Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9460
Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.11


nanTo Arrianus: I know you are always delighted when the Senate behaves in a way befitting its rank, for though your love of peace and quiet has caused you to withdraw from Rome, your anxiety that public life should be kept at a high level is as strong as it ever was. So let me tell you what has been going on during the last few days. The proceedings are memorable owing to the commanding position of the person most concerned; they will have a healthy influence because of the sharp lesson that has been administered; and the importance of the case will make them famous for all time.


nanTo Arrianus. I know you are always delighted when the senate behaves in a way befitting its rank, for though your love of peace and quiet has caused you to withdraw from Rome, your anxiety that public life should be kept at a high level is as strong as it ever was. So let me tell you what has been going on during the last few days. The proceedings are memorable owing to the commanding position of the person most concerned; they will have a healthy influence because of the sharp lesson that has been administered; and the importance of the case will make them famous for all time. Marius Priscus, on being accused by the people of Africa, whom he had governed as proconsul, declined to defend himself before the senate and asked to have judges assigned to hear the case. * Cornelius Tacitus and myself were instructed to appear for the provincials, and we came to the conclusion that we were bound in honesty to our clients to notify the senate that the charges of inhumanity and cruelty brought against Priscus were too serious to be heard by a panel of judges, inasmuch as he was accused of having received bribes to condemn and even put to death innocent persons. Fronto Catius spoke in reply, and urged that the prosecution should be confined within the law dealing with extortion Well, the witnesses who were summoned came to Rome, viz., Vitellius Honoratus and Flavius Martianus. Honoratus was charged with having bribed Priscus to the tune of three hundred thousand sesterces to exile a Roman knight and put seven of his friends to death; Martianus was accused of having given Priscus seven hundred thousand sesterces to sentence a single Roman knight to still more grievous punishment, for he was beaten with rods, condemned to the mines, and then strangled in prison. Honoratus - luckily for him - escaped the investigation of the senate by dying; Martianus was brought before them when Priscus was not present. Consequently Tuccius Cerealis, a man of consular rank, pleaded senatorial privileges and demanded that Priscus should be informed of the attendance of Martianus, either because he thought that Priscus by being present would have a better chance of awakening the compassion of the senate or to increase the feeling against him, or possibly, and I think this was his real motive, because strict justice demanded that both should defend themselves against a charge that affected them both, and that both should be punished if they could not rebut the accusation. The subject was postponed to the next meeting of the senate, and a very august assembly it was. The Emperor presided in his capacity as consul; besides, the month of January brings crowds of people to Rome and especially senators, † and moreover the importance of the case, the great notoriety it had obtained, which had been increased by the delays that had taken place, and the ingrained curiosity of all men to get to know all the details of an unusually important matter, had made everybody flock to Rome from all quarters. You can imagine how nervous and anxious we were in having to speak in such a gathering and in the presence of the Emperor on such an important case. It was not the first time that I had pleaded in the senate, and there is nowhere where I get a more sympathetic hearing, but then the novelty of the whole position seemed to afflict me with a feeling of nervousness I had never felt before. For in addition to all that I have mentioned above I kept thinking of the difficulties of the case and was oppressed by the feeling that Priscus, the defendant, had once held consular rank and been one of the seven regulators of the sacred feasts, and was now deprived of both these dignities. † So I found it a very trying task to accuse a man on whom sentence had already been passed, for though the shocking offences with which he was charged weighed heavily against him, he yet was protected to a certain extent by the commiseration felt for a man already condemned to punishment that one might have thought final. However, as soon as I had pulled myself together and collected my thoughts, I began my address, and though I was nervous I was on the best of terms with my audience. I spoke for nearly five hours, for, in addition to the twelve water-clocks - the largest I could get - which had been assigned to me, I obtained four others. And, as matters turned out, everything that I thought before speaking would have proved an obstacle in the way of a good speech really helped me during my address. As for the Emperor, he showed me such kind attention and consideration - for it would be too much to call it anxiety on my behalf - that he frequently nodded to my freedman, who was standing just