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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9548
Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, 75


nanThe crocodile, Cf. Herodotus, ii. 69. certainly, has acquired honour which is not devoid of a plausible reason, but he is declared to be a living representation of God, since he is the only creature without a tongue; for the Divine Word has no need of a voice, and through noiseless ways advancing, guides By Justice all affairs of mortal men. Euripides, Troades, 887-888; Cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 1007 c. They say that the crocodile is the only animal living in the water which has a thin and transparent membrane extending down from his forehead to cover up his eyes, so that he can see without being seen; and this prerogative belongs also unto the First God. In whatever part of the land the female crocodile lays her eggs, well she knows that this is destined to mark the limit of the rise of the Nile Ibid. 982 c; Aristotle, Hist. Animalium, v. 33 (558 a 17). ; for the females, being unable to lay their eggs in the water and afraid to lay them far from it, have such an accurate perception of the future that they make use of the oncoming river as a guide in laying their eggs and in keeping them warm; and thus they preserve them dry and untouched by the water. They lay sixty eggs Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animalium, ii. 33, v. 52. and hatch them in the same number of days, and those crocodiles that live longest live that number of years: the number sixty is the first of measures for such persons as concern themselves with the heavenly bodies. Of the animals that are held in honour for both reasons, mention has already been made of the dog. supra, 355 b and 368 f. The ibis, Cf. Diodorus, i. 87. 6. which kills the deadly creeping things, was the first to teach men the use of medicinal purgations when they observed her employing clysters and being purged by herself. Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animalium, ii. 35; Pliny, Natural History, x. 40 (75). The most strict of the priests take their lustral water for purification from a place where the ibis has drunk Cf. Moralia, 974 c; Aelian, De Natura Animalium, vii. 45. : for she does not drink water if it is unwholesome or tainted, nor will she approach it. By the spreading of her feet, in their relation to each other and to her bill, she makes an equilateral triangle. Cf. Moralia, 670 c. Moreover the variety and combination of her black feathers with her white picture the moon in its first quarter. There is no occasion for surprise that the Egyptians were so taken with such slight resemblances; for the Greeks in their painted and sculptured portrayals of the gods made use of many such. Tor example, in Crete there was a statue of Zeus having no ears; for it is not fitting for the Ruler and Lord of all to listen to anyone. Beside the statue of Athena Pheidias placed the serpent and in Elis beside the statue of Aphroditê the tortoise, Cf. Moralia, 142 d; Pausanias, vi. 25. 2. to indicate that maidens need watching, and that for married women staying at home and silence is becoming. The trident of Poseidon is a symbol of the Third Region where the sea holds sway, for it. has been assigned to a demesne of less importance than the heavens and the air. For this reason they thus named Amphitritê and the Tritons. An effort to derive these names from τρίτος, third. The Pythagoreans embellished also numbers and figures with the appellations of the gods. The equilateral triangle they called Athena, born from the head and third-born, because it is divided by three perpendiculars drawn from its three angles. The number one they called Apollo Cf. the note on 354 f, supra . because of its rejection of plurality Cf. 393 b, infra . and because of the singleness of unity. The number two they called Strife, and Daring, and three they called Justice, for, although the doing of injustice and suffering from injustice are caused by deficiency and excess, Justice, by reason of its equality, intervenes between the two. The so-called sacred quaternion, the number thirtysix, was, so it is famed, the mightiest of oaths, and it has been given the name of World since it is made up of the first four even numbers and the first four odd numbers added together.


