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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9458
Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.6-35.11


nanHis late lamented Majesty Augustus went beyond all others, in placing two pictures in the most frequented part of his Forum, one with a likeness of War and Triumph, and one with the Castors and Victory. He also erected in the Temple of his father Caesar pictures we shall specify in giving the names of artists. He likewise let into a wall in the curia which he was dedicating in the Comitium: a Nemea seated on a lion, holding a palm-branch in her hand, and standing at her side an old man leaning on a stick and with a picture of a two-horse chariot hung up over his head, on which there was an inscription saying that it was an encaustic design — such is the term which he employed — by Nicias. The second picture is remarkable for displaying the close family likeness between a son in the prime of life and an elderly father, allowing for the difference of age: above them soars an eagle with a snake in its claws; Philochares has stated this work to be by him showing the immeasurable power exercised by art if one merely considers this picture alone, inasmuch as thanks to Philochares two otherwise quite obscure persons Glaucio and his son Aristippus after all these centuries have passed still stand in the view of the senate of the Roman nation! The most ungracious emperor Tiberius also placed pictures in the temple of Augustus himself which we shall soon mention. Thus much for the dignity of this now expiring art.


nanWe stated what were the various single colours used by the first painters when we were discussing while on the subject of metals the pigments called monochromes from the class of painting for which they are used. Subsequent a inventions and their authors and dates we shall specify in enumerating the artists, because a prior motive for the work now in hand is to indicate the nature of colours. Eventually art differentiated itself, and discovered light and shade, contrast of colours heightening their effect reciprocally. Then came the final adjunct of shine, quite a different thing from light. The opposition between shine and light on the one hand and shade on the other was called contrast, while the juxtaposition of colours and their passage one into another was termed attunement.


nanFor the art of painting had already been brought to perfection even in Italy. At all events there survive even today in the temples at Ardea paintings that are older than the city of Rome, which to me at all events are incomparably remarkable, surviving for so long a period as though freshly painted, although unprotected by a roof. Similarly at Lanuvium, where there are an Atalanta and a Helena close together, nude figures, painted by the same artist, each of outstanding beauty (the former shown as a virgin), and not damaged even by the collapse of the temple. The Emperor Caligula from lustful motives attempted to remove them, but the consistency of the plaster would not allow this to be done. There are pictures surviving at Caere that are even older. And whoever carefully judges these works will admit that none of the arts reached full perfection more quickly, inasmuch as it is clear that painting did not exist in the Trojan period.


nanIn Rome also honour was fully attained by this art at an early date, inasmuch as a very distinguished clan of the Fabii derived from it their surname of Pictor, 'Painter,' and the first holder of the name himself painted the Temple of Health in the year 450 from the foundation of the City: the work survived down to our own period, when the temple was destroyed by fire in the principate of Claudius. Next in celebrity was a painting by the poet Pacuvius in the temple of Hercules in the Forum Boarium. Pacuvius was the son of a sister of Ennius, and he added distinction to the art of painting at Rome by reason of his fame as a playwright. After Pacuvius, painting was not esteemed as handiwork for persons of station, unless one chooses to recall a knight of Rome named Turpilius, from Venetia, in our own generation, because of his beautiful works still surviving at Verona. Turpilius painted with his left hand, a thing recorded of no preceding artist. Titedius Labeo, a man of praetorian rank who had actually held the office of Proconsul of the Province of Narbonne, and who died lately in extreme old age, used to be proud of his miniatures, but this was laughed at and actually damaged his reputation. There was also a celebrated debate on the subject of painting held between some men of eminence which must not be omitted, when the former consul and winner of a triumph Quintus Pedius, who was appointed by the Dictator Caesar as his joint heir with Augustus, had a grandson Quintus Pedius who was born dumb; in this debate the orator Messala, of whose family the boy's grandmother had been a member, gave the advice that the boy should have lessons in painting, and his late lamented Majesty Augustus also approved of the plan. The child made great progress in the art, but died before he grew up. But painting chiefly derived its rise to esteem at Rome, in my judgement, from Manius Valerius Maximus Messala, who in the year 490 after the foundation of the city first showed a picture in public on a side wall of the Curia Hostilia: the subject being the battle in Sicily in which he had defeated the Carthaginians and hero. The same thing was also done by Lucius Scipio, who put up in the Capitol a picture of his Asiatic victory; this is said to have annoyed his brother Africanus, not without reason, as his son had been taken prisoner in that battle. Also Lucius Hostilius Mancinus who had been the first to force an entrance into Carthage incurred a very similar offence with Aemilianus by displaying in the forum a picture of the plan of the city and of the attacks upon it and by himself standing by it and describing to the public looking on the details of the siege, a piece of popularity-hunting which won him the consulship at the next election. Also the stage erected for the shows given by Claudius Pulcher won great admiration for its painting, as crows were seen trying to alight on the roof tiles represented on the scenery, quite taken in by its realism.


