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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Plutarch, Aristides, 19.1-19.2

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Homeric Hymns, To Apollo And The Muses, 226-274, 225 (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)

225. Among the gods their dear son as he played
2. Pindar, Olympian Odes, 13.63-13.64, 13.66-13.72, 13.74-13.75 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3. Pindar, Pythian Odes, 11.1, 11.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4. Herodotus, Histories, 1.46-1.49, 1.46.2, 1.52, 1.131-1.132, 5.49, 5.92-5.93, 5.92.7, 7.132, 7.227, 8.133-8.135, 9.11 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.46. After the loss of his son, Croesus remained in deep sorrow for two years. After this time, the destruction by Cyrus son of Cambyses of the sovereignty of Astyages son of Cyaxares, and the growth of the power of the Persians, distracted Croesus from his mourning; and he determined, if he could, to forestall the increase of the Persian power before they became great. ,Having thus determined, he at once made inquiries of the Greek and Libyan oracles, sending messengers separately to Delphi, to Abae in Phocia, and to Dodona, while others were despatched to Amphiaraus and Trophonius, and others to Branchidae in the Milesian country. ,These are the Greek oracles to which Croesus sent for divination: and he told others to go inquire of Ammon in Libya . His intent in sending was to test the knowledge of the oracles, so that, if they were found to know the truth, he might send again and ask if he should undertake an expedition against the Persians. 1.46.2. Having thus determined, he at once made inquiries of the Greek and Libyan oracles, sending messengers separately to Delphi, to Abae in Phocia, and to Dodona, while others were despatched to Amphiaraus and Trophonius, and others to Branchidae in the Milesian country. 1.47. And when he sent to test these shrines he gave the Lydians these instructions: they were to keep track of the time from the day they left Sardis, and on the hundredth day inquire of the oracles what Croesus, king of Lydia, son of Alyattes, was doing then; then they were to write down whatever the oracles answered and bring the reports back to him. ,Now none relate what answer was given by the rest of the oracles. But at Delphi, no sooner had the Lydians entered the hall to inquire of the god and asked the question with which they were entrusted, than the Pythian priestess uttered the following hexameter verses: , quote type="oracle" l met="dact"“I know the number of the grains of sand and the extent of the sea, /l lAnd understand the mute and hear the voiceless. /l lThe smell has come to my senses of a strong-shelled tortoise /l lBoiling in a cauldron together with a lamb's flesh, /l lUnder which is bronze and over which is bronze.” /l /quote 1.48. Having written down this inspired utterance of the Pythian priestess, the Lydians went back to Sardis . When the others as well who had been sent to various places came bringing their oracles, Croesus then unfolded and examined all the writings. Some of them in no way satisfied him. But when he read the Delphian message, he acknowledged it with worship and welcome, considering Delphi as the only true place of divination, because it had discovered what he himself had done. ,For after sending his envoys to the oracles, he had thought up something which no conjecture could discover, and carried it out on the appointed day: namely, he had cut up a tortoise and a lamb, and then boiled them in a cauldron of bronze covered with a lid of the same. 1.49. Such, then, was the answer from Delphi delivered to Croesus. As to the reply which the Lydians received from the oracle of Amphiaraus when they had followed the due custom of the temple, I cannot say what it was, for nothing is recorded of it, except that Croesus believed that from this oracle too he had obtained a true answer. 1.52. Such were the gifts which he sent to Delphi . To Amphiaraus, of whose courage and fate he had heard, he dedicated a shield made entirely of gold and a spear all of solid gold, point and shaft alike. Both of these were until my time at Thebes, in the Theban temple of Ismenian Apollo. 1.131. As to the customs of the Persians, I know them to be these. It is not their custom to make and set up statues and temples and altars, but those who do such things they think foolish, because, I suppose, they have never believed the gods to be like men, as the Greeks do; ,but they call the whole circuit of heaven Zeus, and to him they sacrifice on the highest peaks of the mountains; they sacrifice also to the sun and moon and earth and fire and water and winds. ,From the beginning, these are the only gods to whom they have ever sacrificed; they learned later to sacrifice to the “heavenly” Aphrodite from the Assyrians and Arabians. She is called by the Assyrians Mylitta, by the Arabians Alilat, by the Persians Mitra. 