Cimon, to oppose him. 11.2. He, being less of a warrior than Cimon, and more of a forensic speaker and statesman, by keeping watch and ward in the city, and by wrestling bouts with Pericles on the bema, soon brought the administration into even poise. He would not suffer the party of the Good and True, as they called themselves, to be scattered up and down and blended with the populace, as heretofore, the weight of their character being thus obscured by numbers, but by culling them out and assembling them into one body, he made their collective influence, thus become weighty, as it were a counterpoise in the balance. 11.4. At this time, therefore, particularly, Pericles gave the reins to the people, and made his policy one of pleasing them, ever devising some sort of a pageant in the town for the masses, or a feast, or a procession, amusing them like children with not uncouth delights, An iambic trimeter from an unknown source. and sending out sixty triremes annually, on which large numbers of the citizens sailed about for eight months under pay, practising at the same time and acquiring the art of seamanship. 15.1. Thus, then, seeing that political differences were entirely remitted and the city had become a smooth surface, as it were, and altogether united, he brought under his own control Athens and all the issues dependent on the Athenians,—tributes, armies, triremes, the islands, the sea, the vast power derived from Hellenes, vast also from Barbarians, and a supremacy that was securely hedged about with subject nations, royal friendships, and dynastic alliances. 15.2. But then he was no longer the same man as before, nor alike submissive to the people and ready to yield and give in to the desires of the multitude as a steersman to the breezes. Nay rather, forsaking his former lax and sometimes rather effeminate management of the people, as it were a flowery and soft melody, he struck the high and clear note of an aristocratic and kingly statesmanship, and employing it for the best interests of all in a direct and undeviating fashion 16.1. of his power there can be no doubt, since Thucydides gives so clear an exposition of it, and the comic poets unwittingly reveal it even in their malicious gibes, calling him and his associates new Peisistratidae, and urging him to take solemn oath not to make himself a tyrant, on the plea, forsooth, that his preeminence was incommensurate with a democracy and too oppressive. 27.2. And since it was a hard task for him to restrain the Athenians in their impatience of delay and eagerness to fight, he separated his whole force into eight divisions, had them draw lots, and allowed the division which got the white bean to feast and take their ease, while the others did the fighting. And this is the reason, as they say, why those who have had a gay and festive time call it a white day, —from the white bean. 31.1. Well, then, whatever the original ground for enacting the decree,—and it is no easy matter to determine this,—the fact that it was not rescinded all men alike lay to the charge of Pericles. Only, some say that he persisted in his refusal in a lofty spirit and with a clear perception of the best interests of the city, regarding the injunction laid upon it as a test of its submissiveness, and its compliance as a confession of weakness; while others hold that it was rather with a sort of arrogance and love of strife, as well as for the display of his power, that he scornfully defied the Lacedaemonians.
12. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.25.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.25.6. On the death of Antipater Olympias came over from Epeirus, killed Aridaeus, and for a time occupied the throne; but shortly afterwards she was besieged by Cassander, taken and delivered up to the people. of the acts of Cassander when he came to the throne my narrative will deal only with such as concern the Athenians. He seized the fort of Panactum in Attica and also Salamis, and established as tyrant in Athens Demetrius the son of Phanostratus, a man who had won a reputation for wisdom. This tyrant was put down by Demetrius the son of Antigonus, a young man of strong Greek sympathies.
13. Epigraphy, Ig Ii, 1201



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeschines Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 693
anecdote Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
antipater Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
archons, archons, qualifications for Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
areopagus, council of Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
aristocracy, aristocrats, aristocratic Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
army Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
assembly, athenian (ekklesia) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
athens, athenians Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114, 178
audience, size of Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 693
boeotia, boeotians Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
building programme Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
cassander Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
cimon Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110, 115
citizen Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178, 277
citizenship, exclusivity of ancient Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
civil strife Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
class, census Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
class Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
cleon Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
constitution Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
control, political Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
control Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
corcyra Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
council, of five hundred Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
debate Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114, 178; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
demes (demoi) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
demetrius of phalerum Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
demetrius poliorcetes Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
democracy Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178, 277
demos (damos), empowerment of Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
demos (damos) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
demosthenes Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 693
dikasteria Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
diodorus siculus Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
economy, economic Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
eliaia Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
ephialtes Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110, 115
equality Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
festivals, civic Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
generals Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
helots Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
herodotus Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
hoplites Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
ideal, idealism Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 277
institution Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
ithome Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
jurors, juries, athenian (dikastai) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
kosmopolites, lacedaemonius, son of cimon Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
law, laws Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
legislation Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
lucian Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 277
mass, masses Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
megara, megarian Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
munychia Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
nicias, athenian Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
nicias Beneker et al., Plutarch’s Unexpected Silences: Suppression and Selection in the Lives and Moralia (2022) 220
nomothetes Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
oligarchy Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
ostracism Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110, 115
participation in government, by all citizens Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
participation in government, by poor Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
participation in government, by thetes Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
pay, for attending the assembly, for jurors Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
pay, for attending the assembly, for participation in government Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
pay, for attending the assembly, for state service Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
pedagogue slaves Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 693
pericles, citizenship law of Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
pericles Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114, 178, 277; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
piraeus Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
plato Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
plutarch Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
poets Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
politeia Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110, 115
polites Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
politician Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 277
polyperchon Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
prytanies Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
public office, officials, accountability of Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
reform Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
revolution Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
romulus Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 277
rotation Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
seats, in the theater, price of Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 693
sicily Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
solon Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
sortition Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
sparta, spartan Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
strabo Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
strategoi, qualifications for Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
tanagra Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
theseus Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 277
thucydides Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114, 277; Beneker et al., Plutarch’s Unexpected Silences: Suppression and Selection in the Lives and Moralia (2022) 220
treasurers, qualifications for Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
tribes (phulai) Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115
tyranny, tyrants Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
tyranny Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 178
tyrant Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
wealth Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 110
zeugitai' Raaflaub Ober and Wallace, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece (2007) 115