Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9460
Pliny The Younger, Letters, 5.8


nanTo Titinius Capito: You urge me to write history, nor are you the first to do so. Many others have often given me the same advice, and I am quite willing to follow it, not because I feel confident that I should succeed in so doing — for it would be presumption to think so until one had tried — but because it seems to me a very proper thing not to let people be forgotten whose fame ought never to die, and to perpetuate the glories of others together with one's own. Personally, I confess that there is nothing on which I have set my heart so much as to win a lasting reputation, and the ambition is a worthy one for any man, especially for one who is not conscious of having committed any wrong and has no cause to fear being remembered by posterity. Hence it is that both day and night I scheme to find a way "to raise myself above the ordinary dull level": my ambition goes no farther than that, for it is quite beyond my dreams "that my victorious name should pass from mouth to mouth." "And yet — !" — but I am quite satisfied with the fame which history alone seems to promise me. For one reaps but a small reward from oratory and poetry, unless our eloquence is really first-class, while history seems to charm people in whatever style it is written. For men are naturally curious; they are delighted even by the baldest relation of facts, and so we see them carried away even by little stories and anecdotes.


nanTo Titinius Capito. You urge me to write history, nor are you the first to do so. Many others have often given me the same advice, and I am quite willing to follow it, not because I feel confident that I should succeed in so doing - for it would be presumption to think so until one had tried - but because it seems to me a very proper thing not to let people be forgotten whose fame ought never to die, and to perpetuate the glories of others together with one's own. Personally, I confess that there is nothing on which I have set my heart so much as to win a lasting reputation, and the ambition is a worthy one for any man, especially for one who is not conscious of having committed any wrong and has no cause to fear being remembered by posterity. Hence it is that both day and night I scheme to find a way "to raise myself above the ordinary dull level" Again, there is a precedent in my own family which impels me towards writing history. My uncle, who was also my father by adoption, was a historian of the most scrupulous type, and I find all wise men agree that one can do nothing better than follow in the footsteps of one's ancestors, provided that they have gone in the right path themselves. Why, then, do I hesitate? For this reason, that I have delivered a number of pleadings of serious importance, and it is my intention to revise them carefully - though my hopes of fame from them are only slight - lest, in spite of all the trouble they have given me, they should perish with me, just for want of receiving the last polishing and additional touches. For if you have a view to what posterity will say, all that is not absolutely finished must be classed as incomplete matter. You will say I began to plead in the forum in my nineteenth year, and it is only just now that I begin to see darkly what an orator ought to be. What would happen if I were to take on a new task in addition to this one? Oratory and history have many things in common, but they also differ greatly in the points that seem common to both. There is narrative in both, but of a different type; the humblest, meanest and most common-place subjects suit the one; the other requires research, splendour, and dignity. In the one you may describe the bones, muscles, and nerves of the body, in the other brawny parts and flowing manes. In oratory one wants force, invective, sustained attack; in history the charm is obtained by copiousness and agreeableness, even by sweetness of style. Lastly, the words used, the forms of speech, and the construction of the sentences are different. For, as Thucydides remarks, it makes all the difference whether the composition is to be a possession for all time or a declamation for the moment; † oratory has to do with the latter, history with the former. Hence it is that I do not feel tempted to hopelessly jumble together two dissimilar styles which differ from one another just because of their great importance, and I am afraid I should become bewildered by such a terrible medley and write in the one style just where I ought to be employing the other. For the meantime, therefore, to use the language of the courts, I ask your gracious permission to go on with my pleading. However, do you be good enough even now to consider the period which it would be best for me to tackle. Shall it be a period of ancient history which others have dealt with before me? If so, the materials are all ready to hand, but the putting them together would be a heavy task. On the other hand, if I choose a modern period which has not been dealt with, I shall get but small thanks and am bound to give serious offence. For, besides the fact that the general standard of morality is so lax that there is much more to censure than to praise, you are sure to be called niggardly if you praise and too censorious if you censure, though you may have been lavish of appreciation and scrupulously guarded in reproach. However, these considerations do not stay me, for I have the courage of my convictions. I only beg of you to prepare the way for me in the direction you urge me to take, and choose a subject for me, so that, when I am at length ready to take pen in hand, no other overpowering reason may crop up to make me hesitate and delay my purpose. Farewell.