1.132. And this is their method of sacrifice to the aforesaid gods: when about to sacrifice, they do not build altars or kindle fire, employ libations, or music, or fillets, or barley meal: when a man wishes to sacrifice to one of the gods, he leads a beast to an open space and then, wearing a wreath on his tiara, of myrtle usually, calls on the god. ,To pray for blessings for himself alone is not lawful for the sacrificer; rather, he prays that the king and all the Persians be well; for he reckons himself among them. He then cuts the victim limb from limb into portions, and, after boiling the flesh, spreads the softest grass, trefoil usually, and places all of it on this. ,When he has so arranged it, a Magus comes near and chants over it the song of the birth of the gods, as the Persian tradition relates it; for no sacrifice can be offered without a Magus. Then after a little while the sacrificer carries away the flesh and uses it as he pleases. 5.49. It was in the reign of Cleomenes that Aristagoras the tyrant of Miletus came to Sparta. When he had an audience with the king, as the Lacedaemonians report, he brought with him a bronze tablet on which the map of all the earth was engraved, and all the sea and all the rivers. ,Having been admitted to converse with Cleomenes, Aristagoras spoke thus to him: “Do not wonder, Cleomenes, that I have been so eager to come here, for our present situation is such that the sons of the Ionians are slaves and not free men, which is shameful and grievous particularly to ourselves but also, of all others, to you, inasmuch as you are the leaders of Hellas. ,Now, therefore, we entreat you by the gods of Hellas to save your Ionian kinsmen from slavery. This is a thing which you can easily achieve, for the strangers are not valiant men while your valor in war is preeminent. As for their manner of fighting, they carry bows and short spears, and they go to battle with trousers on their legs and turbans on their heads. ,Accordingly, they are easy to overcome. Furthermore, the inhabitants of that continent have more good things than all other men together, gold first but also silver, bronze, colored cloth, beasts of burden, and slaves. All this you can have to your heart's desire. ,The lands in which they dwell lie next to each other, as I shall show: next to the Ionians are the Lydians, who inhabit a good land and have great store of silver.” (This he said pointing to the map of the earth which he had brought engraved on the tablet.) “Next to the Lydians,” said Aristagoras, “you see the Phrygians to the east, men that of all known to me are the richest in flocks and in the fruits of the earth. ,Close by them are the Cappadocians, whom we call Syrians, and their neighbors are the Cilicians, whose land reaches to the sea over there, in which you see the island of Cyprus lying. The yearly tribute which they pay to the king is five hundred talents. Next to the Cilicians, are the Armenians, another people rich in flocks, and after the Armenians, the Matieni, whose country I show you. ,Adjoining these you see the Cissian land, in which, on the Choaspes, lies that Susa where the great king lives and where the storehouses of his wealth are located. Take that city, and you need not fear to challenge Zeus for riches. ,You should suspend your war, then, for strips of land of no great worth—for that fight with with Messenians, who are matched in strength with you, and Arcadians and Argives, men who have nothing in the way of gold or silver (for which things many are spurred by zeal to fight and die). Yet when you can readily be masters of all Asia, will you refuse to attempt it?” ,Thus spoke Aristagoras, and Cleomenes replied: “Milesian, my guest, wait till the third day for my answer.” 5.92. These were the words of the Lacedaemonians, but their words were ill-received by the greater part of their allies. The rest then keeping silence, Socles, a Corinthian, said, ,“In truth heaven will be beneath the earth and the earth aloft above the heaven, and men will dwell in the sea and fishes where men dwelt before, now that you, Lacedaemonians, are destroying the rule of equals and making ready to bring back tyranny into the cities, tyranny, a thing more unrighteous and bloodthirsty than anything else on this earth. ,If indeed it seems to you to be a good thing that the cities be ruled by tyrants, set up a tyrant among yourselves first and then seek to set up such for the rest. As it is, however, you, who have never made trial of tyrants and take the greatest precautions that none will arise at Sparta, deal wrongfully with your allies. If you had such experience of that thing as we have, you would be more prudent advisers concerning it than you are now.” ,The Corinthian state was ordered in such manner as I will show.There was an oligarchy, and this group of men, called the Bacchiadae, held sway in the city, marrying and giving in marriage among themselves. Now Amphion, one of these men, had a crippled daughter, whose name was Labda. Since none of the Bacchiadae would marry her, she was wedded to Eetion son of Echecrates, of the township of Petra, a Lapith by lineage and of the posterity of Caeneus. ,When no sons were born to him by this wife or any other, he set out to Delphi to enquire concerning the matter of acquiring offspring. As soon as he entered, the Pythian priestess spoke these verses to him: quote type="oracle" l met="dact" Eetion,worthy of honor, no man honors you. /l l Labda is with child, and her child will be a millstone /l lWhich will fall upon the rulers and will bring justice to Corinth. /l /quote ,This oracle which was given to Eetion was in some way made known to the Bacchiadae. The earlier oracle sent to Corinth had not been understood by them, despite the fact that its meaning was the same as the meaning of the oracle of Eetion, and it read as follows: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"An