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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Plutarch, Camillus, 22

nanOn the third day after the battle, Brennus came up to the city with his army. Finding its gates open and its walls without defenders, at first he feared a treacherous ambush, being unable to believe that the Romans were in such utter despair. But when he realised the truth, he marched in by the Colline gate, and took Rome. This was a little more than three hundred and sixty years from her foundation, if one can believe that any accurate chronology has been preserved in this matter, when that of even later events is disputed, owing to the confusion caused by this very disaster.,However, it would seem that some vague tidings of the calamity and capture of the city made their way at once to Greece. For Heracleides Ponticus, who lived not long after that time, in his treatise On the soul, says that out of the West a story prevailed, how an army of Hyperboreans had come from afar and captured a Greek city called Rome, situated somewhere on the shores of the Great Sea.,Now I cannot wonder that so fabulous and fictitious a writer as Heracleides should deck out the true story of the capture of Rome with his Hyperboreans and his Great Sea. But Aristotle the philosopher clearly had accurate tidings of the capture of the city by the Gauls, and yet he says that its saviour was Lucius, although the forename of Camillus was not Lucius, but Marcus. However, these details were matters of conjecture.,When he had occupied Rome, Brennus surrounded the Capitol with a guard. He himself went down through the forum, and was amazed to see the men sitting there in public state and perfect silence. They neither rose up to meet their enemies when they approached, nor did they change countenance or colour, but sat there quietly, at ease and without fear, leaning on their staves and gazing into one another’s faces.,The Gauls were amazed and perplexed at the unwonted sight, and for a long time hesitated to approach and touch them, regarding them as superior beings. But at last one of them, plucking up his courage, drew near Papirius Marcus, and stretching out his hand, gently grasped his chin and stroked his long beard, whereupon Papirius, with his staff, smote him a crushing blow on the head. Then the Barbarian drew his sword and killed him.,After that, they fell upon the rest and slew them, made away with every one else they met, sacked and plundered the houses of the city for many days together, and finally burned them down and levelled them with the ground, in their wrath at the defenders of the Capitol. For these would not surrender at their summons, but when they were attacked, actually repulsed their foes from the ramparts with loss. Therefore the Gauls inflicted every outrage upon the city, and put to the sword all whom they captured, men and women, old and young alike.

