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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9595
Plutarch, Pericles, 31.1


τὴν μὲν οὖν ἀρχὴν ὅπως ἔσχεν οὐ ῥᾴδιον γνῶναι, τοῦ δὲ μὴ λυθῆναι τὸ ψήφισμα πάντες ὡσαύτως τὴν αἰτίαν ἐπιφέρουσι τῷ Περικλεῖ. πλὴν οἱ μὲν ἐκ φρονήματος μεγάλου μετὰ γνώμης κατὰ τὸ βέλτιστον ἀπισχυρίσασθαί φασιν αὐτόν, πεῖραν ἐνδόσεως τὸ πρόσταγμα καὶ τὴν συγχώρησιν ἐξομολόγησιν ἀσθενείας ἡγούμενον· οἱ δὲ μᾶλλον αὐθαδείᾳ τινὶ καὶ φιλονεικίᾳ πρὸς ἔνδειξιν ἰσχύος περιφρονῆσαι Λακεδαιμονίων.Well, then, whatever the original ground for enacting the decree,—and it is no easy matter to determine this,—the fact that it was not rescinded all men alike lay to the charge of Pericles. Only, some say that he persisted in his refusal in a lofty spirit and with a clear perception of the best interests of the city, regarding the injunction laid upon it as a test of its submissiveness, and its compliance as a confession of weakness; while others hold that it was rather with a sort of arrogance and love of strife, as well as for the display of his power, that he scornfully defied the Lacedaemonians.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.140.4-1.140.5, 2.65, 4.28, 4.65, 7.48 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.140.4. I hope that you will none of you think that we shall be going to war for a trifle if we refuse to revoke the Megara decree, which appears in front of their complaints, and the revocation of which is to save us from war, or let any feeling of self-reproach linger in your minds, as if you went to war for slight cause. 1.140.5. Why, this trifle contains the whole seal and trial of your resolution. If you give way, you will instantly have to meet some greater demand, as having been frightened into obedience in the first instance; while a firm refusal will make them clearly understand that they must treat you more as equals.
2. Polybius, Histories, 36.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.9. 1.  Both about the Carthaginians when they were crushed by the Romans and about the affair of the pseudo-Philip many divergent accounts were current in Greece, at first on the subject of the conduct of Rome to Carthage and next concerning their treatment of the pseudo-Philip.,2.  As regards the former the judgements formed and the opinions held in Greece were far from uimous.,3.  There were some who approved the action of the Romans, saying that they had taken wise and statesmanlike measures in defence of their empire.,4.  For to destroy this source of perpetual menace, this city which had constantly disputed the supremacy with them and was still able to dispute it if it had the opportunity and thus to secure the dominion of their own country, was the act of intelligent and far-seeing men.,5.  Others took the opposite view, saying that far from maintaining the principles by which they had won their supremacy, they were little by little deserting it for a lust of domination like that of Athens and Sparta, starting indeed later than those states, but sure, as everything indicated, to arrive at the same end.,6.  For at first they had made war with every nation until they were victorious and until their adversaries had confessed that they must obey them and execute their orders.,7.  But now they had struck the first note of their new policy by their conduct to Perseus, in utterly exterminating the kingdom of Macedonia, and they had now completely revealed it by their decision concerning Carthage.,8.  For the Carthaginians had been guilty of no immediate offence to Rome, but the Romans had treated them with irremediable severity, although they had accepted all their conditions and consented to obey all their orders.,9.  Others said that the Romans were, generally speaking, a civilized people, and that their peculiar merit on which they prided themselves was that they conducted their wars in a simple and noble manner, employing neither night attacks nor ambushes, disapproving of every kind of deceit and fraud, and considering that nothing but direct and open attacks were legitimate for them.,10.  But in the present case, throughout the whole of their proceedings in regard to Carthage, they had used deceit and fraud, offering certain things one at a time and keeping others secret, until they cut off every hope the city had of help from her allies.,11.  This, they said, savoured more of a despot's intrigue than of the principles of a civilized state such as Rome, and could only be justly described as something very like impiety and treachery.,12.  And there were others who differed likewise from these latter critics. For, they said, if before the Carthaginians had committed themselves to the faith of Rome the Romans had proceeded in this manner, offering certain things one at a time and gradually disclosing others, they would of course have appeared to be guilty of the charge brought against them.,13.  But if, in fact, after the Carthaginians had of their own accord committed themselves to the faith of the Romans and given them liberty to treat them in any way they chose, the Romans, being thus authorized to act as it seemed good to them, gave the orders and imposed the terms on which they had decided, what took place did not bear any resemblance to an act of impiety and scarcely any to an act of treachery; in fact some said it was not even of the nature of an injustice.,14.  For every crime must naturally fall under one of these three classes, and what the Romans did belongs to neither of the three.,15.  For impiety is sin against the gods, against parents, or against the dead; treachery is the violation of sworn or written agreements; and injustice is what is done contrary to law and custom.,16.  of none of these three were the Romans guilty on the present occasion. Neither did they sin against the gods, against their parents, or against the dead, nor did they violate any sworn agreement or treaty; on the contrary they accused the Carthaginians of doing this.,17.  Nor, again, did they break any laws or customs or their personal faith. For having received from a people who consented willingly full authority to act as they wished, when this people refused to obey their orders they finally resorted to force.