nanThe high esteem attached officially to foreign paintings at Rome originated from Lucius Mummius who from his victory received the surname of Achaicus. At the sale of booty captured King Attalus bought for 600,000 denarii a picture of Father Liber or Dionysus by Aristides, but the price surprised Mummius, who suspecting there must be some merit in the picture of which he was himself unaware had the picture called back, in spite of Attalus's strong protests, and placed it in the Shrine of Ceres: the first instance, I believe, of a foreign picture becoming state-property at Rome. After this I see that they were commonly placed even in the forum: to this is due the famous witticism df the pleader Crassus, when appearing in a case below The Old Shops; a witness called kept asking him: 'Now tell me, Crassus, what sort of a person do you take me to be?' 'That sort of a person,' said Crassus, pointing to a picture of a Gaul putting out his tongue in a very unbecoming fashion. It was also in the forum that there was the picture of the Old Shepherd with his Staff, about which the Teuton envoy when asked what he thought was the value of it said that he would rather not have even the living original as a gift!


nanBut it was the Dictator Caesar who gave outstanding public importance to pictures by dedicating paintings of Ajax and Medea in front of the temple of Venus Genetrix; and after him Marcus Agrippa, a man who stood nearer to rustic simplicity than to refinements. At all events there is preserved a speech of Agrippa, lofty in tone and worthy of the greatest of the citizens, on the question of making all pictures and statues national property, a procedure which would have been preferable to banishing them to country houses. However, that same severe spirit paid the city of Cyzicus 1,200,000 sesterces for two pictures, an Ajax and an Aphrodite; he had also had small paintings let into the marble even in the warmest part of his hot baths; which were removed a short time ago when the Baths were being repaired.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 8.83-8.88 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Polybius, Histories, 6.53 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.53. 1.  Whenever any illustrious man dies, he is carried at his funeral into the forum to the so‑called rostra, sometimes conspicuous in an upright posture and more rarely reclined.,2.  Here with all the people standing round, a grown-up son, if he has left one who happens to be present, or if not some other relative mounts the rostra and discourses on the virtues and success­ful achievements of the dead.,3.  As a consequence the multitude and not only those who had a part in these achievements, but those also who had none, when the facts are recalled to their minds and brought before their eyes, are moved to such sympathy that the loss seems to be not confined to the mourners, but a public one affecting the whole people.,4.  Next after the interment and the performance of the usual ceremonies, they place the image of the departed in the most conspicuous position in the house, enclosed in a wooden shrine.,5.  This image is a mask reproducing with remarkable fidelity both the features and complexion of the deceased.,6.  On the occasion of public sacrifices they display these images, and decorate them with much care, and when any distinguished member of the family dies they take them to the funeral, putting them on men who seem to them to bear the closest resemblance to the original in stature and carriage.,7.  These representatives wear togas, with a purple border if the deceased was a consul or praetor, whole purple if he was a censor, and embroidered with gold if he had celebrated a triumph or achieved anything similar.,8.  They all ride in chariots preceded by the fasces, axes, and other insignia by which the different magistrates are wont to be accompanied according to the respective dignity of the offices of state held by each during his life;,9.  and when they arrive at the rostra they all seat themselves in a row on ivory chairs. There could not easily be a more ennobling spectacle for a young man who aspires to fame and virtue.,10.  For who would not be inspired by the sight of the images of men renowned for their excellence, all together and as if alive and breathing? What spectacle could be more glorious than this?