eagle in the rocks has conceived, and will bring forth a lion, /l lStrong and fierce. The knees of many will it loose. /l lThis consider well, Corinthians, /l lYou who dwell by lovely Pirene and the overhanging heights of Corinth. /l /quote ,This earlier prophecy had been unintelligible to the Bacchiadae, but as soon as they heard the one which was given to Eetion, they understood it at once, recognizing its similarity with the oracle of Eetion. Now understanding both oracles, they kept quiet but resolved to do away with the offspring of Eetion. Then, as soon as his wife had given birth, they sent ten men of their clan to the township where Eetion dwelt to kill the child. ,These men came to Petra and passing into Eetion's courtyard, asked for the child. Labda, knowing nothing of the purpose of their coming and thinking that they wished to see the baby out of affection for its father, brought it and placed it into the hands of one of them. Now they had planned on their way that the first of them who received the child should dash it to the ground. ,When, however, Labda brought and handed over the child, by divine chance it smiled at the man who took it. This he saw, and compassion prevented him from killing it. Filled with pity, he handed it to a second, and this man again to a third.In fact it passed from hand to hand to each of the ten, for none would make an end of it. ,They then gave the child back to its mother, and after going out, they stood before the door reproaching and upbraiding one another, but chiefly him who had first received it since he had not acted in accordance with their agreement. Finally they resolved to go in again and all have a hand in the killing. ,Fate, however, had decreed that Eetion's offspring should be the source of ills for Corinth, for Labda, standing close to this door, heard all this. Fearing that they would change their minds and that they would take and actually kill the child, she took it away and hid it where she thought it would be hardest to find, in a chest, for she knew that if they returned and set about searching they would seek in every place—which in fact they did. ,They came and searched, but when they did not find it, they resolved to go off and say to those who had sent them that they had carried out their orders. They then went away and said this. ,Eetion's son, however, grew up, and because of his escape from that danger, he was called Cypselus, after the chest. When he had reached manhood and was seeking a divination, an oracle of double meaning was given him at Delphi. Putting faith in this, he made an attempt on Corinth and won it. ,The oracle was as follows: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"That man is fortunate who steps into my house, /l l Cypselus, son of Eetion, the king of noble Corinth, /l lHe himself and his children, but not the sons of his sons. /l /quote Such was the oracle. Cypselus, however, when he had gained the tyranny, conducted himself in this way: many of the Corinthians he drove into exile, many he deprived of their wealth, and by far the most he had killed. ,After a reign of thirty years, he died in the height of prosperity, and was succeeded by his son Periander. Now Periander was to begin with milder than his father, but after he had held converse by messenger with Thrasybulus the tyrant of Miletus, he became much more bloodthirsty than Cypselus. ,He had sent a herald to Thrasybulus and inquired in what way he would best and most safely govern his city. Thrasybulus led the man who had come from Periander outside the town, and entered into a sown field. As he walked through the corn, continually asking why the messenger had come to him from Corinth, he kept cutting off all the tallest ears of wheat which he could see, and throwing them away, until he had destroyed the best and richest part of the crop. ,Then, after passing through the place and speaking no word of counsel, he sent the herald away. When the herald returned to Corinth, Periander desired to hear what counsel he brought, but the man said that Thrasybulus had given him none. The herald added that it was a strange man to whom he had been sent, a madman and a destroyer of his own possessions, telling Periander what he had seen Thrasybulus do. ,Periander, however, understood what had been done, and perceived that Thrasybulus had counselled him to slay those of his townsmen who were outstanding in influence or ability; with that he began to deal with his citizens in an evil manner. Whatever act of slaughter or banishment Cypselus had left undone, that Periander brought to accomplishment. In a single day he stripped all the women of Corinth naked, because of his own wife Melissa. ,Periander had sent messengers to the Oracle of the Dead on the river Acheron in Thesprotia to enquire concerning a deposit that a friend had left, but Melissa, in an apparition, said that she would tell him nothing, nor reveal where the deposit lay, for she was cold and naked. The garments, she said, with which Periander had buried with her had never been burnt, and were of no use to her. Then, as evidence for her husband that she spoke the truth, she added that Periander had put his loaves into a cold oven. ,When this message was brought back to Periander (for he had had intercourse with the dead body of Melissa and knew her token for true), immediately after the message he made a proclamation that all the Corinthian women should