3. Plutarch, Alcibiades, 3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Plutarch, Aristides, 26 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Plutarch, Brutus, 2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Plutarch, Comparison of Fabius With Pericles, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Plutarch, On The Malice of Herodotus, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Plutarch, Pericles, 5.3, 9.1-9.2, 11.2, 11.4, 13.16, 15.1-15.2, 27.2, 28.2-28.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.3. When he was about to go in doors, it being now dark, he ordered a servant to take a torch and escort the fellow in safety back to his own home. The poet Ion, however, says that Pericles had a presumptuous and somewhat arrogant manner of address, and that into his haughtiness there entered a good deal of disdain and contempt for others; he praises, on the other hand, the tact, complaisance, and elegant address which Cimon showed in his social intercourse. Cf. Plut. Cim. 9 . 9.1. Thucydides describes In the encomium on Pericles, Thuc. 2.65.9 . the administration of Pericles as rather aristocratic,— in name a democracy, but in fact a government by the greatest citizen. But many others say that the people was first led on by him into allotments of public lands, festival-grants, and distributions of fees for public services, thereby falling into bad habits, and becoming luxurious and wanton under the influence of his public measures, instead of frugal and self-sufficing. Let us therefore examine in detail the reason for this change in him. The discussion of this change in Pericles from the methods of a demagogue to the leadership described by Thucydides, continues through chapter 15. 9.2. In the beginning, as has been said, pitted as he was against the reputation of Cimon, he tried to ingratiate himself with the people. And since he was the inferior in wealth and property, by means of which Cimon would win over the poor,—furnishing a dinner every day to any Athenian who wanted it, bestowing raiment on the elderly men, and removing the fences from his estates that whosoever wished might pluck the fruit,—Pericles, outdone in popular arts of this sort, had recourse to the distribution of the people’s own wealth. This was on the advice of Damonides, of the deme Oa, as Aristotle has stated. Aristot. Const. Ath. 27.4 . 11.2. He, being less of a warrior than Cimon, and more of a forensic speaker and statesman, by keeping watch and ward in the city, and by wrestling bouts with Pericles on the bema, soon brought the administration into even poise. He would not suffer the party of the Good and True, as they called themselves, to be scattered up and down and blended with the populace, as heretofore, the weight of their character being thus obscured by numbers, but by culling them out and assembling them into one body, he made their collective influence, thus become weighty, as it were a counterpoise in the balance. 11.4. At this time, therefore, particularly, Pericles gave the reins to the people, and made his policy one of pleasing them, ever devising some sort of a pageant in the town for the masses, or a feast, or a procession, amusing them like children with not uncouth delights, An iambic trimeter from an unknown source. and sending out sixty triremes annually, on which large numbers of the citizens sailed about for eight months under pay, practising at the same time and acquiring the art of seamanship. 15.1. Thus, then, seeing that political differences were entirely remitted and the city had become a smooth surface, as it were, and altogether united, he brought under his own control Athens and all the issues dependent on the Athenians,—tributes, armies, triremes, the islands, the sea, the vast power derived from Hellenes, vast also from Barbarians, and a supremacy that was securely hedged about with subject nations, royal friendships, and dynastic alliances. 15.2. But then he was no longer the same man as before, nor alike submissive to the people and ready to yield and give in to the desires of the multitude as a steersman to the breezes. Nay rather, forsaking his former lax and sometimes rather effeminate management of the people, as it were a flowery and soft melody, he struck the high and clear note of an aristocratic and kingly statesmanship, and employing it for the best interests of all in a direct and undeviating fashion 27.2. And since it was a hard task for him to restrain the Athenians in their impatience of delay and eagerness to fight, he separated his whole force into eight divisions, had them draw lots, and allowed the division which got the white bean to feast and take their ease, while the others did the fighting. And this is the reason, as they say, why those who have had a gay and festive time call it a white day, —from the white bean. 28.2. But he appears not to speak the truth when he says, forsooth, that Pericles had the Samian trierarchs and marines brought into the market-place of Miletus and crucified there, and that then, when they had already suffered grievously for ten days, he gave orders to break their heads in with clubs and make an end of them, and then cast their bodies forth without burial rites. 28.3. At all events, since it is not the wont of Duris, even in cases where he has no private and personal interest, to hold his narrative down to the fundamental truth, it is all the more likely that here, in this instance, he has given a dreadful portrayal of the calamities of his country, that he might calumniate the Athenians. When Pericles, after his subjection of Samos, had returned to Athens, he gave honorable burial to those who had fallen in the war, and for the oration which he made, according to the custom, over their tombs, he won the greatest admiration.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alcibiades Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