nanThe crocodile, certainly, has acquired honour which is not devoid of a plausible reason, but he is declared to be a living representation of God, since he is the only creature without a tongue; for the Divine Word has no need of a voice, and through noiseless ways advancing, guides By Justice all affairs of mortal men. They say that the crocodile is the only animal living in the water which has a thin and transparent membrane extending down from his forehead to cover up his eyes, so that he can see without being seen; and this prerogative belongs also unto the First God. In whatever part of the land the female crocodile lays her eggs, well she knows that this is destined to mark the limit of the rise of the Nile; for the females, being unable to lay their eggs in the water and afraid to lay them far from it, have such an accurate perception of the future that they make use of the oncoming river as a guide in laying their eggs and in keeping them warm; and thus they preserve them dry and untouched by the water. They lay sixty eggs and hatch them in the same number of days, and those crocodiles that live longest live that number of years: the number sixty is the first of measures for such persons as concern themselves with the heavenly bodies. Of the animals that are held in honour for both reasons, mention has already been made of the dog. The ibis, which kills the deadly creeping things, was the first to teach men the use of medicinal purgations when they observed her employing clysters and being purged by herself. The most strict of the priests take their lustral water for purification from a place where the ibis has drunk: for she does not drink water if it is unwholesome or tainted, nor will she approach it. By the spreading of her feet, in their relation to each other and to her bill, she makes an equilateral triangle. Moreover the variety and combination of her black feathers with her white picture the moon in its first quarter. There is no occasion for surprise that the Egyptians were so taken with such slight resemblances; for the Greeks in their painted and sculptured portrayals of the gods made use of many such. For example, in Crete there was a statue of Zeus having no ears; for it is not fitting for the Ruler and Lord of all to listen to anyone. Beside the statue of Athena Pheidias placed the serpent and in Elis beside the statue of Aphroditê the tortoise, to indicate that maidens need watching, and that for married women staying at home and silence is becoming. The trident of Poseidon is a symbol of the Third Region where the sea holds sway, for it has been assigned to a demesne of less importance than the heavens and the air. For this reason they thus named Amphitritê and the Tritons. The Pythagoreans embellished also numbers and figures with the appellations of the gods. The equilateral triangle they called Athena, born from the head and third-born, because it is divided by three perpendiculars drawn from its three angles. The number one they called Apollo because of its rejection of plurality and because of the singleness of unity. The number two they called "Strife," and "Daring," and three they called "Justice," for, although the doing of injustice and suffering from injustice are caused by deficiency and excess, Justice, by reason of its equality, intervenes between the two. The so‑called sacred quaternion, the number thirty-six, was, so it is famed, the mightiest of oaths, and it has been given the name of "World" since it is made up of the first four even numbers and the first four odd numbers added together.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off."
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 62.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

62.12. אַחַת דִּבֶּר אֱלֹהִים שְׁתַּיִם־זוּ שָׁמָעְתִּי כִּי עֹז לֵאלֹהִים׃ 62.12. God hath spoken once, Twice have I heard this: That strength belongeth unto God;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 23.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.29. הֲלוֹא כֹה דְבָרִי כָּאֵשׁ נְאֻם־יְהוָה וּכְפַטִּישׁ יְפֹצֵץ סָלַע׃ 23.29. Is not My word like as fire? Saith the LORD; And like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces?"
4. Euripides, Trojan Women, 888, 887 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 78 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

78. It is advantageous, therefore, if not with reference to the acquisition of perfect virtue, still at all events with reference to political considerations, both to be nourished in ancient and primeval opinions, and also to be acquainted with the ancient records of glorious actions, which historians and the whole race of poets have delivered to their contemporaries and to subsequent ages, to be preserved in their recollection. But when the sudden light of self-taught wisdom has shone upon those who had no foreknowledge or expectation of it, and opening the previously closed eyes of the soul, makes men spectators of knowledge instead of being merely hearers of it, implanting in the mind the swiftest of the outward senses, sight, instead of hearing, which is slower; it is then in vain to exercise the ears with speeches. XXIII.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 13, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. But they who apply themselves to this kind of worship, not because they are influenced to do so by custom, nor by the advice or recommendation of any particular persons, but because they are carried away by a certain heavenly love, give way to enthusiasm, behaving like so many revellers in bacchanalian or corybantian mysteries, until they see the object which they have been earnestly desiring.