3. Asconius Pedianus Quintus, In Milonianam, 32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Horace, Odes, 2.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.1. 1. Now the necessity which Archelaus was under of taking a journey to Rome was the occasion of new disturbances; for when he had mourned for his father seven days, and had given a very expensive funeral feast to the multitude (which custom is the occasion of poverty to many of the Jews, because they are forced to feast the multitude; for if anyone omits it, he is not esteemed a holy person), he put on a white garment, and went up to the temple 2.1. And, indeed, at the feast of unleavened bread, which was now at hand, and is by the Jews called the Passover, and used to be celebrated with a great number of sacrifices, an innumerable multitude of the people came out of the country to worship; some of these stood in the temple bewailing the Rabbins [that had been put to death], and procured their sustece by begging, in order to support their sedition. 2.1. but after this family distribution, he gave between them what had been bequeathed to him by Herod, which was a thousand talents, reserving to himself only some inconsiderable presents, in honor of the deceased.
5. Horace, Letters, 2.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.1. 1. After the death of Isaac, his sons divided their habitations respectively; nor did they retain what they had before; but Esau departed from the city of Hebron, and left it to his brother, and dwelt in Seir, and ruled over Idumea. He called the country by that name from himself, for he was named Adom; which appellation he got on the following occasion:— 2.1. This affection of his father excited the envy and the hatred of his brethren; as did also his dreams which he saw, and related to his father, and to them, which foretold his future happiness, it being usual with mankind to envy their very nearest relations such their prosperity. Now the visions which Joseph saw in his sleep were these:— 2.1. 3. Now these brethren of his were under distraction and terror, and thought that very great danger hung over them; yet not at all reflecting upon their brother Joseph, and standing firm under the accusations laid against them, they made their defense by Reubel, the eldest of them, who now became their spokesman:
6. Ovid, Tristia, 3.1.70-3.1.72 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Sallust, Iugurtha, 4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.115, 34.55, 34.57-34.60, 34.62, 34.80, 35.2-35.9, 35.11-35.15, 35.18, 35.20, 35.22-35.28, 35.31, 35.34, 35.44, 35.46, 35.49, 35.51-35.52, 35.57-35.58, 35.60, 35.64-35.68, 35.70, 35.72, 35.74, 35.76-35.77, 35.81-35.83, 35.85-35.86, 35.88, 35.91, 35.93, 35.95, 35.97-35.98, 35.100, 35.102-35.103, 35.108-35.110, 35.114, 35.116-35.117, 35.119-35.120, 35.127-35.128, 35.130-35.133, 35.136, 35.139, 35.144, 36.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 12.10.3-12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.10.3.  The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste. 12.10.4.  Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war; for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line. 12.10.5.  For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible. 12.10.6.  It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Proto­genes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as φαντασίαι, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved a marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting. 12.10.7.  The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur. 12.10.8.  For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunken from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. 12.10.9.  On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.