behind me, to give me a hint not to overtax my voice and lungs, when he thought that I was throwing myself too ardently into my pleading and imposing too great a burden on my slender frame. Claudius Marcellinus answered me on behalf of Martianus, and then the senate was dismissed and met again on the following day. For there was no time to begin a fresh speech, as it would have had to be broken off by the fall of night. On the following day, Salvius Liberalis, a man of shrewd wit, careful in the arrangement of his speeches, with a pointed style and a fund of learning, spoke for Marius, and in his speech he certainly brought out all he knew. Cornelius Tacitus replied to him in a wonderfully eloquent address, characterised by that lofty dignity which is the chief charm of his oratory. Then Fronto Catius made another excellent speech on Marius's behalf, and he spent more time in appeals for mercy than in rebutting evidence, as befitted the part of the case that he had then to deal with. The fall of night terminated his speech but did not break it off altogether, and so the proceedings lasted over into the third day. This was quite fine and just like it used to be for the senate to be interrupted by nightfall, and for the members to be called and sit for three days running. Cornutus Tertullus, the consul-designate, a man of high character and a devoted champion of justice, gave as his opinion that the seven hundred thousand sesterces which Marius had received should be confiscated to the Treasury, that Marius should be banished from Rome and Italy, and that Martianus should be banished from Rome, Italy, and Africa. Towards the conclusion of his speech he added the remark that the senate considered that, since Tacitus and myself, who had been summoned to plead for the provincials, had fulfilled our duties with diligence and fearlessness, we had acted in a manner worthy of the commission entrusted to us. The consuls-designate agreed, and all the consulars did likewise, until it was Pompeius Collega's turn to speak. He proposed that the seven hundred thousand sesterces received by Marius should be confiscated to the Treasury, that Martianus should be banished ‡ for five years, and that Marius should suffer no further penalty than that for extortion - which had already been passed upon him. Opinion was largely divided, and there was possibly a majority in favour of the latter proposal, which was the more lenient or less severe of the two, for even some of those who appeared to have supported Cornutus changed sides and were ready to vote for Collega, who had spoken after them. But when the House divided, those who stood near the seats of the consuls began to cross over to the side of Cornutus. Then those who were allowing themselves to be counted as supporters of Collega also crossed over, and Collega was left with a mere handful. He complained bitterly afterwards of those who had led him to make the proposal he did, especially of Regulus, who had failed to support him in the proposal that he himself had suggested. But Regulus is a fickle fellow, rash to a degree, yet a great coward as well. Such was the close of this most important investigation; but there is still another bit of public business on hand of some consequence, for Hostilius Firminus, the legate of Marius Priscus, who was implicated in the matter, had received a very rough handling. It was proved by the accounts of Martianus and a speech he made in the Council of the Town of Leptis that he had engaged with Priscus in a very shady transaction, that he had bargained to receive from Martianus 50,000 denarii and had received in addition ten million sesterces under the head of perfume money - a most disgraceful thing for a soldier, but one which was not at all inconsistent with his character as a man with well-trimmed hair and polished skin. It was agreed on the motion of Cornutus that the case should be investigated at the next meeting of the senate, but at that meeting he did not put in an appearance, either from some accidental reason or because he knew he was guilty. Well, I have told you the news of Rome, you must write and tell me the news of the country. How are your shrubs getting on, your vines and your crops, and those dainty sheep of yours? In short, unless you send me as long a letter I am sending you, you mustn't expect anything more than the scrappiest note from me in the future. Farewell.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Aristotle, Rhetoric, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 5.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, In Verrem, 2.1.58, 2.4.73, 2.4.135, 2.5.127 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Livy, Per., 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.20, 28.34, 36.