7. New Testament, Philemon, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 2.8-2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Plutarch, Sayings of The Spartans, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Plutarch, On The Eating of Flesh I, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, 364 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Anon., Sifra, 10.1 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

14. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 112, 102 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

15. Palestinian Talmud, Nedarim, 3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

16. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

34a. מאי טעמא דר' יוסי בר יהודה דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, ל) עד אחד לא יענה בנפש למות למות הוא דאינו עונה אבל לזכות עונה ורבנן אמר ריש לקיש משום דמיחזי כנוגע בעדותו,ורבנן האי למות מאי דרשי ביה מוקמי ליה באחד מן התלמידים כדתניא אמר אחד מן העדים יש לי ללמד עליו זכות מניין שאין שומעין לו ת"ל עד אחד לא יענה מניין לאחד מן התלמידים שאמר יש לי ללמד עליו חובה מניין שאין שומעין לו ת"ל אחד לא יענה בנפש למות:,דיני נפשות המלמד כו': אמר רב לא שנו אלא בשעת משא ומתן אבל בשעת גמר דין מלמד זכות חוזר ומלמד חובה,מיתיבי למחרת משכימין ובאין המזכה אומר אני המזכה ומזכה אני במקומי המחייב אומר אני המחייב ומחייב אני במקומי המלמד חובה מלמד זכות אבל המלמד זכות אינו יכול לחזור וללמד חובה,והא למחרת גמר דין הוא וליטעמיך למחרת משא ומתן מי ליכא כי קתני בשעת משא ומתן,ת"ש דנין אלו כנגד אלו עד שיראה אחד מן המחייבין דברי המזכין ואם איתא ליתני נמי איפכא תנא אזכות קא מהדר אחובה לא קא מהדר,ת"ש דאמר ר' יוסי בר חנינא אחד מן התלמידים שזיכה ומת רואין אותו כאילו חי ועומד במקומו ואמאי נימא אילו הוה קיים הדר ביה השתא מיהא לא הדר ביה,והא שלחו מתם לדברי ר' יוסי בר חנינא מוצא מכלל רבינו אין מוצא איתמר,תא שמע שני סופרי הדיינין עומדין לפניהן אחד מן הימין ואחד מן השמאל וכותבין דברי המזכין ודברי המחייבין,בשלמא דברי המחייבין למחר חזו טעמא אחרינא ובעו למעבד הלנת דין אלא דברי המזכין מאי טעמא לאו משום דאי חזו טעמא אחרינא לחובה לא משגחינן בהו,לא כדי שלא יאמרו שנים טעם אחד משני מקראות כדבעא מיניה רבי אסי מרבי יוחנן אמרו שנים טעם אחד משני מקראות מהו אמר ליה אין מונין להן אלא אחד,מנהני מילי אמר אביי דאמר קרא (תהלים סב, יב) אחת דבר אלהים שתים זו שמעתי כי עז לאלהים מקרא אחד יוצא לכמה טעמים ואין טעם אחד יוצא מכמה מקראות דבי ר' ישמעאל תנא (ירמיהו כג, כט) וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע מה פטיש זה מתחלק לכמה ניצוצות אף מקרא אחד יוצא לכמה טעמים,היכי דמי טעם אחד משני מקראות אמר רב זביד כדתנן מזבח מקדש את הראוי לו,רבי יהושע אומר כל הראוי לאשים אם עלה לא ירד שנאמר (ויקרא ו, ב) העולה על מוקדה מה עולה שהיא ראויה לאשים אם עלתה לא תרד אף כל שהוא ראוי לאשים אם עלה לא ירד,רבן גמליאל אומר כל הראוי למזבח אם עלה לא ירד שנאמר היא העולה על מוקדה על המזבח מה עולה שהיא ראויה לגבי מזבח אם עלתה לא תרד אף כל שהוא ראוי למזבח אם עלה לא ירד,ותרוייהו מאי קמרבו פסולין מר מייתי לה ממוקדה ומר מייתי לה ממזבח,והא התם מיפלג פליגי דקתני סיפא אין בין דברי רבן גמליאל לדברי ר' יהושע אלא הדם והנסכים שר"ג אומר לא ירדו ור' יהושע אומר ירדו,אלא אמר רב פפא כדתניא ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר מתוך שנאמר 34a. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reason of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda? As the verse states: “But one witness shall not testify against any person that he die.”One can infer: bThat he die isthe matter concerning bwhich he does not testify, but he does testify to acquit.The Gemara asks: bAndwhat is the reasoning of bthe Rabbis? Reish Lakish says:A witness cannot offer any statements beyond his testimony bbecause it appears as though he is biased in his testimony.If the court finds the accused liable based on the witness’s testimony, the witness could later be accused of being a conspiring witness. Therefore, it is to his advantage to have the court acquit the accused.,The Gemara asks: bAndas for bthe Rabbis,in bwhatmanner do bthey interpret thisterm: b“That he die”?The Gemara answers: bThey establish itas teaching the ihalakha bwith regard to one of the students. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone of the witnesses said: I havethe ability bto teacha reason to bacquit him, from whereis it derived bthatthe court bdoes not listen to him? The verse states: “One witness shall not testify.” From whereis it derived bthatif there is bone of the students who said: I havethe ability bto teacha reason to deem bhim liable, from whereis it derived bthatthe court bdoes not listen to him? The verse states:“But bonewitness bshall not testify against any person that he die.” /b,§ The mishna teaches: In cases of bcapital law, one whoinitially bteachesa reason to deem the accused liable may then teach a reason to acquit, but one who initially teaches a reason to acquit him may not return and teach a reason to deem him liable. bRav says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonly with regard to the time ofthe bdeliberationsof the court, bbut at the time ofthe bverdict,one who initially bteachesa reason to bacquit may return and teacha reason to deem him bliable. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a mishna (40a): bThe following day,i.e., the day after the initial deliberations, the judges would barise early and cometo court. bOne whoyesterday was of the opinion to bacquit says: Isaid to bacquit, and I acquit in my place,i.e., I stand by my statement to acquit. bAnd one whoyesterday was of the opinion to bdeemhim bliable says: Isaid to bdeemhim bliable, and I deemhim bliable in my place. One whoyesterday btaughta reason to deem him bliable maythen bteacha reason to bacquit, but one whoyesterday btaughta reason to bacquit may notthen bteacha reason to deem him bliable. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bBut the following day isat the time of bthe verdict,and the mishna rules that a judge who had said to acquit may not change his opinion. The Gemara questions this reading of the mishna: bAnd according to your reasoning, are there no deliberations on the following day?The deliberations may resume on the next day. Therefore, one can say that bwhenthe mishna bteachesthat the judge may not change his opinion, it is bwith regard to the time ofthe bdeliberations. /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from the continuation of that mishna, which teaches that if the number of judges who deem him liable is one more than the number of judges who acquit, btheycontinue to bdeliberatethe matter, bthesejudges bagainst thosejudges, buntil one of those who deemshim bliable seesthe validity of bthe statements of those who acquitand changes his position, as the court does not condemn someone to death by a majority of one judge. The Gemara states its proof: bAnd if it is sothat one who initially bteachesa reason bto acquit may return and teacha reason to deem him bliable, letthe mishna balso teach the oppositepossibility. The Gemara explains: bThe itannais searching forscenarios of bacquittal,he bis not searching forscenarios of bliability.It may be that the ihalakhais the same in the opposite case, but the itannaprefers to employ an example of acquittal.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita /i: bAs Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says:In a case where there was bone of the students whoargued to bacquit andthen bdied,the court bviews him as ifhe were balive and standing in his placeand voting to acquit. The Gemara asks: bBut why?According to the opinion of Rav, that a judge may change his opinion at the time of the verdict, blet us say:Perhaps bifthat student bwere alive,he would bretracthis opinion and find the accused liable. The Gemara explains: bNow, in any event,he bdid not retract fromhis opinion. The assumption is that he would not have changed his opinion, although one can do so.,The Gemara questions this explanation: bButthe Sages bsenta statement bfrom there,Eretz Yisrael: bAccording tothis version of bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina,he engages in ba dispute with our teacher,i.e., Rav. Apparently, the previous explanation, which reconciles their opinions, is incorrect. The Gemara answers: That tradition was not accurate, and it bwas statedthat he does bnotengage in ba disputewith Rav.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita /i: After the initial deliberations, btwo judges’ scribes stand beforethe court, bone on the right, and one on the left, and they write the statements of those who acquitthe accused band the statements of those who findhim bliable. /b,The Gemara explains the proof: bGranted,they write the bstatements of those who findthe accused bliableeven though they may not change their opinions, as bon the following day theymay bsee another reasonto find the accused liable, not the reason they gave the day before. bAndonce this new reason is given, the court bis required to perform a suspension of the trialuntil the following day, as they may not issue a verdict in cases of capital law on the same day as the deliberations. bBut what is the reasonthe scribes write bthe statements of those who acquitthe accused? Is it bnot becausethe ihalakhais that bifthe judges would