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 10.133-10.574 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 4.659-4.663 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.659. καρπαλίμως δʼ ἐνθένδε διὲξ ἁλὸς οἶδμα νέοντο 4.660. Αὐσονίης ἀκτὰς Τυρσηνίδας εἰσορόωντες· 4.661. ἷξον δʼ Αἰαίης λιμένα κλυτόν· ἐκ δʼ ἄρα νηὸς 4.662. πείσματʼ ἐπʼ ἠιόνων σχεδόθεν βάλον. ἔνθα δὲ Κίρκην 4.663. εὗρον ἁλὸς νοτίδεσσι κάρη ἐπιφαιδρύνουσαν·
3. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 14.117 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14.117. 1.  While the Romans were in a weakened condition because of the misfortune we have described, the Volscians went to war against them. Accordingly the Roman military tribunes enrolled soldiers, took the field with their army, and pitched camp on the Campus Martius, as it is called, two hundred stades distant from Rome.,2.  Since the Volscians lay over against them with a larger force and were assaulting the camp, the citizens in Rome, fearing for the safety of those in the encampment, appointed Marcus Furius dictator.  . . .,3.  These armed all the men of military age and marched out during the night. At day-break they caught the Volscians as they were assaulting the camp, and appearing on their rear easily put them to flight. When the troops in the camp then sallied forth, the Volscians were caught in the middle and cut down almost to a man. Thus a people that passed for powerful in former days was by this disaster reduced to the weakest among the neighbouring tribes.,4.  After the battle the dictator, on hearing that Bola was being besieged by the Aeculani, who are now called the Aequicoli, led forth his troops and slew most of the besieging army. From here he marched to the territory of Sutrium, a Roman colony, which the Tyrrhenians had forcibly occupied. Falling unexpectedly upon the Tyrrhenians, he slew many of them and recovered the city for the people of Sutrium.,5.  The Gauls on their way from Rome laid siege to the city of Veascium which was an ally of the Romans. The dictator attacked them, slew the larger number of them, and got possession of all their baggage, included in which was the gold which they had received for Rome and practically all the booty which they had gathered in the seizure of the city.,6.  Despite the accomplishment of such great deeds, envy on the part of the tribunes prevented his celebrating a triumph. There are some, however, who state that he celebrated a triumph for his victory over the Tuscans in a chariot drawn by four white horses, for which the people two years later fined him a large sum of money. But we shall recur to this in the appropriate period of time.,7.  Those Celts who had passed into Iapygia turned back through the territory of the Romans; but soon thereafter the Cerii made a crafty attack on them by night and cut all of them to pieces in the Trausian Plain.,8.  The historian Callisthenes began his history with the peace of this year between the Greeks and Artaxerxes, the King of the Persians. His account embraced a period of thirty years in ten Books and he closed the last Book of his history with the seizure of the Temple of Delphi by Philomelus the Phocian.,9.  But for our part, since we have arrived at the peace between the Greeks and Artaxerxes, and at the threat to Rome offered by the Gauls, we shall make this the end of this Book, as we proposed at the beginning.
4. Livy, History, 5.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Strabo, Geography, 5.3.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.3.6. At 290 stadia from Antium is Mount Circaion, insulated by the sea and marshes. They say that it contains numerous roots, but this perhaps is only to harmonize with the myth relating to Circe. It has a small city, together with a sanctuary to Circe and an altar to Minerva; they likewise say that a cup is shown which belonged to Ulysses. Between [Antium and Circaion] is the river Stura, which has a station for ships: the rest of the coast is exposed to the southwest wind, with the exception of this small harbour of Circaion. Above this, in the interior, is the Pomentine plain: the region next to this was formerly inhabited by the Ausonians, who likewise possessed Campania: next after these the Osci, who also held part of Campania; now, however, as we have remarked, the whole, as far as Sinuessa, belongs to the Latini. A peculiar fate has attended the Osci and Ausonians; for although the Osci have ceased to exist as a distinct tribe, their dialect is extant among the Romans, dramatic and burlesque pieces composed in it being still represented at certain games which were instituted in ancient times. And as for the Ausonians, although they never have dwelt by the sea of Sicily, it is named the Ausonian Sea. At 100 stadia from Circaion is Tarracina, formerly named Trachina, on account of its ruggedness; before it is a great marsh, formed by two rivers, the larger of which is called the Aufidus. This is the first place where the Via Appia approaches the sea. This road is paved from Rome to Brundusium, and has great traffic. of the maritime cities, these alone are situated on it; Tarracina, beyond it Formiae, Minturnae, Sinuessa, and towards its extremity Tarentum and Brundusium. Near to Tarracina, advancing in the direction of Rome, a canal runs by the side of the Via Appia, which is supplied at intervals by water from the marshes and rivers. Travellers generally sail up it by night, embarking in the evening, and landing in the morning to travel the rest of their journey by the way; however, during the day the passage boat is towed by mules. Beyond is Formiae, founded by the Lacedemonians, and formerly called Hormiae, on account of its excellent port. Between these [two cities], is a gulf which they have named Caiata, in fact all gulfs are called by the Lacedemonians Caietae: some, however, say that the gulf received this appellation from [Caieta], the nurse of Aeneas. From Tarracina to the promontory of Caiata is a length of 100 stadia. Here are opened vast caverns, which contain large and sumptuous mansions. From hence to Formiae is a distance of 40 stadia. Between this city and Sinuessa, at a distance of about 80 stadia from each, is Minturnae. The river Liris, formerly named the Clanis, flows through it. It descends from the Apennines, passes through the country of the Vescini, and by the village of Fregellae, (formerly a famous city,) and so into a sacred grove situated below the city, and held in great veneration by the people of Minturnae. There are two islands, named Pandataria and Pontia, lying in the high sea, and clearly discernible from the caverns. Although small, they are well inhabited, are not at any great distance from each other, and at 250 stadia from the mainland. Caecubum is situated on the gulf of Caiata, and next to it Fundi, a city on the Via Appia. All these places produce excellent wines; but those of Caecubum, Fundi, and Setia are most in repute, and so are the Falernian, Alban, and Statanian wines. Sinuessa is situated in a gulf from which it takes its name, sinus signifying [in Latin] a gulf. Near to it are some fine hot-baths, good for the cure of various maladies. Such are the maritime cities of Latium.
6. Vergil, Aeneis, 3.384-3.387, 7.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.384. on fierce Ulysses' hearth and native land. 3.385. nigh hoar Leucate's clouded crest we drew 3.386. where Phoebus' temple, feared by mariners 3.387. loomed o'er us; thitherward we steered and reached 7.10. Freshly the night-winds breathe; the cloudless moon
7. Juvenal, Satires, 3.305-3.308 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Plutarch, Camillus, 19, 15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Suetonius, Iulius, 44.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10.12, 10.14, 10.16, 10.19.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Justinus, Epitome Historiarum Philippicarum, 24.4

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aiaia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alexander the great, and rome Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
alexander the great, writings on Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
apollonios of perge Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
brennus, gallic chieftan Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
campania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
circe Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
circei Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
flora' Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
gallic invasion Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
gauls, gallic sack Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
gauls Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
greece and greeks Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
hellenistic and roman myth/history, literature Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
italy Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
italy (italia) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
latium Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
odysseus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
plutarch Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
pomptine marsh Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143
rape Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
reader and audience Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
rome ara pacis, capitoline or mons tarpeius Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
simylus Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 235
theophrastus of eresos Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 143