alternatives Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164, 165
anecdote Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
antiphon Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
athenians, and pericles Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
athenians Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
athens, athenians Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
brutus, and the tyrannicide Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
brutus Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
building programme Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
caesar, brutus and Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
caesar Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
cleon Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
cognition Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
comedy, comic poets, plutarchs criticism of Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
comedy, comic poets Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
contrasts, as narrative technique Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
contrasts, between plutarch and other authors Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
contrasts Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
corcyra Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
coriolanus, in dionysius of halicarnassus Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
coriolanus Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
craterus Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
criticism, plutarchs Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
criticism Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
debate Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
decisions, concerning moral judgement Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
decisions, of the subjects Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164, 165
demetrius i (poliorcetes) Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
duris of samos Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
emotions Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
empathy Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
explanations Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164, 165
friends/friendship Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
generals Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
herodotus Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
idomeneus Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
immersion Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
judgements, concluding Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
kosmopolites, lacedaemonius, son of cimon Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
lives Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
megara, megarian Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
motivation, motives Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164, 165
nicias, athenian Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
perception Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
pericles, and the hostile public mind Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
pericles Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114; Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164, 165
philosophy/philosophers/philosophical Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
plato Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
poetry, poets (plutarchs attitude towards) Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
polybius Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
prologue (to plutarchs book) Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
romans, and coriolanus Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
romans Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
sicily Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
social/society, dialogue of individual with Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
social/society Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
sources, plutarchs use or criticism of Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
sources Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
sparta(ns) Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
sparta, spartan Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
stesimbrotus of thasus Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165
synkrisis, formal Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
thucydides Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
tyranny/tyrants Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 164
tyrant Athanassaki and Titchener, Plutarch's Cities (2022) 114
understand(ing) (as part of the process of moral evaluation)' Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 165