come out into the temple of Hera. They then came out as to a festival, wearing their most beautiful garments, and Periander set his guards there and stripped them all alike, ladies and serving-women, and heaped all the clothes in a pit, where, as he prayed to Melissa, he burnt them. ,When he had done this and sent a second message, the ghost of Melissa told him where the deposit of the friend had been laid. “This, then, Lacedaimonians, is the nature of tyranny, and such are its deeds. ,We Corinthians marvelled greatly when we saw that you were sending for Hippias, and now we marvel yet more at your words to us. We entreat you earnestly in the name of the gods of Hellas not to establish tyranny in the cities, but if you do not cease from so doing and unrighteously attempt to bring Hippias back, be assured that you are proceeding without the Corinthians' consent.” 5.93. These were the words of Socles, the envoy from Corinth, and Hippias answered, calling the same gods as Socles had invoked to witness, that the Corinthians would be the first to wish the Pisistratidae back, when the time appointed should come for them to be vexed by the Athenians. ,Hippias made this answer, inasmuch as he had more exact knowledge of the oracles than any man, but the rest of the allies, who had till now kept silence, spoke out when they heard the free speech of Socles and sided with the opinion of the Corinthians, entreating the Lacedaemonians not to harm a Greek city. 7.132. Among those who paid that tribute were the Thessalians, Dolopes, Enienes, Perrhaebians, Locrians, Magnesians, Melians, Achaeans of Phthia, Thebans, and all the Boeotians except the men of Thespiae and Plataea. ,Against all of these the Greeks who declared war with the foreigner entered into a sworn agreement, which was this: that if they should be victorious, they would dedicate to the god of Delphi the possessions of all Greeks who had of free will surrendered themselves to the Persians. Such was the agreement sworn by the Greeks. 7.227. Next after him two Lacedaemonian brothers, Alpheus and Maron, sons of Orsiphantus, are said to have been most courageous. The Thespian who gained most renown was one whose name was Dithyrambus son of Harmatides. 8.133. The Greeks, then, sailed to Delos, and Mardonius wintered in Thessaly. Having his headquarters there he sent a man of Europus called Mys to visit the places of divination, charging him to inquire of all the oracles which he could test. What it was that he desired to learn from the oracles when he gave this charge, I cannot say, for no one tells of it. I suppose that he sent to inquire concerning his present business, and that alone. 8.134. This man Mys is known to have gone to Lebadea and to have bribed a man of the country to go down into the cave of Trophonius and to have gone to the place of divination at Abae in Phocis. He went first to Thebes where he inquired of Ismenian Apollo (sacrifice is there the way of divination, as at Olympia), and moreover he bribed one who was no Theban but a stranger to lie down to sleep in the shrine of Amphiaraus. ,No Theban may seek a prophecy there, for Amphiaraus bade them by an oracle to choose which of the two they wanted and forgo the other, and take him either for their prophet or for their ally. They chose that he should be their ally. Therefore no Theban may lie down to sleep in that place. 8.135. But at this time there happened, as the Thebans say, a thing at which I marvel greatly. It would seem that this man Mys of Europus came in his wanderings among the places of divination to the precinct of Ptoan Apollo. This temple is called Ptoum, and belongs to the Thebans. It lies by a hill, above lake Copais, very near to the town Acraephia. ,When the man called Mys entered into this temple together with three men of the town who were chosen on the state's behalf to write down the oracles that should be given, straightway the diviner prophesied in a foreign tongue. ,The Thebans who followed him were astonished to hear a strange language instead of Greek and knew not what this present matter might be. Mys of Europus, however, snatched from them the tablet which they carried and wrote on it that which was spoken by the prophet, saying that the words of the oracle were Carian. After writing everything down, he went back to Thessaly. 9.11. So Pausanias' army had marched away from Sparta; but as soon as it was day, the envoys came before the ephors, having no knowledge of the expedition, and being minded themselves too to depart each one to his own place. When they arrived, “You Lacedaemonians,” they said, “remain where you are, observing your dateHyacinthia /date and celebrating, leaving your allies deserted. For the wrong that you do them and for lack of allies, the Athenians, will make their peace with the Persian as best they can,,and thereafter, in so far as we will be king's allies, we will march with him against whatever land his men lead us. Then will you learn what the issue of this matter will be for you.” In response to this the ephors swore to them that they believed their army to be even now at Orestheum, marching against the “strangers,” as they called the barbarians. ,Having no knowledge of this, the envoys questioned them further as to the meaning of this and thereby learned the whole truth; they marvelled at this and hastened with all speed after the army. With them went five thousand men-at-arms of the Lacedaemonian countrymen.
5. Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.4.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.4.7. Besides this, they were also somewhat encouraged by the oracle which was reported — that the Lacedaemonians were destined to be defeated at the spot where stood the monument of the virgins, who are said to have killed themselves because they had been violated by certain Lacedaemonians. The Thebans accordingly decorated this monument before the battle. Furthermore, reports were brought to them 371 B.C. from the city that all the temples were opening of themselves, and that the priestesses said that the gods revealed victory. And the messengers reported that from the Heracleium the arms also had disappeared, indicating that Heracles had gone forth to the battle. Some, to be sure, say that all these things were but devices of the leaders.
6. Plutarch, Sayings of The Spartans, 19.1-19.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19.1. Archidamus, the son of Zeuxidamus, when someone inquired of him who were at the head of Sparta, said, The laws and the magistrates in accordance with the laws. 19.2. In answer to a man who praised a harper and expressed amazement at his ability, he said, My good sir, what honours shall you be able to offer to good men when you have such praise for a harper?
7. Plutarch, Aristides, 19.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Aelius Aristides, Orations, 48.80 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1.5, 1.34, 1.34.4, 1.44.4-1.44.5, 6.17.6, 9.23.6, 9.25.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1.5. Twenty stades away is the Coliad promontory; on to it, when the Persian fleet was destroyed, the wrecks were carried down by the waves. There is here an image of the Coliad Aphrodite, with the goddesses Genetyllides (Goddesses of Birth), as they are called. And I am of opinion that the goddesses of the Phocaeans in Ionia, whom they call Gennaides, are the same as those at Colias. On the way from Phalerum to Athens there is a temple of Hera with neither doors nor roof. Men say that Mardonius, son of Gobryas, burnt it. But the image there to-day is, as report goes, the work of Alcamenes fl. 440-400 B.C. So that this, at any rate, cannot have been damaged by the Persians. 1.34.4. The Oropians have near the temple a spring, which they call the Spring of Amphiaraus; they neither sacrifice into it nor are wont to use it for purifications or for lustral water. But when a man has been cured of a disease through a response the custom is to throw silver and coined gold into the spring, for by this way they say that Amphiaraus rose up after he had become a god. Iophon the Cnossian, a guide, produced responses in hexameter verse, saying that Amphiaraus gave them to the Argives who were sent against Thebes . These verses unrestrainedly appealed to popular taste. Except those whom they say Apollo inspired of old none of the seers uttered oracles, but they were good at explaining dreams and interpreting the flights of birds and the entrails of victims. 1.44.4. The hilly part of Megaris borders upon Boeotia, and in it the Megarians have built the city Pagae and another one called Aegosthena . As you go to Pagae, on turning a little aside from the highway, you are shown a rock with arrows stuck all over it, into which the Persians once shot in the night. In Pagae a noteworthy relic is a bronze image of Artemis surnamed Saviour, in size equal to that at Megara and exactly like it in shape. There is also a hero-shrine of Aegialeus, son of Adrastus. When the Argives made their second attack on Thebes he died at Glisas early in the first battle, and his relatives carried him to Pagae in Megaris and buried him, the shrine being still called the Aegialeum. 1.44.5. In Aegosthena is a sanctuary of Melampus, son of Amythaon, and a small figure of a man carved upon a slab. To Melampus they sacrifice and hold a festival every year. They say that he divines neither by dreams nor in any other way. Here is something else that I heard in Erenea, a village of the Megarians. Autonoe, daughter of Cadmus, left Thebes to live here owing to her great grief at the death of Actaeon, the manner of which is told in legend, and at the general misfortune of her father's house. The tomb of Autonoe is in this village. 