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Pliny The Younger, Letters, None (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.20. To Cornelius Tacitus. I am constantly having arguments with a friend of mine who is a learned and practised speaker, but who admires in pleading nothing so much as brevity. I allow that brevity ought to be observed, if the case permits of it; but sometimes it is an act of collusion to pass over matters that ought to be mentioned, and it is even an act of collusion to run briefly and rapidly over points which ought to be dwelt upon, to be thoroughly driven home, and to be taken up and dealt with more than once. For very often an argument acquires strength and weight by being handled at some length, and a speech ought to be impressed on the mind, not by a short, sharp shock, but by measured blows, just as a sword should be used in dealing with the body of an opponent. Thereupon he plies me with authorities, and flourishes before me the speeches of Lysias among the Greeks, and those of the Gracchi and Cato from among Roman orators. The majority of these are certainly characterised by conciseness and brevity, but I quote against Lysias the examples of Demosthenes, Aeschines, Hyperides, and a multitude of others, while against the Gracchi and Cato I set Pollio, Caesar, Caelius, and, above all, Marcus Tullius, whose longest speech is generally considered to be his best. * And upon my word, as with all other good things, the more there is of a good book, the better it is. You know how it is with statues, images, pictures, and the outlines of many animals and even trees, that if they are at all graceful nothing gives them a greater charm than size. It is just the same with speeches, - even the mere volumes themselves acquire a certain additional dignity and beauty from mere bulk. These are but a few of the many arguments I usually employ to establish my point; but there is no pinning my friend down in an argument. He is such a slippery fellow that he wriggles off the pin and declares that these same orators, whose speeches I instance, spoke at less length than their published addresses seem to show. I hold the contrary to be the case, and there are many speeches of many orators in favour of my opinion, as, for example, the 'Pro Murena' and the 'Pro Vareno' of Cicero, in which he indicates by headings alone, and quite barely and briefly, how he dealt with certain charges against his clients. From these it is clear that he actually spoke at much greater length and left out a considerable number of passages when he published the addresses. Cicero indeed says that in his defence of Cluentius "he had simply followed the ancient custom and compressed his whole case into a peroration," and that in defending Caius Cornelius "he had pleaded for four days." ** Hence it cannot be questioned that after speaking somewhat discursively for several days, as he was bound to do, he subsequently trimmed and revised his oration and compressed it into a single book - a long one, it is true, but yet a single book. But, argues my friend, a good indictment is a different thing from a good speech. I know some people hold that view, but I - of course I may be wrong - feel persuaded that though it is possible to have a good indictment without a good speech, it is not possible for a good speech not to be a good indictment. For a speech is the exemplar of an indictment - one might even call it its archetype. Hence in every first-class oration we find a thousand extempore figures of speech, even in those which we know to have been carefully edited. For example, in the Speech against Verres Regulus once said to me when we were in Court together Nor do I forget that in his eulogy of that consummate orator, Pericles, the comedy-writer Eupolis used the following language But, you say, the mean is the best. Quite so, but the mean is as much neglected by those who fail to do justice to their subject as by those who overdo it, by those who restrain themselves as by those who give themselves their heads. And so you often hear the criticism that a speech was "frigid and weak," just as you hear that another was "overloaded and a mass of repetition." The one speaker is said to have over-elaborated his subject, the other not to have risen to the occasion. Both are at fault; one through weakness, the other through too much strength, and the latter, though he may not show the more refined intellect, certainly shows the more robust mind. When I say this it must not be supposed that I am approving Homer's Thersites - the man who was a torrent of words - but rather his Ulysses, whose "words were like snow-flakes in winter," though at the same time I admire his Menelaus, who spoke "Few words, but well to the point." Yet, if I had to choose, I should prefer the speech that is like the winter snow- storm - viz. fluent, flowing, and of generous width; and not only that, but divine and celestial. It may, I know, be said that many people prefer a short pleading. No doubt, but they are lazy creatures, and it is ridiculous to consult the tastes of such sloths as though they were critics. For if you take their opinion as worth anything, you will find that they not only prefer a short pleading, but no pleading at all. Well, I have told you what I think. I shall change my opinion if you do not agree with me, but in that case I beg of you to give me clear reasons for your disagreement; for although I feel bound to bow to a man of your judgment, yet in a point of such importance, I consider that I ought to give way rather to a reasoned statement than to an ipse dixit. But even if you think I am right, still write and tell me so, and make the letter as short as you like - for you will thus confirm my judgment. If I am wrong, see that you write me a very long letter. I feel sure I have not estimated you wrongly in thus asking you for a short note if you agree with me, while laying on you the obligation of writing at length if you disagree. Farewell.
