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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9458
Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.81-35.83
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

6 results
1. Strabo, Geography, 14.2.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14.2.5. The city of the Rhodians lies on the eastern promontory of Rhodes; and it is so far superior to all others in harbors and roads and walls and improvements in general that I am unable to speak of any other city as equal to it, or even as almost equal to it, much less superior to it. It is remarkable also for its good order, and for its careful attention to the administration of affairs of state in general; and in particular to that of naval affairs, whereby it held the mastery of the sea for a long time and overthrew the business of piracy, and became a friend to the Romans and to all kings who favoured both the Romans and the Greeks. Consequently it not only has remained autonomous. but also has been adorned with many votive offerings, which for the most part are to be found in the Dionysium and the gymnasium, but partly in other places. The best of these are, first, the Colossus of Helius, of which the author of the iambic verse says,seven times ten cubits in height, the work of Chares the Lindian; but it now lies on the ground, having been thrown down by an earthquake and broken at the knees. In accordance with a certain oracle, the people did not raise it again. This, then, is the most excellent of the votive offerings (at any rate, it is by common agreement one of the Seven Wonders); and there are also the paintings of Protogenes, his Ialysus and also his Satyr, the latter standing by a pillar, on top of which stood a male partridge. And at this partridge, as would be natural, the people were so agape when the picture had only recently been set up, that they would behold him with wonder but overlook the Satyr, although the latter was a very great success. But the partridge-breeders were still more amazed, bringing their tame partridges and placing them opposite the painted partridge; for their partridges would make their call to the painting and attract a mob of people. But when Protogenes saw that the main part of the work had become subordinate, he begged those who were in charge of the sacred precinct to permit him to go there and efface the partridge, and so he did. The Rhodians are concerned for the people in general, although their rule is not democratic; still, they wish to take care of their multitude of poor people. Accordingly, the people are supplied with provisions and the needy are supported by the well-to-do, by a certain ancestral custom; and there are certain liturgies that supply provisions, so that at the same time the poor man receives his sustece and the city does not run short of useful men, and in particular for the manning of the fleets. As for the roadsteads, some of them were kept hidden and forbidden to the people in general; and death was the penalty for any person who spied on them or passed inside them. And here too, as in Massalia and Cyzicus, everything relating to the architects, the manufacture of instruments of war, and the stores of arms and everything else are objects of exceptional care, and even more so than anywhere else.
2. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.216-5.219 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.217. Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year; 5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use. 5.219. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also separated from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and inviolable, and not to be seen by any; and was called the Holy of Holies.
3. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 34.55, 34.57-34.60, 34.62, 35.2-35.13, 35.15, 35.18, 35.20, 35.22-35.28, 35.31, 35.34, 35.44, 35.46, 35.49, 35.51-35.52, 35.57-35.58, 35.60, 35.64-35.68, 35.70, 35.72, 35.74, 35.76-35.77, 35.82-35.83, 35.85-35.86, 35.88, 35.91, 35.93, 35.95, 35.97-35.98, 35.100, 35.102-35.103, 35.108-35.110, 35.114, 35.116-35.117, 35.119-35.120, 35.127-35.128, 35.130-35.133, 35.136, 35.139, 35.144 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Plutarch, Demetrius, 22.2-22.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 12.10.3-12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.10.3.  The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste. 12.10.4.  Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war; for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line. 12.10.5.  For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible. 12.10.6.  It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Proto­genes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as φαντασίαι, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved a marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting. 12.10.7.  The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur. 12.10.8.  For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunken from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. 12.10.9.  On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.
6. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.3, 1.38.7, 4.33.5, 5.27.3, 10.18.5, 10.32.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14.3. Some extant verses of Musaeus, if indeed they are to be included among his works, say that Triptolemus was the son of Oceanus and Earth; while those ascribed to Orpheus (though in my opinion the received authorship is again incorrect) say that Eubuleus and Triptolemus were sons of Dysaules, and that because they gave Demeter information about her daughter the sowing of seed was her reward to them. But Choerilus, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Cercyon and Triptolemus were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphictyon, while the father of Triptolemus was Rarus, of Cercyon, Poseidon. After I had intended to go further into this story, and to describe the contents of the sanctuary at Athens, called the Eleusinium, I was stayed by a vision in a dream. I shall therefore turn to those things it is lawful to write of to all men. 1.38.7. My dream forbade the description of the things within the wall of the sanctuary, and the uninitiated are of course not permitted to learn that which they are prevented from seeing. The hero Eleusis, after whom the city is named, some assert to be a son of Hermes and of Daeira, daughter of Ocean; there are poets, however, who have made Ogygus father of Eleusis . Ancient legends, deprived of the help of poetry, have given rise to many fictions, especially concerning the pedigrees of heroes. 4.33.5. I may not reveal the rites of the Great Goddesses, for it is their mysteries which they celebrate in the Carnasian grove, and I regard them as second only to the Eleusinian in sanctity. But my dream did not prevent me from making known to all that the brazen urn, discovered by the Argive general, and the bones of Eurytus the son of Melaneus were kept here. A river Charadrus flows past the grove; 5.27.3. This is the horse in which is, say the Eleans, the hippomanes (what maddens horses). It is plain to all that the quality of the horse is the result of magic skill. It is much inferior in size and beauty to all the horses standing within the Altis. Moreover, its tail has been cut off which makes the figure uglier still. But male horses, not only in spring but on any day, are at heat towards it. 10.18.5. The men of Orneae in Argolis, when hard pressed in war by the Sicyonians, vowed to Apollo that, if they should drive the host of the Sicyonians out of their native land, they would organize a daily procession in his honor at Delphi, and sacrifice victims of a certain kind and of a certain number. Well, they conquered the Sicyonians in battle. But finding the daily fulfillment of their vow a great expense and a still greater trouble, they devised the trick of dedicating to the god bronze figures representing a sacrifice and a procession. 10.32.13. About forty stades distant from Asclepius is a precinct and shrine sacred to Isis, the holiest of all those made by the Greeks for the Egyptian goddess. For the Tithoreans think it wrong to dwell round about it, and no one may enter the shrine except those whom Isis herself has honored by inviting them in dreams. The same rule is observed in the cities above the Maeander by the gods of the lower world; for to all whom they wish to enter their shrines they send visions seen in dreams.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
africa Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
antony, marc, proscribes verres Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
antony, marc Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
apelles, the lineum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
aristides of thebes, his dionysus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
augustus, and peace Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
augustus, fond of corinthian bronze Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
augustus, private collection of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
augustus, villa on capri Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
bacchus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
binary, binaries Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 238
ceres Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
collectors, and eroticism Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
conquers britain, his infirmities Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
cornelius scipio africanus, p. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
cos Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
cult images, danger of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
death Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 238
deity, powers of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
delphi, offering of the orneatai Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
demetrius poliorcetes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
dionysus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
dreams, and images Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ekphrasis Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 238
fossils Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
frame, frames Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 238
hannibal Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
identity, xv–xvi, of prototype and representation Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, and ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, as ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, identified with prototype Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
jerusalem, besieged Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
jerusalem, temples treasures Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
julius caesar, c., private tastes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
law Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 238
liber Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
libertas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
magic Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
metaphor Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 238
mimesis Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
miracles, pagan Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
mummius achaicus, l., exhibits and distributes spoils Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
nero, fondness for corinthian bronze Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
network, networks Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 238
noreña, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
offering, art work as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
orneatai, offering at delphi Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
painting, commemorative Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
painting, triumphal Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
parrhasius, his atalanta and meleager Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
pausanias, and ritual-centered visuality Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
pliny the elder Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
protogenes, his ialysus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
protogenes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
rhodes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
ritual, image and Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ritual, image as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
rome, forum of peace, alexander the great in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
rome, forum of peace, and the ara pacis Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
rome, forum of peace, cosmic significance of spoils in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
rome, forum of peace, cult statue of pax Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
rome, forum of peace, nile depicted in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
rome, forum of peace Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
rome, plebeian associations with Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
rome, temple of ceres Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
rome, temple of jupiter libertas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
rome, temple of libertas, association with plebs Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
self and other Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 238
sempronius gracchus, ti., liberates beneventum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
sempronius gracchus, ti. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
tabulae, in triumphs' Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
tiberius, and erotica Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
tiberius, and lysippus apoxyomenos Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
tiberius, his private collection Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
tiberius, villa on capri Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
timomachus of byzantium, his ajax Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
timomachus of byzantium, his medea Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 70
trajan, his house on the aventine Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 142
vespasian, and alexander Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
vespasian, and augustus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282
vespasian Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 282