bsee another reason tofind the accused bliable, we do not pay heed to them,and in order to ensure that the judges do not change their opinions, the scribes write their statements?,The Gemara answers: bNo,the reason they write their statements is bso that twoof the judges bshould not say one explanationto acquit bfrom twodifferent bverses.If two judges each say the same reason to acquit, but derive their reason from different verses, they are not counted as two votes. bAs Rabbi Asi asked of Rabbi Yoḥa:If btwoof the judges bsay one explanationto acquit bfrom twodifferent bverses, what isthe ihalakha /i? bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: We count them only as one,as it is clear that one of the derivations is in error.,§ The Gemara discusses the ruling of Rabbi Yoḥa: bFrom where is this matterderived? bAbaye says: As the verse states: “God has spoken once, twice I have heard this; that strength belongs to God”(Psalms 62:12). Abaye explains: bOne verseis stated by God and from it bemerge several explanations, but one explanation does not emerge from several verses.Alternatively, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse states: “Is not My word like as fire? says the Lord; band like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces”(Jeremiah 23:29). bJust as this hammer breaksa stone binto several fragments, so too, one verseis stated by God bandfrom it bemerge several explanations. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bWhat is considered one explanation from twodifferent bverses? Rav Zevid says: As we learnedin a mishna ( iZevaḥim83a): With regard to certain items that are disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, once they have been placed on the altar they are nevertheless sacrificed, but bthe altar sanctifiesonly items bthat are suited for it,as the Gemara will explain. The itanna’imdisagree as to what is considered suited for the altar., bRabbi Yehoshua says: Anyitem bthat is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, e.g., burnt-offerings and the portions of other offerings burned on the altar, bif it ascendedupon the altar, even if it is disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, bit shall not descend.Since it was sanctified by its ascent upon the altar, it is sacrificed upon it, bas it is stated:“It is bthe burnt-offering on the pyreupon the altar” (Leviticus 6:2), from which it is derived: bJust aswith regard to ba burnt-offering that is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, bif it ascended, it shall not descend, so toowith regard to banyitem bthat is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, bif it ascended, it shall not descend. /b, bRabban Gamliel says:With regard to banyitem bthat is suited toascend upon bthe altar,even if it is not typically consumed, bif it ascended, it shall not descend,even if it is disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, bas it is stated: “It is the burnt-offering on the pyre upon the altar,”from which it is derived: bJust as a burnt-offering that is fit for the altar, if it ascended, it shall not descend, so too anyitem bthat is fit for the altar, if it ascended, it shall not descend. /b,Rav Zevid explains: bAnd what do the two of them includeby means of these explanations? bDisqualifiedofferings, teaching that if they ascend they do not descend. One bSage,Rabbi Yehoshua, bbringsproof for bthis ihalakha bfromthe term b“on the pyre,” andone bSage,Rabban Gamliel, bbringsproof to bthis ihalakha bfromthe term “upon the baltar.”This is an example of one explanation from two different verses.,The Gemara questions this example: bBut there,Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabban Gamliel bdisagree,and their explanations cannot therefore be identical. bAs the latter clauseof that mishna bteaches: The difference between the statement of Rabban Gamliel and the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua is onlywith regard to disqualified bblood and libations,which are not consumed by the fire, but do ascend onto the altar, bas Rabban Gamliel says: They shall not descend,as they are fit to ascend on the altar, band Rabbi Yehoshua says: They shall descend,as they are not burned on the altar., bRather, Rav Pappa says:An example of one explanation from two different verses is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: From the fact that it is stated: /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