6.17.6. That he was the soothsayer of the clan of the Clytidae, Eperastus declares at the end of the inscription: of the stock of the sacred-tongued Clytidae I boast to be, Their soothsayer, the scion of the god-like Melampodidae. For Mantius was a son of Melampus, the son of Amythaon, and he had a son Oicles, while Clytius was a son of Alcmaeon, the son of Amphiaraus, the son of Oicles. Clytius was the son of Alcmaeon by the daughter of Phegeus, and he migrated to Elis because he shrank from living with his mother's brothers, knowing that they had compassed the murder of Alcmaeon. 9.23.6. About fifteen stades away from the city on the right is the sanctuary of Ptoan Apollo. We are told by Asius in his epic that Ptous, who gave a surname to Apollo and the name to the mountain, was a son of Athamas by Themisto. Before the expedition of the Macedonians under Alexander, in which Thebes was destroyed, there was here an oracle that never lied. Once too a mail of Europus, of the name of Mys, who was sent by Mardonius, inquired of the god in his own language, and the god too gave a response, not in Greek but in the Carian speech. 9.25.5. Advancing from here twenty-five stades you come to a grove of Cabeirean Demeter and the Maid. The initiated are permitted to enter it. The sanctuary of the Cabeiri is some seven stades distant from this grove. I must ask the curious to forgive me if I keep silence as to who the Cabeiri are, and what is the nature of the ritual performed in honor of them and of the Mother.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aelius aristides Renberg (2017) 670
aetiologies,specific,apollo ismenios Kowalzig (2007) 375
agents Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
akraiphia Kowalzig (2007) 375
amphiaraos,and knopia Renberg (2017) 669, 670
amphiaraos,consulted by croesus Renberg (2017) 102
amphiaraos,consulted by mys Renberg (2017) 102, 669
amphiaraos,croesus dedicatory epigram Renberg (2017) 670
amphiaraos,cult relocated to oropos by oracle Renberg (2017) 670
amphiaraos,cults theban origin Renberg (2017) 669, 670
amphiaraos,decline of theban site Renberg (2017) 670
amphiaraos,evidence placing original oracle at thebes Renberg (2017) 669, 670
amphiaraos,myth of disappearance Renberg (2017) 669, 670
amphiaraos,outdoors incubation at thebes(?) Renberg (2017) 669, 670
amphiaraos,theban amphiareions location Renberg (2017) 669
amphiaraos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71; Renberg (2017) 13, 669, 670
amphiaraus,hero of thebes Mikalson (2003) 217
amphilochos,divinatory incubation at mallos sanctuary Renberg (2017) 13
apollo ismenios Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
apollo ismenios (thebes),aetiology of Kowalzig (2007) 375
apollo ismenios (thebes),and musical innovation Kowalzig (2007) 375
apollo ismenios (thebes),myth-ritual nexus of Kowalzig (2007) 375
apollo ismenios (thebes),songs for Kowalzig (2007) 375
apollo ismenios (thebes) Kowalzig (2007) 375
apollo pto(i)os,ptoieus Kowalzig (2007) 375
apollo pythios (delphi),apollo tegyraios Kowalzig (2007) 375
apollo pythios (delphi),thilphousaios Kowalzig (2007) 375
apollo pythios (delphi),thourios Kowalzig (2007) 375
argos (without epithet),linking boiotia Kowalzig (2007) 375
asklepios Renberg (2017) 13
athenians,consultation of oracle of amphiaraos at oropos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
birth (mythical),as myth-ritual nexus Kowalzig (2007) 375
corinth,incubation by bellerophon at athena sanctuary Renberg (2017) 102, 670
croesus (lydian king),consultation of greek oracles Renberg (2017) 102
dedications Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
dioscuri Mikalson (2003) 217, 218
divinities (greek and roman),apollo ismenios Renberg (2017) 669, 670
divinities (greek and roman),apollo ptoios Renberg (2017) 102
divinities (greek and roman),athena chalinitis Renberg (2017) 102, 670
divinities (greek and roman),mopsos Renberg (2017) 670
dream incubation Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
dreams Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
dreams (general),prescriptive dreams and medical knowledge Renberg (2017) 13
dreams (in greek and latin literature),pindar,olympian odes Renberg (2017) 102
