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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9460
Pliny The Younger, Letters, 9.17.3
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 11.56-11.60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. Vergil, Georgics, 4.523 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.523. The fetters, or in showery drops anon
3. Juvenal, Satires, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Martial, Epigrams, 3.50, 11.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Martial, Epigrams, 3.50, 11.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 52, 55, 35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 52, 55, 35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Plutarch, Sulla, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 1.10.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 1.10.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Seneca The Younger, Oedipus, 612, 611 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Silius Italicus, Punica, 7.438-7.440 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Statius, Siluae, 3.1.116-3.1.120 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Statius, Thebais, 2.700 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Suetonius, Augustus, 76-77, 74 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Tacitus, Annals, 14.14-14.18, 14.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.14.  It was an old desire of his to drive a chariot and team of four, and an equally repulsive ambition to sing to the lyre in the stage manner. "Racing with horses," he used to observe, "was a royal accomplishment, and had been practised by the commanders of antiquity: the sport had been celebrated in the praises of poets and devoted to the worship of Heaven. As to song, it was sacred to Apollo; and it was in the garb appropriate to it that, both in Greek cities and in Roman temples, that great and prescient deity was seen standing." He could no longer be checked, when Seneca and Burrus decided to concede one of his points rather than allow him to carry both; and an enclosure was made in the Vatican valley, where he could manoeuvre his horses without the spectacle being public. Before long, the Roman people received an invitation in form, and began to hymn his praises, as is the way of the crowd, hungry for amusements, and delighted if the sovereign draws in the same direction. However, the publication of his shame brought with it, not the satiety expected, but a stimulus; and, in the belief that he was attenuating his disgrace by polluting others, he brought on the stage those scions of the great houses whom poverty had rendered venal. They have passed away, and I regard it as a debt due to their ancestors not to record them by name. For the disgrace, in part, is his who gave money for the reward of infamy and not for its prevention. Even well-known Roman knights he induced to promise their services in the arena by what might be called enormous bounties, were it not that gratuities from him who is able to command carry with them the compelling quality of necessity. 14.15.  Reluctant, however, as yet to expose his dishonour on a public stage, he instituted the so‑called Juvenile Games, for which a crowd of volunteers enrolled themselves. Neither rank, nor age, nor an official career debarred a man from practising the art of a Greek or a Latin mummer, down to attitudes and melodies never meant for the male sex. Even women of distinction studied indecent parts; and in the grove with which Augustus fringed his Naval Lagoon, little trysting-places and drinking-dens sprang up, and every incentive to voluptuousness was exposed for sale. Distributions of coin, too, were made, for the respectable man to expend under compulsion and the prodigal from vainglory. Hence debauchery and scandal throve; nor to our morals, corrupted long before, has anything contributed more of uncleanness than that herd of reprobates. Even in the decent walks of life, purity is hard to keep: far less could chastity or modesty or any vestige of integrity survive in that competition of the vices. — Last of all to tread the stage was the sovereign himself, scrupulously testing his lyre and striking a few preliminary notes to the trainers at his side. A cohort of the guards had been added to the audience — centurions and tribunes; Burrus, also, with his sigh and his word of praise. Now, too, for the first time was enrolled the company of Roman knights known as the Augustiani; conspicuously youthful and robust; wanton in some cases by nature; in others, through dreams of power. Days and nights they thundered applause, bestowed the epithets reserved for deity upon the imperial form and voice, and lived in a repute and honour, which might have been earned by virtue. 14.16.  And yet, lest it should be only the histrionic skill of the emperor which won publicity, he affected also a zeal for poetry and gathered a group of associates with some faculty for versification but not such as to have yet attracted remark. These, after dining, sat with him, devising a connection for the lines they had brought from home or invented on the spot, and eking out the phrases suggested, for better or worse, by their master; the method being obvious even from the general cast of the poems, which run without energy or inspiration and lack unity of style. Even to the teachers of philosophy he accorded a little time — but after dinner, and in order to amuse himself by the wrangling which attended the exposition of their conflicting dogmas. Nor was there any dearth of gloomy-browed and sad-eyed sages eager to figure among the diversions of majesty. 14.17.  About the same date, a trivial incident led to a serious affray between the inhabitants of the colonies of Nuceria and Pompeii, at a gladiatorial show presented by Livineius Regulus, whose removal from the senate has been noticed. During an exchange of raillery, typical of the petulance of country towns, they resorted to abuse, then to stones, and finally to steel; the superiority lying with the populace of Pompeii, where the show was being exhibited. As a result, many of the Nucerians were carried maimed and wounded to the capital, while a very large number mourned the deaths of children or of parents. The trial of the affair was delegated by the emperor to the senate; by the senate to the consuls. On the case being again laid before the members, the Pompeians as a community were debarred from holding any similar assembly for ten years, and the associations which they had formed illegally were dissolved. Livineius and the other fomenters of the outbreak were punished with exile. 14.18.  Pedius Blaesus also was removed from the senate: he was charged by the Cyrenaeans with profaning the treasury of Aesculapius and falsifying the military levy by venality and favouritism. An indictment was brought, again by Cyrene, against Acilius Strabo, who had held praetorian office and been sent by Claudius to adjudicate on the estates, once the patrimony of King Apion, which he had bequeathed along with his kingdom to the Roman nation. They had been annexed by the neighbouring proprietors, who relied on their long-licensed usurpation as a legal and fair title. Hence, when the adjudication went against them, there was an outbreak of ill-will against the adjudicator; and the senate could only answer that it was ignorant of Claudius' instructions and the emperor would have to be consulted. Nero, while upholding Strabo's verdict, wrote that none the less he supported the provincials and made over to them the property occupied. 