88b. דסגינן בשלימותא כתיב בן (משלי יא, ג) תומת ישרים תנחם הנך אינשי דסגן בעלילותא כתיב בהו (משלי יא, ג) וסלף בוגדים ישדם:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ד, ט) לבבתני אחותי כלה לבבתני באחת מעיניך בתחילה באחת מעיניך לכשתעשי בשתי עיניך אמר עולא עלובה כלה מזנה בתוך חופתה אמר רב מרי ברה דבת שמואל מאי קרא (שיר השירים א, יב) עד שהמלך במסיבו נרדי וגו' אמר רב ועדיין חביבותא היא גבן דכתי' נתן ולא כתב הסריח ת"ר עלובין ואינן עולבין שומעין חרפתן ואינן משיבין עושין מאהבה ושמחין ביסורין עליהן הכתוב אומר (שופטים ה, לא) ואוהביו כצאת השמש בגבורתו,א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים סח, יב) ה' יתן אומר המבשרות צבא רב כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הגבורה נחלק לשבעים לשונות תני דבי ר' ישמעאל (ירמיהו כג, כט) וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע מה פטיש זה נחלק לכמה ניצוצות אף כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה נחלק לשבעים לשונות אמר רב חננאל בר פפא מ"ד (משלי ח, ו) שמעו כי נגידים אדבר למה נמשלו דברי תורה כנגיד לומר לך מה נגיד זה יש בו להמית ולהחיות אף ד"ת יש בם להמית ולהחיות,היינו דאמר רבא למיימינין בה סמא דחיי למשמאילים בה סמא דמותא ד"א נגידים כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה קושרים לו שני כתרים: א"ר יהושע בן לוי מ"ד (שיר השירים א, יג) צרור המור דודי לי בין שדי ילין אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע אף על פי שמיצר ומימר לי דודי בין שדי ילין (שיר השירים א, יד) אשכול הכופר דודי לי בכרמי עין גדי מי שהכל שלו מכפר לי על עון גדי שכרמתי לי מאי משמע דהאי כרמי לישנא דמכניש הוא אמר מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן כדתנן כסא של כובס שכורמים עליו את הכלים:,וא"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יג) לחייו כערוגת הבושם כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה נתמלא כל העולם כולו בשמים וכיון שמדיבור ראשון נתמלא דיבור שני להיכן הלך הוציא הקב"ה הרוח מאוצרותיו והיה מעביר ראשון ראשון שנאמר (שיר השירים ה, יג) שפתותיו שושנים נוטפות מור עובר אל תקרי שושנים אלא ששונים:,ואריב"ל כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה יצתה נשמתן של ישראל שנאמר (שיר השירים ה, ו) נפשי יצאה בדברו ומאחר שמדיבור ראשון יצתה נשמתן דיבור שני היאך קיבלו הוריד טל שעתיד להחיות בו מתים והחיה אותם שנאמר (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה חזרו ישראל לאחוריהן י"ב מיל והיו מלאכי השרת מדדין אותן שנאמר (תהלים סח, יג) מלאכי צבאות ידודון ידודון אל תיקרי ידודון אלא ידדון:,ואריב"ל בשעה שעלה משה למרום אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מה לילוד אשה בינינו אמר להן לקבל תורה בא אמרו לפניו חמודה גנוזה שגנוזה לך תשע מאות ושבעים וארבעה דורות קודם שנברא העולם אתה מבקש ליתנה לבשר ודם (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו ה' אדונינו מה אדיר שמך בכל הארץ אשר תנה הודך על השמים,אמר לו הקב"ה למשה החזיר להן תשובה אמר לפניו רבש"ע מתיירא אני שמא ישרפוני בהבל שבפיהם אמר לו אחוז בכסא כבודי וחזור להן תשובה שנאמר (איוב כו, ט) מאחז פני כסא פרשז עליו עננו ואמר ר' נחום מלמד שפירש שדי מזיו שכינתו ועננו עליו אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם תורה שאתה נותן לי מה כתיב בה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך אשר הוצאתיך מארץ מצרים אמר להן למצרים ירדתם לפרעה השתעבדתם תורה למה תהא לכם שוב מה כתיב בה לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים בין עמים אתם שרויין שעובדין 88b. bwho proceed wholeheartedlyand with integrity, bit is written: “The integrity of the upright will guide them”(Proverbs 11:3), whereas babout those people who walk in deceit, it is writtenat the end of the same verse: b“And the perverseness of the faithless will destroy them.” /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥamani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; you have ravished my heart with one of your eyes,with one bead of your necklace” (Song of Songs 4:9)? bAt firstwhen you, the Jewish people, merely accepted the Torah upon yourselves it was bwith one of your eyes;however, bwhen youactually bperformthe mitzvot it will be bwith both of your eyes. Ulla saidwith regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: bInsolent is the bride who is promiscuous under her wedding canopy. Rav Mari, son of the daughter of Shmuel, said: What versealludes to this? b“While the king was still at his table my spikenardgave off its fragrance” (Song of Songs 1:12). Its pleasant odor dissipated, leaving only an offensive odor. bRav said:Nevertheless, it is apparent from the verse that bthe affectionof the Holy One, Blessed be He, bis still upon us, as it is writteneuphemistically as “ bgave offits fragrance,” bandthe verse bdid not write, it reeked.And bthe Sages taught: Aboutthose who bare insulted and do not insult, who hear their shame and do not respond, who act out of love and are joyful in suffering, the verse says: “And they that love Him are as the sun going forth in its might”(Judges 5:31).,With regard to the revelation at Sinai, bRabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The Lord gives the word; the women that proclaim the tidings are a great host”(Psalms 68:12)? It means that beach and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Almighty divided into seventy languages,a great host. And, similarly, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtwith regard to the verse: “Behold, is My word not like fire, declares the Lord, band like a hammer that shatters a rock?”