dreams (in greek and latin literature),plutarch,life of aristides Renberg (2017) 102
euxenippos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
gods,in dreams Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
healing sanctuaries Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
heroes and heroines,of thebes Mikalson (2003) 217
incubation,outdoors incubation Renberg (2017) 669, 670
incubation,ritual incubation vs. private dream-divination Renberg (2017) 13
incubation,terms for incubation (latin) Renberg (2017) 13
incubation,terms for sanctuaries with incubation Renberg (2017) 13
incubation,unintentional incubation Renberg (2017) 13
incubation (christian) Renberg (2017) 13
incubation (greek),early development Renberg (2017) 102
incubation (greek),in bellerophon myth Renberg (2017) 102, 670
insular,regional Kowalzig (2007) 375
interpretation Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
ismeneion (at thebes),display of croesuss gifts Renberg (2017) 670
julian Renberg (2017) 13
katoptromancy,khaironeia,battle of' Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
kroisos,king of lydia Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
lebadeia Kowalzig (2007) 375
locality,orchestration of religious Kowalzig (2007) 375
mardonios Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
mardonios (persian commander) Renberg (2017) 102
memories,social,appropriated in song Kowalzig (2007) 375
menelaus of sparta Mikalson (2003) 218
migrations,myths of,boiotia Kowalzig (2007) 375
mousike,music,and social change Kowalzig (2007) 375
myndos,mys,oracular tour of Kowalzig (2007) 375
mys of europos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
myth-ritual nexus,ritual moment Kowalzig (2007) 375
mythological figures (excluding olympian gods and their offspring),bellerophon Renberg (2017) 102, 670
mythological figures (excluding olympian gods and their offspring),melampos Renberg (2017) 13
mythological figures (excluding olympian gods and their offspring),polyidos of corinth Renberg (2017) 102
network,of myths and rituals (also myth-ritual web,grid,framework),and regional integration (kopais) Kowalzig (2007) 375
oracles (greek),boeotian oracles Renberg (2017) 670
oracles (greek),thebes,oracle of apollo ismenios Renberg (2017) 669
oracles (italic),ephyra/thesprotia Renberg (2017) 102
oropos,oracle of amphiaraos Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
oropos amphiareion,oracle calling for cults relocation from thebes Renberg (2017) 670
oropos amphiareion Renberg (2017) 669, 670
pasiphae,sanctuary at thalamai,evidence for outdoors incubation Renberg (2017) 670
pasiphae,sanctuary at thalamai,terminology associated with oracular function Renberg (2017) 13, 670
past,mythical,unified in song Kowalzig (2007) 375
pausanias Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
performances of myth and ritual (also song),(re)creation of worshipping groups Kowalzig (2007) 375
performances of myth and ritual (also song),embracing social change Kowalzig (2007) 375
periander (corinthian tyrant),inquiry of thesprotia nekyomanteion Renberg (2017) 102
placentia,plataia,battle of Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
pto(i)os,hero Kowalzig (2007) 375
ptoion Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
region,as religious system Kowalzig (2007) 375
region,integration of in song Kowalzig (2007) 375
simonides of ceos Mikalson (2003) 218
sparta/spartans Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
spartans Mikalson (2003) 218
tegyra,apollos oracle at Kowalzig (2007) 375
telphousa,tilphousa,spring Kowalzig (2007) 375
teneros,theban hero,birth of at ismenion Kowalzig (2007) 375
teneros,theban hero Kowalzig (2007) 375
thebes Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 71
thebes (greece),and early cult of amphiaraos Renberg (2017) 669, 670
thebes (greece),knopia as site of amphiareion Renberg (2017) 669, 670
thero Kowalzig (2007) 375
thessalians Kowalzig (2007) 375
thoudippos decree,thourion,apollo at Kowalzig (2007) 375
trophonios Kowalzig (2007) 375
victor,of epinikian odes,protected by local deity Kowalzig (2007) 375
votives,votive offerings,mythical Kowalzig (2007) 375
zeus,hellenios of aegina Mikalson (2003) 218