8. Pliny The Younger, Letters, None (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.20. To Cornelius Tacitus. I am constantly having arguments with a friend of mine who is a learned and practised speaker, but who admires in pleading nothing so much as brevity. I allow that brevity ought to be observed, if the case permits of it; but sometimes it is an act of collusion to pass over matters that ought to be mentioned, and it is even an act of collusion to run briefly and rapidly over points which ought to be dwelt upon, to be thoroughly driven home, and to be taken up and dealt with more than once. For very often an argument acquires strength and weight by being handled at some length, and a speech ought to be impressed on the mind, not by a short, sharp shock, but by measured blows, just as a sword should be used in dealing with the body of an opponent. Thereupon he plies me with authorities, and flourishes before me the speeches of Lysias among the Greeks, and those of the Gracchi and Cato from among Roman orators. The majority of these are certainly characterised by conciseness and brevity, but I quote against Lysias the examples of Demosthenes, Aeschines, Hyperides, and a multitude of others, while against the Gracchi and Cato I set Pollio, Caesar, Caelius, and, above all, Marcus Tullius, whose longest speech is generally considered to be his best. * And upon my word, as with all other good things, the more there is of a good book, the better it is. You know how it is with statues, images, pictures, and the outlines of many animals and even trees, that if they are at all graceful nothing gives them a greater charm than size. It is just the same with speeches, - even the mere volumes themselves acquire a certain additional dignity and beauty from mere bulk. These are but a few of the many arguments I usually employ to establish my point; but there is no pinning my friend down in an argument. He is such a slippery fellow that he wriggles off the pin and declares that these same orators, whose speeches I instance, spoke at less length than their published addresses seem to show. I hold the contrary to be the case, and there are many speeches of many orators in favour of my opinion, as, for example, the 'Pro Murena' and the 'Pro Vareno' of Cicero, in which he indicates by headings alone, and quite barely and briefly, how he dealt with certain charges against his clients. From these it is clear that he actually spoke at much greater length and left out a considerable number of passages when he published the addresses. Cicero indeed says that in his defence of Cluentius "he had simply followed the ancient custom and compressed his whole case into a peroration," and that in defending Caius Cornelius "he had pleaded for four days." ** Hence it cannot be questioned that after speaking somewhat discursively for several days, as he was bound to do, he subsequently trimmed and revised his oration and compressed it into a single book - a long one, it is true, but yet a single book. But, argues my friend, a good indictment is a different thing from a good speech. I know some people hold that view, but I - of course I may be wrong - feel persuaded that though it is possible to have a good indictment without a good speech, it is not possible for a good speech not to be a good indictment. For a speech is the exemplar of an indictment - one might even call it its archetype. Hence in every first-class oration we find a thousand extempore figures of speech, even in those which we know to have been carefully edited. For example, in the Speech against Verres Regulus once said to me when we were in Court together Nor do I forget that in his eulogy of that consummate orator, Pericles, the comedy-writer Eupolis used the following language But, you say, the mean is the best. Quite so, but the mean is as much neglected by those who fail to do justice to their subject as by those who overdo it, by those who restrain themselves as by those who give themselves their heads. And so you often hear the criticism that a speech was "frigid and weak," just as you hear that another was "overloaded and a mass of repetition." The one speaker is said to have over-elaborated his subject, the other not to have risen to the occasion. Both are at fault; one through weakness, the other through too much strength, and the latter, though he may not show the more refined intellect, certainly shows the more robust mind. When I say this it must not be supposed that I am approving Homer's Thersites - the man who was a torrent of words - but rather his Ulysses, whose "words were like snow-flakes in winter," though at the same time I admire his Menelaus, who spoke "Few words, but well to the point." Yet, if I had to choose, I should prefer the speech that is like the winter snow- storm - viz. fluent, flowing, and of generous width; and not only that, but divine and celestial. It may, I know, be said that many people prefer a short pleading. No doubt, but they are lazy creatures, and it is ridiculous to consult the tastes of such sloths as though they were critics. For if you take their opinion as worth anything, you will find that they not only prefer a short pleading, but no pleading at all. Well, I have told you what I think. I shall change my opinion if you do not agree with me, but in that case I beg of you to give me clear reasons for your disagreement; for although I feel bound to bow to a man of your judgment, yet in a point of such importance, I consider that I ought to give way rather to a reasoned statement than to an ipse dixit. But even if you think I am right, still write and tell me so, and make the letter as short as you like - for you will thus confirm my judgment. If I am wrong, see that you write me a very long letter. I feel sure I have not estimated you wrongly in thus asking you for a short note if you agree with me, while laying on you the obligation of writing at length if you disagree. Farewell.
9. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.72 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.72. He maintained that all things are the property of the wise, and employed such arguments as those cited above. All things belong to the gods. The gods are friends to the wise, and friends share all property in common; therefore all things are the property of the wise. Again as to law: that it is impossible for society to exist without law; for without a city no benefit can be derived from that which is civilized. But the city is civilized, and there is no advantage in law without a city; therefore law is something civilized. He would ridicule good birth and fame and all such distinctions, calling them showy ornaments of vice. The only true commonwealth was, he said, that which is as wide as the universe. He advocated community of wives, recognizing no other marriage than a union of the man who persuades with the woman who consents. And for this reason he thought sons too should be held in common.
10. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.9.1-4.9.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.9.1. To Minucius Fundanus. I have received an epistle, written to me by Serennius Granianus, a most illustrious man, whom you have succeeded. It does not seem right to me that the matter should be passed by without examination, lest the men be harassed and opportunity be given to the informers for practicing villainy. 4.9.2. If, therefore, the inhabitants of the province can clearly sustain this petition against the Christians so as to give answer in a court of law, let them pursue this course alone, but let them not have resort to men's petitions and outcries. For it is far more proper, if any one wishes to make an accusation, that you should examine into it. 4.9.3. If any one therefore accuses them and shows that they are doing anything contrary to the laws, do you pass judgment according to the heinousness of the crime. But, by Hercules! If any one bring an accusation through mere calumny, decide in regard to his criminality, and see to it that you inflict punishment.Such are the contents of Hadrian's rescript.