(Jeremiah 23:29). bJust as this hammer breaksa stone binto several fragments, so too, each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, divided into seventy languages.The Gemara continues in praise of the Torah. bRav Ḥael bar Pappa said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Listen, for I will speak royal things,and my lips will open with upright statements” (Proverbs 8:6)? bWhy are matters of Torah likened to a king? To teach youthat bjust as this king hasthe power bto kill and to grant life, so too, matters of Torah havethe power bto kill and to grant life. /b,And bthat iswhat bRava said: To those who are right-handed intheir approach to Torah, and engage in its study with strength, good will, and sanctity, Torah is ba drug of life,and bto those who are left-handed intheir approach to Torah, it is ba drug of death. Alternatively,why are matters of Torah referred to as broyal?Because bto each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, two crowns are tied. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “My beloved is to me like a bundle of myrrh that lies between my breasts”(Song of Songs 1:13)? bThe Congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, even though my beloved,God, bcauses me suffering and bitterness, Hestill blies between my breasts.And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi interpreted the verse: b“My beloved is to me like a cluster [ ieshkol /i] of henna [ ihakofer /i] in the vineyards of [ ikarmei /i] Ein Gedi”(Song of Songs 1:14). bHe, Whom everything [ ishehakol /i] is His, forgives [ imekhapper /i] me for the sin of the kid [ igedi /i],i.e., the calf, bthat I collected [ ishekaramti /i] for myself.The Gemara explains: bFrom whereis it binferred thatthe word in bthisverse, ikarmei /i, is a term of gathering? Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, saidthat it is bas we learnedin a mishna: bA launderer’s chair upon which one gathers [ ikoremim /i] the garments. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “His cheeks are as a bed of spices,as banks of sweet herbs, his lips are lilies dripping with flowing myrrh” (Song of Songs 5:13)? It is interpreted homiletically: From beach and every utterance that emerged fromHis cheeks, i.e., bthe mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the entire world was filled with fragrant spices. And sincethe world bwasalready bfilled by the first utterance, wherewas there room for the spices of bthe second utteranceto bgo? The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought forth wind from His treasuries and made thespices bpass one at a time,leaving room for the consequences of the next utterance. bAs it is stated: “His lips are lilies [ ishoshanim /i] dripping with flowing myrrh.”Each and every utterance resulted in flowing myrrh. bDo not readthe word in the verse as ishoshanim /i; rather,read it as isheshonim /i,meaning repeat. Each repeat utterance produced its own fragrance., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:From beach and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the souls of the Jewish people lefttheir bodies, bas it is stated: “My soul departed when he spoke”(Song of Songs 5:6). bAnd since their souls lefttheir bodies bfrom the first utterance, how did they receive the second utterance?Rather, God brained the dewupon them bthat, in the future, will revive the dead, and He revived them, as it is stated: “You, God, poured down a bountiful rain; when Your inheritance was weary You sustained it”(Psalms 68:10). bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:With beach and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the Jewish people retreatedin fear btwelve imil /i, and the ministering angels walked themback toward the mountain, bas it is stated: “The hosts of angels will scatter [ iyidodun /i]”(Psalms 68:13). bDo not readthe word as iyidodun /i,meaning scattered; brather,read it as iyedadun /i,they walked them., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: When Moses ascended on Highto receive the Torah, bthe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, what is one born of a womandoing here bamong us?The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to them: He came to receive the Torah.The angels bsaid before Him:The Torah is a bhidden treasure that was concealed by you 974 generations before the creation of the world,and byou seek to give it to flesh and blood?As it is stated: “The word which He commanded to a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8). Since the Torah, the word of God, was given to the twenty-sixth generation after Adam, the first man, the remaining 974 generations must have preceded the creation of the world. b“What is man that You are mindful of him and the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5). Rather, b“God our Lord, how glorious is Your name in all the earth that Your majesty is placed above the heavens”(Psalms 8:2). The rightful place of God’s majesty, the Torah, is in the heavens., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Provide themwith ban answeras to why the Torah should be given to the people. Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I am afraid lest they burn me with the breath of their mouths.God bsaid to him: Grasp My throne of gloryfor strength and protection, band provide themwith ban answer.And from where is this derived? bAs it is stated: “He causes him to grasp the front of the throne, and spreads His cloud over it”(Job 26:9), band Rabbi Naḥum said:This verse bteaches that God spread the radiance of His presence and His cloud overMoses. Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the Torah that You are giving me, what is written in it?God said to him: b“I am the Lord your God Who brought you out of Egyptfrom the house of bondage” (Exodus 20:2). Moses bsaid tothe angels: bDid you descend to Egypt? Were you enslaved to Pharaoh? Why should the Torah be yours? AgainMoses asked: bWhatelse bis written in it?God said to him: b“You shall have no other godsbefore Me” (Exodus 20:3). Moses said to the angels: bDo you dwell among the nations who worship /b
18. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 654-655, 653



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
anubis, and moon Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
anubis, in rome Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
anubis-hermes Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
anubis-mask Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
athens, apuleius at, dionysiac ship in Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
attis, and cybele Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
bendis Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
delos, and isis pelagia, priests at Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
derveni papyrus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
dionysus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
eleusis deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
empedocles deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
eschatology deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
etymologies deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
fire Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
hermes-mercury Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
ibis Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
moon, suggested in crown of isis, and anubis Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
moon, suggested in crown of isis, moon and ibis Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
philo of alexandria Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
rabbi akiba Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
rites deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
rome, isis in, anubis in Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
rome deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
sarapis, cult of, in thessalonica, and sea Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
savaria, pannonia, iseum in, anubis in Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
shekhina, auditory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
shekhina, visual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
symbola / synthemata deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
titans deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
tufankhamun' Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 217
zeus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 76