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Cicero, On Laws, 1.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Letters, 14.14.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, Letters, 14.14.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Letters, 14.14.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, Letters, 14.14.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Martial, Epigrams, 8.3, 10.2, 10.103 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Martial, Epigrams, 8.3, 10.2, 10.103 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, 77, 51 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

51. Then again, they depict Osiris by means of an eye and a sceptre, Cf. 354 f, supra . the one of which indicates forethought and the other power, much as Homer Homer, Iliad, viii. 22. in calling the Lord and King of all Zeus supreme and counsellor appears by supreme to signify his prowess and by counsellor his careful planning and thoughtfulness. They also often depict this god by means of a hawk; for this bird is surpassing in the keenness of its vision and the swiftness of its flight, and is wont to support itself with the minimum amount of food. It is said also in flying over the earth to cast dust upon the eyes of unburied dead Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animalium, ii. 42, and Porphyry, De Abstinentia, iv. 9. ; and whenever it settles down beside the river to drink it raises its feather upright, and after it has drunk it lets this sink down again, by which it is plain that the bird is safe and has escaped the crocodile, Ibid. x. 24. for if it be seized, the feather remains fixed upright as it was at the beginning. Everywhere they point out statues of Osiris in human form of the ithyphallic type, on account of his creative and fostering power Cf. 365 b, supra . ; and they clothe his statues in a flame-coloured garment, since they regard the body of the Sun as a visible manifestation of the perceptible substance of the power for good. Cf. 393 d and 477 c, infra . Therefore it is only right and fair to contemn those who assign the orb of the Sun to Typhon, Cf. 372 e, infra . to whom there attaches nothing bright or of a conserving nature, no order nor generation nor movement possessed of moderation or reason, but everything the reverse; moreover, the drought, Cf. 367 d, supra . by which he destroys many of the living creatures and growing plants, is not to be set down as the work of the Sun, but rather as due to the fact that the winds and waters in the earth and the air are not seasonably tempered when the principle of the disorderly and unlimited power gets out of hand and quenches the exhalations. Cf. 369 a, supra . 51. Then again, they depict Osiris by means of an eye and a sceptre, the one of which indicates forethought and the other power, much as Homer in calling the Lord and King of all "Zeus supreme and counsellor" appears by "supreme" to signify his prowess and by "counsellor" his careful planning and thoughtfulness. They also often depict this god by means of a hawk; for this bird is surpassing in the keenness of his vision and the swiftness of its flight, and is wont to support itself with the minimum amount of food. It is said also in flying over the earth to cast dust upon the eyes of unburied dead; and whenever it settles down beside the river to drink it raises its feather upright, and after it has drunk it lets this sink down again, by which it is plain that the bird is safe and has escaped the crocodile, for if it be seized, the feather remains fixed upright as it was at the beginning. Everywhere they point out statues of Osiris in human form of the ithyphallic type, on account of his creative and fostering power; and they clothe his statues in a flame-coloured garment, since they regard the body of the Sun as a visible manifestation of the perceptible substance of the power for good. Therefore it is only right and fair to contemn those who assign the orb of the Sun to Typhon, to whom there attaches nothing bright or of a conserving nature, no order nor generation nor movement possessed of moderation or reason, but everything the reverse; moreover, the drought, by which he destroys many of the living creatures and growing plants, is not to be set down as the work of the Sun, but rather as due to the fact that the winds and waters in the earth and the air are not seasonably tempered when the principle of the disorderly and unlimited power gets out of hand and quenches the exhalations.
9. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 6.1.35, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1.35.  The most effective of all such methods was in times past that by which more than anything else Cicero is considered to have saved Lucius Murena from the attacks of his accusers, who were men of the greatest distinction. For he persuaded the court that nothing was more necessary in view of the critical position of affairs than that Murena should assume the consul­ship on the thirty-first of December. This form of appeal is now, however, almost entirely obsolete, since the safety of the state is to‑day dependent on the watchful care of a single ruler, and cannot conceivably be imperilled by the result of a trial.
10. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.20, 6.6.3, 7.9, 8.24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.9. To Fuscus. You ask me how I think you ought to arrange your studies in the retirement you have long been enjoying. I think the most useful plan - and many others give the same advice - is to translate from Greek into Latin, or from Latin into Greek. By practising this you acquire fitness and beauty of expression, a good stock of metaphors, and the power of saying what you mean, whilst, by imitating the best models, you fall into the way of finding thoughts similar to theirs. Those points again which may have slipped your memory as you read are retained there as you translate, and you gain thereby in intelligence and judgment. When you have read an author sufficiently to master his subject and treatment, it will do you no harm to try and rival him, as it were, and write your version out, and then compare it with the book, carefully considering where the original is better expressed than your copy, and vice versa. You may justly congratulate yourself if in a few places yours is the superior, and you may be heartily ashamed of yourself if his beats yours at every point. Occasionally, you may with profit select some very well-known passages and try to improve even on them. This may be a daring contest for you to enter, but it will not be presumptuous on your part, as you will do it in secret, though it is to be remembered that many have emerged from such contests with great credit to themselves, and have shown themselves superior - owing to their not despairing of success - to those whom they thought it would have been sufficient honour to themselves to follow. You will also be able to handle the whole theme again after it has passed out of your mind, to retain some passages, to reject even more, to interpolate and re-write others. That is a laborious task, I know, and very tedious, but the very fact of its being difficult makes it remunerative - in that you feel your enthusiasm kindling afresh, and return to the charge anew after your energies had failed altogether or become languid. Then finally you graft new limbs, as it were, on to the finished trunk and without disturbing the original formation. I know that at the present time your principal study is that of oratory, but I am far from advising you to be for ever cultivating that controversial and, I might say, bellicose branch of letters. For just as our fields gather fresh strength from a change and variety in the crops we sow, so our minds are refreshed by change and variety of study. Occasionally I should like you to take some passage of history, and I would have you to pay considerable attention to letter-writing ; for it often happens that a speaker finds it imperative to be able to explain certain points he may be making, not only with a historical, but also with a poetical touch, and by writing letters one acquires a terse and clear style. It is advisable too to dabble in poetry, not by composing long continuous poems - for they can never be finished except one has abundant leisure - but short epigrammatic verse, which gives you an air of distinction, no matter how serious and responsible may be your profession. Verses like these are spoken of as mere interludes, yet they sometimes win a man as much reputation as his serious occupations. And therefore - for why should I not break out into poetry as I am urging you to write verses? - "As wax is admired, if it be soft and yielding to the touch of deft fingers and in obedience thereto becomes a work of art, stamped either with the form of Mars or chaste Minerva, or representing either Venus or Venus's son ; as hallowed streams do more than stay the path of lire, and often refresh the flowers and meadows green - so the intellect of man should be moulded and led through the plastic arts and be trained to become mobile." Hence it is that the noblest orators - and the noblest men too - used to exercise or amuse themselves in this way, or I should rather say amused and exercised themselves, for it is remarkable how these trifles sharpen a man's wits and at the same time give relaxation to the brain. For they range over love, hatred, anger, pity, mirth - every feeling, in a word, that meets us in everyday life, in the forum, or in the courts. They serve the same useful purpose as other verses, for as soon as we are freed from the exigencies of metre, we take pleasure in fluent prose and our pens run on with greater zest when we have tried both and comparison tells us which is the easier. I have perhaps gone into greater detail than you asked me to, but there is still one point I have omitted, for I have not told you what I think you ought to read, though in one sense I did when I told you what you ought to write. You must bear in mind to choose carefully authors of all styles, for there is an old proverb that a man should read much but not read a multitude of books. Who those authors are is too well known and approved to need further explanation, and, besides, I have let this letter run to such unconscionable length that, while advising you how you ought to study, I have robbed you of time to study. However, pick up your writing-pad again, and either start on one of the subjects I have suggested or carry through the work on which you have already begun. Farewell.
11. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.20, 5.8, 6.6.3, 7.9, 8.24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.8. To Titinius Capito. You urge me to write history, nor are you the first to do so. Many others have often given me the same advice, and I am quite willing to follow it, not because I feel confident that I should succeed in so doing - for it would be presumption to think so until one had tried - but because it seems to me a very proper thing not to let people be forgotten whose fame ought never to die, and to perpetuate the glories of others together with one's own. Personally, I confess that there is nothing on which I have set my heart so much as to win a lasting reputation, and the ambition is a worthy one for any man, especially for one who is not conscious of having committed any wrong and has no cause to fear being remembered by posterity. Hence it is that both day and night I scheme to find a way "to raise myself above the ordinary dull level" Again, there is a precedent in my own family which impels me towards writing history. My uncle, who was also my father by adoption, was a historian of the most scrupulous type, and I find all wise men agree that one can do nothing better than follow in the footsteps of one's ancestors, provided that they have gone in the right path themselves. Why, then, do I hesitate? For this reason, that I have delivered a number of pleadings of serious importance, and it is my intention to revise them carefully - though my hopes of fame from them are only slight - lest, in spite of all the trouble they have given me, they should perish with me, just for want of receiving the last polishing and additional touches. For if you have a view to what posterity will say, all that is not absolutely finished must be classed as incomplete matter. You will say I began to plead in the forum in my nineteenth year, and it is only just now that I begin to see darkly what an orator ought to be. What would happen if I were to take on a new task in addition to this one? Oratory and history have many things in common, but they also differ greatly in the points that seem common to both. There is narrative in both, but of a different type; the humblest, meanest and most common-place subjects suit the one; the other requires research, splendour, and dignity. In the one you may describe the bones, muscles, and nerves of the body, in the other brawny parts and flowing manes. In oratory one wants force, invective, sustained attack; in history the charm is obtained by copiousness and agreeableness, even by sweetness of style. Lastly, the words used, the forms of speech, and the construction of the sentences are different. For, as Thucydides remarks, it makes all the difference whether the composition is to be a possession for all time or a declamation for the moment; † oratory has to do with the latter, history with the former. Hence it is that I do not feel tempted to hopelessly jumble together two dissimilar styles which differ from one another just because of their great importance, and I am afraid I should become bewildered by such a terrible medley and write in the one style just where I ought to be employing the other. For the meantime, therefore, to use the language of the courts, I ask your gracious permission to go on with my pleading. However, do you be good enough even now to consider the period which it would be best for me to tackle. Shall it be a period of ancient history which others have dealt with before me? If so, the materials are all ready to hand, but the putting them together would be a heavy task. On the other hand, if I choose a modern period which has not been dealt with, I shall get but small thanks and am bound to give serious offence. For, besides the fact that the general standard of morality is so lax that there is much more to censure than to praise, you are sure to be called niggardly if you praise and too censorious if you censure, though you may have been lavish of appreciation and scrupulously guarded in reproach. However, these considerations do not stay me, for I have the courage of my convictions. I only beg of you to prepare the way for me in the direction you urge me to take, and choose a subject for me, so that, when I am at length ready to take pen in hand, no other overpowering reason may crop up to make me hesitate and delay my purpose. Farewell. 7.9. To Fuscus. You ask me how I think you ought to arrange your studies in the retirement you have long been enjoying. I think the most useful plan - and many others give the same advice - is to translate from Greek into Latin, or from Latin into Greek. By practising this you acquire fitness and beauty of expression, a good stock of metaphors, and the power of saying what you mean, whilst, by imitating the best models, you fall into the way of finding thoughts similar to theirs. Those points again which may have slipped your memory as you read are retained there as you translate, and you gain thereby in intelligence and judgment. When you have read an author sufficiently to master his subject and treatment, it will do you no harm to try and rival him, as it were, and write your version out, and then compare it with the book, carefully considering where the original is better expressed than your copy, and vice versa. You may justly congratulate yourself if in a few places yours is the superior, and you may be heartily ashamed of yourself if his beats yours at every point. Occasionally, you may with profit select some very well-known passages and try to improve even on them. This may be a daring contest for you to enter, but it will not be presumptuous on your part, as you will do it in secret, though it is to be remembered that many have emerged from such contests with great credit to themselves, and have shown themselves superior - owing to their not despairing of success - to those whom they thought it would have been sufficient honour to themselves to follow. You will also be able to handle the whole theme again after it has passed out of your mind, to retain some passages, to reject even more, to interpolate and re-write others. That is a laborious task, I know, and very tedious, but the very fact of its being difficult makes it remunerative - in that you feel your enthusiasm kindling afresh, and return to the charge anew after your energies had failed altogether or become languid. Then finally you graft new limbs, as it were, on to the finished trunk and without disturbing the original formation. I know that at the present time your principal study is that of oratory, but I am far from advising you to be for ever cultivating that controversial and, I might say, bellicose branch of letters. For just as our fields gather fresh strength from a change and variety in the crops we sow, so our minds are refreshed by change and variety of study. Occasionally I should like you to take some passage of history, and I would have you to pay considerable attention to letter-writing ; for it often happens that a speaker finds it imperative to be able to explain certain points he may be making, not only with a historical, but also with a poetical touch, and by writing letters one acquires a terse and clear style. It is advisable too to dabble in poetry, not by composing long continuous poems - for they can never be finished except one has abundant leisure - but short epigrammatic verse, which gives you an air of distinction, no matter how serious and responsible may be your profession. Verses like these are spoken of as mere interludes, yet they sometimes win a man as much reputation as his serious occupations. And therefore - for why should I not break out into poetry as I am urging you to write verses? - "As wax is admired, if it be soft and yielding to the touch of deft fingers and in obedience thereto becomes a work of art, stamped either with the form of Mars or chaste Minerva, or representing either Venus or Venus's son ; as hallowed streams do more than stay the path of lire, and often refresh the flowers and meadows green - so the intellect of man should be moulded and led through the plastic arts and be trained to become mobile." Hence it is that the noblest orators - and the noblest men too - used to exercise or amuse themselves in this way, or I should rather say amused and exercised themselves, for it is remarkable how these trifles sharpen a man's wits and at the same time give relaxation to the brain. For they range over love, hatred, anger, pity, mirth - every feeling, in a word, that meets us in everyday life, in the forum, or in the courts. They serve the same useful purpose as other verses, for as soon as we are freed from the exigencies of metre, we take pleasure in fluent prose and our pens run on with greater zest when we have tried both and comparison tells us which is the easier. I have perhaps gone into greater detail than you asked me to, but there is still one point I have omitted, for I have not told you what I think you ought to read, though in one sense I did when I told you what you ought to write. You must bear in mind to choose carefully authors of all styles, for there is an old proverb that a man should read much but not read a multitude of books. Who those authors are is too well known and approved to need further explanation, and, besides, I have let this letter run to such unconscionable length that, while advising you how you ought to study, I have robbed you of time to study. However, pick up your writing-pad again, and either start on one of the subjects I have suggested or carry through the work on which you have already begun. Farewell.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ambitus Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 107
arcadia, and bears Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
areas Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
atalanta Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
attis, and cybele Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
bilbilis König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
bithynia König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
callisto, as she-bear Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
cassius apronianus (father of cassius dio) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
cassius dio, historical training of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
cassius dio, roman history, accuracy of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
cassius dio, senatorial persona and position of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
cenchreae, setting in, ill Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
codex vaticanus graecus, contemporary books of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
codex vaticanus graecus, historiographical/methodological approach Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
codex vaticanus graecus, information, selection/selectiveness of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
comum König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
consulship of. see consulship, ciceros, self-praise of Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 326, 329
cup, gold Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
cynocephalus Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
democracy Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 107
elections Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 107
fama König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
ganymede, and monkey Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
gold cup Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
gracchi brothers, hadrian (roman emperor) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
harpocrates, with sun-disc, with vessel Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
historiography König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
history, and pliny Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 325, 326, 327, 328, 329
horace, odes König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
horus, and seth Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
humour Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 107
intertextuality, plinian Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 325, 326, 327, 328, 329
libertas Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 107
literary interactions, diachronic König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
marcus aurelius (roman emperor), avidius cassius, rebellion of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
marcus aurelius (roman emperor), dios apologies for Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
marcus aurelius (roman emperor), dios view of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
martial, and pliny König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
martial König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
monarchy, adoptive Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
monarchy, information, availability/flow and Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
monumentality König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
oratory König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
ovid König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
parataxis Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
patronage Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 107
pliny (the younger) König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53, 230
pliny the elder (c. plinius secundus) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
pliny the younger, and quintilian König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
pliny the younger, anxieties of Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 329
pliny the younger (c. plinius caecilius secundus) Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
plotina Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
process of publication, self-fashioning of Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 325
prose intertextuality König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
quintilian, institutio oratoria König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
quintilian König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
rome, as centre of empire König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
secret ballot Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 107
self-fashioning König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
semiotics of visualisation König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
seth, and horus Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
sherwin-white, a. n. Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 325
socio-literary interactions König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
tabula bembina Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
tacitus, dialogus König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
tacitus König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
thoth, as cynocephalus Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
thucydides König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 53
titus König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
trajan König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
trajan (roman emperor), senate, relationship with Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
trajan (roman emperor), succession plans, lack of Scott, An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time (2023) 103
vergil, allusions to Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 329
vespasian, triumph of' Griffiths, The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI) (1975) 179
vespasian König and Whitton, Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 (2018) 230
voting laws Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 107