11. Epigraphy, Lscg, 52

12. Epigraphy, Lss, 108

13. Epigraphy, Ils, 212



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acting Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15
adam (biblical figure), adana, turkey, clock-tower in Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
africa, repetundae trials Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
africa Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
alexander the great, and the alexander mosaic Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
antoninus pius, spurious letter concerning christians Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 815
apollinaris (grandfather) Hanghan, Lettered Christians: Christians, Letters, and Late Antique Oxyrhynchus (2019) 70; Hitch, Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world (2017) 70
baebius macer Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 500
baetica, repetundae trials Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
bithynia/pontus, repetundae trials Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
bithynia Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 43
bureaucrats, roman Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 43
caecilius classicus Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
campaigns for office Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 101
carthage, and restoration of cultural property Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
centumviral court Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 319
clark, chris Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
cornelius priscianus Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
cornelius scipio aemilianus, p., repatriates art works to sicily Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
corruption, by governors Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 43
crates the cynic Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 78
delivery Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15
delphi, phrynes statue at Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 78
domitian Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 101
ekphrasis Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 325
elections Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 101
enargeia Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 325
genre Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 319
governors, roman Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 43
hartog, françois Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
history, and pliny Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
history and memory, political engagement with Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
hostilius firminus Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
humour Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 101
intertextuality, plinian Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332, 333
islam Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
koselleck, reinhart Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
law Hanghan, Lettered Christians: Christians, Letters, and Late Antique Oxyrhynchus (2019) 71; Hitch, Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world (2017) 71
letters, transmission to third party Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 815
letters Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15, 319, 325, 326, 335
luhman, niklas Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
marchesi, ilaria Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
marcus aurelius, spurious letter in favor of christianity Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 815
marius priscus, trial of, duration Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 500
marius priscus, trial of Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
marius priscus Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 43; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
maturus arrianus Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 333
means of Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 319
modern concept of time Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
narrative Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15, 319, 325
nerva Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 101
noricum, repetundae trial Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
objects, repatriation of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
oratory Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 319, 325
persuasion Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15, 319
pflips, heribert Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
phryne Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 78
pliny, epistulae Hanghan, Lettered Christians: Christians, Letters, and Late Antique Oxyrhynchus (2019) 71; Hitch, Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world (2017) 71
pliny, letter to trajan on christians Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 815
pliny Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15, 319, 325, 326, 335
pliny (younger), consul, describes sessions Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 500
pliny the younger, as second cicero by implication Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
pliny the younger, cicero at book-ends and beginnings in Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
pliny the younger Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 43
politics, telling time as means of political control Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
pollenius sebennus Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
preference for realism, on scipios restoration of property Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
prosecutes marius priscus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53, 78
pyrrhus, healing powers of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
quotations Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15
readers Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15, 335
recitation Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 326
repetundae, res Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
repetundae (misgovernment), trials for, table Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
rhetoric/rhetorical Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15, 319, 335
rhetorical question Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 325
roman empire, emperor and governor Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 815
rome, temple of divus augustus, victoria in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
rome (city) Hanghan, Lettered Christians: Christians, Letters, and Late Antique Oxyrhynchus (2019) 71; Hitch, Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world (2017) 71
scott, walter Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
secundus Hanghan, Lettered Christians: Christians, Letters, and Late Antique Oxyrhynchus (2019) 70; Hitch, Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world (2017) 70
self-praise Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15
senate, in latin and greek, advocates Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 500
senate, in latin and greek, duration Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 500
senate Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 43; Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 319, 325
senators Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 43
seneca Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 335
sicily, cultural property restored to Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
silence Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15
speeches Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15, 325, 326, 335
tacitus Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 15, 319, 325; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53, 78
telling time, historical overview of Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
telling time, in greco-roman world Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
telling time, political control, as means of Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
telling time Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
time, modern concept of Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
time Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72
trajan Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 72; Tacoma, Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship (2020) 101
travel' Hanghan, Lettered Christians: Christians, Letters, and Late Antique Oxyrhynchus (2019) 70
travel Hitch, Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world (2017) 70
tullius cicero, m., on scipio aemilianus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
varenus rufus Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984) 510
verres, c., looting of sicily Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 53
whitton, christopher Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
ēthos Papaioannou Serafim and Demetriou, The Ancient Art of Persuasion across Genres and Topics (2019) 319