14.20.  In the consulate of Nero — his fourth term — and of Cornelius Cossus, a quinquennial competition on the stage, in the style of a Greek contest, was introduced at Rome. Like almost all innovations it was variously canvassed. Some insisted that "even Pompey had been censured by his elders for establishing the theatre in a permanent home. Before, the games had usually been exhibited with the help of improvised tiers of benches and a stage thrown up for the occasion; or, to go further into the past, the people stood to watch: seats in the theatre, it was feared, might tempt them to pass whole days in indolence. By all means let the spectacles be retained in their old form, whenever the praetor presided, and so long as no citizen lay under any obligation to compete. But the national morality, which had gradually fallen into oblivion, was being overthrown from the foundations by this imported licentiousness; the aim of which was that every production of every land, capable of either undergoing or engendering corruption, should be on view in the capital, and that our youth, under the influence of foreign tastes, should degenerate into votaries of the gymnasia, of indolence, and of dishonourable amours, — and this at the instigation of the emperor and senate, who, not content with conferring immunity upon vice, were applying compulsion, in order that Roman nobles should pollute themselves on the stage under pretext of delivering an oration or a poem. What remained but to strip to the skin as well, put on the gloves, and practise that mode of conflict instead of the profession of arms? Would justice be promoted, would the equestrian decuries better fulfil their great judicial functions, if they had lent an expert ear to emasculated music and dulcet voices? Even night had been re­quisitioned for scandal, so that virtue should not be left with a breathing-space, but that amid a promiscuous crowd every vilest profligate might venture in the dark the act for which he had lusted in the light.
17. Valerius Flaccus Gaius, Argonautica, 1.471-1.472, 4.85 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Gellius, Attic Nights, 19.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 1.15.2, 3.1.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 1.15.2, 3.1.9, 9.17.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achilles Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
amphion Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
arion Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
capua, decadence in Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
carmina conuiuialia, greco-roman ethos of Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
carthage Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
chiron Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
choruses, roman era Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199
ciconian matrons Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
clarus, septicius Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 205
comic actors/singers (comōdoi), roman era Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199, 213
cornelius nepos Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 205
cupids, sons of venus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
dance/dancers, spanish Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199
dido Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
epicurus, in plutarch Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199
fides / fides Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
gaios ailios themison Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
hannibal, in capua Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
hebrus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
hospitality, greco-roman Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
juvenal, on spanish dancers Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199
lucian of samosata, on dancing Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199, 205
luxuria, in capua Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
lyres/lyrody/citharas/citharists, in plutarch Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199, 205
lyres/lyrody/citharas/citharists, mesomedes Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 205
lyres/lyrody/citharas/citharists, roman age Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199
maenads Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
marius, gaius Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
menander, in plutarchs on compliance Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199
mesomedes (citharode) Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 205, 213
mime, plays Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
mimodes Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
modestia' Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
notation, music Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199, 205, 213
oedipus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
orpheus, decapitation of Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
orpheus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
paris, judgment of Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
petronius, satyricon Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
pliny, and septicius clarus Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 205
pliny, on entertainment Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199, 213
plutarch, on compliance, citharodes/comic actors Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199, 205
plutarch, on entertainment Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
plutarch, sympotic questions (table talk) Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 205
pollius felix Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
punic wars, second Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
roman era, elite self-image-making Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 205
roman era, outside entertainment Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199, 205
roman era, tragic/comic solo song Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
silius italicus, the power of lyre and music in Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
spanish dancers Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199
stage music/theater songs, roman Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
sulla (cornelius sulla felix) Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
teuthras Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
theater, roman Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
theon Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199
trimalchio (in petronius satyricon) Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 213
venus Augoustakis, Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past (2014) 283
zosimus (slave of pliny) Cosgrove, Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine (2022) 199