10. Suetonius, Augustus, 29.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Suetonius, De Grammaticis, 20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Suetonius, De Historicis, 20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Suetonius, Iulius, 44.2, 56.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Tacitus, Agricola, 46 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Tacitus, Annals, 1.8, 2.73.1, 3.5, 3.72, 3.76, 4.9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.8.  The only business which he allowed to be discussed at the first meeting of the senate was the funeral of Augustus. The will, brought in by the Vestal Virgins, specified Tiberius and Livia as heirs, Livia to be adopted into the Julian family and the Augustan name. As legatees in the second degree he mentioned his grandchildren and great-grandchildren; in the third place, the prominent nobles — an ostentatious bid for the applause of posterity, as he detested most of them. His bequests were not above the ordinary civic scale, except that he left 43,500,000 sesterces to the nation and the populace, a thousand to every man in the praetorian guards, five hundred to each in the urban troops, and three hundred to all legionaries or members of the Roman cohorts. The question of the last honours was then debated. The two regarded as the most striking were due to Asinius Gallus and Lucius Arruntius — the former proposing that the funeral train should pass under a triumphal gateway; the latter, that the dead should be preceded by the titles of all laws which he had carried and the names of all peoples whom he had subdued. In addition, Valerius Messalla suggested that the oath of allegiance to Tiberius should be renewed annually. To a query from Tiberius, whether that expression of opinion came at his dictation, he retorted — it was the one form of flattery still left — that he had spoken of his own accord, and, when public interests were in question, he would (even at the risk of giving offence) use no man's judgment but his own. The senate clamoured for the body to be carried to the pyre on the shoulders of the Fathers. The Caesar, with haughty moderation, excused them from that duty, and warned the people by edict not to repeat the enthusiastic excesses which on a former day had marred the funeral of the deified Julius, by desiring Augustus to be cremated in the Forum rather than in the Field of Mars, his appointed resting-place. On the day of the ceremony, the troops were drawn up as though on guard, amid the jeers of those who had seen with their eyes, or whose fathers had declared to them, that day of still novel servitude and freedom disastrously re-wooed, when the killing of the dictator Caesar to some had seemed the worst, and to others the fairest, of high exploits:— "And now an aged prince, a veteran potentate, who had seen to it that not even his heirs should lack for means to coerce their country, must needs have military protection to ensure a peaceable burial! 2.73.1.  His funeral, devoid of ancestral effigies or procession, was distinguished by eulogies and recollections of his virtues. There were those who, considering his personal appearance, his early age, and the circumstances of his death, — to which they added the proximity of the region where he perished, — compared his decease with that of Alexander the Great: — "Each eminently handsome, of famous lineage, and in years not much exceeding thirty, had fallen among alien races by the treason of their countrymen. But the Roman had borne himself as one gentle to his friends, moderate in his pleasures, content with a single wife and the children of lawful wedlock. Nor was he less a man of the sword; though he lacked the other's temerity, and, when his numerous victories had beaten down the Germanies, was prohibited from making fast their bondage. But had he been the sole arbiter of affairs, of kingly authority and title, he would have overtaken the Greek in military fame with an ease proportioned to his superiority in clemency, self-command, and all other good qualities." The body, before cremation, was exposed in the forum of Antioch, the place destined for the final rites. Whether it bore marks of poisoning was disputable: for the indications were variously read, as pity and preconceived suspicion swayed the spectator to the side of Germanicus, or his predilections to that of Piso. 3.5.  There were those who missed the pageantry of a state-funeral and compared the elaborate tributes rendered by Augustus to Germanicus' father, Drusus:— "In the bitterest of the winter, the sovereign had gone in person as far as Ticinum, and, never stirring from the corpse, had entered the capital along with it. The bier had been surrounded with the family effigies of the Claudian and Livian houses; the dead had been mourned in the Forum, eulogized upon the Rostra; every distinction which our ancestors had discovered, or their posterity invented, was showered upon him. But to Germanicus had fallen not even the honours due to every and any noble! Granted that the length of the journey was a reason for cremating his body, no matter how, on foreign soil, it would only have been justice that he should have been accorded all the more distinctions later, because chance had denied them at the outset. His brother had gone no more than one day's journey to meet him; his uncle not even to the gate. Where were those usages of the ancients — the image placed at the head of the couch, the set poems to the memory of departed virtue, the panegyrics, the tears, the imitations (if no more) of sorrow? 3.72.  Nearly at the same time, Marcus Lepidus asked permission from the senate to strengthen and decorate the Basilica of Paulus, a monument of the Aemilian house, at his own expense. Public munificence was a custom still; nor had Augustus debarred a Taurus, a Philippus, or a Balbus from devoting the trophies of his arms or the overflow of his wealth to the greater splendour of the capital and the glory of posterity: and now Lepidus, a man of but moderate fortune, followed in their steps by renovating the famous edifice of his fathers. On the other hand, the rebuilding of the Theatre of Pompey, destroyed by a casual fire, was undertaken by Caesar, on the ground that no member of the family was equal to the task of restoration: the name of Pompey was, however, to remain. At the same time, he gave high praise to Sejanus, "through whose energy and watchfulness so grave an outbreak had stopped at one catastrophe." The Fathers voted a statue to Sejanus, to be placed in the Theatre of Pompey. Again, a short time afterwards, when he was honouring Junius Blaesus, proconsul of Africa, with the triumphal insignia, he explained that he did so as a compliment to Sejanus, of whom Blaesus was uncle. — None the less the exploits of Blaesus deserved such a distinction. 3.76.  Junia, too, born niece to Cato, wife of Caius Cassius, sister of Marcus Brutus, looked her last on life, sixty-three full years after the field of Philippi. Her will was busily discussed by the crowd; because in disposing of her great wealth she mentioned nearly every patrician of note in complimentary terms, but omitted the Caesar. The slur was taken in good part, and he offered no objection to the celebration of her funeral with a panegyric at the Rostra and the rest of the customary ceremonies. The effigies of twenty great houses preceded her to the tomb — members of the Manlian and Quinctian families, and names of equal splendour. But Brutus and Cassius shone brighter than all by the very fact that their portraits were unseen.
16. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 53.1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53.1.3.  At this particular time, now, besides attending to his other duties as usual, he completed the taking of the census, in connection with which his title was princeps senatus, as had been the practice when Rome was truly a republic. Moreover, he completed and dedicated the temple of Apollo on the Palatine, the precinct surrounding it, and the libraries.
17. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.3, 1.38.7, 4.33.5, 5.27.3, 10.18.5, 10.32.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14.3. Some extant verses of Musaeus, if indeed they are to be included among his works, say that Triptolemus was the son of Oceanus and Earth; while those ascribed to Orpheus (though in my opinion the received authorship is again incorrect) say that Eubuleus and Triptolemus were sons of Dysaules, and that because they gave Demeter information about her daughter the sowing of seed was her reward to them. But Choerilus, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Cercyon and Triptolemus were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphictyon, while the father of Triptolemus was Rarus, of Cercyon, Poseidon. After I had intended to go further into this story, and to describe the contents of the sanctuary at Athens, called the Eleusinium, I was stayed by a vision in a dream. I shall therefore turn to those things it is lawful to write of to all men. 1.38.7. My dream forbade the description of the things within the wall of the sanctuary, and the uninitiated are of course not permitted to learn that which they are prevented from seeing. The hero Eleusis, after whom the city is named, some assert to be a son of Hermes and of Daeira, daughter of Ocean; there are poets, however, who have made Ogygus father of Eleusis . Ancient legends, deprived of the help of poetry, have given rise to many fictions, especially concerning the pedigrees of heroes. 4.33.5. I may not reveal the rites of the Great Goddesses, for it is their mysteries which they celebrate in the Carnasian grove, and I regard them as second only to the Eleusinian in sanctity. But my dream did not prevent me from making known to all that the brazen urn, discovered by the Argive general, and the bones of Eurytus the son of Melaneus were kept here. A river Charadrus flows past the grove; 5.27.3. This is the horse in which is, say the Eleans, the hippomanes (what maddens horses). It is plain to all that the quality of the horse is the result of magic skill. It is much inferior in size and beauty to all the horses standing within the Altis. Moreover, its tail has been cut off which makes the figure uglier still. But male horses, not only in spring but on any day, are at heat towards it. 10.18.5. The men of Orneae in Argolis, when hard pressed in war by the Sicyonians, vowed to Apollo that, if they should drive the host of the Sicyonians out of their native land, they would organize a daily procession in his honor at Delphi, and sacrifice victims of a certain kind and of a certain number. Well, they conquered the Sicyonians in battle. But finding the daily fulfillment of their vow a great expense and a still greater trouble, they devised the trick of dedicating to the god bronze figures representing a sacrifice and a procession. 10.32.13. About forty stades distant from Asclepius is a precinct and shrine sacred to Isis, the holiest of all those made by the Greeks for the Egyptian goddess. For the Tithoreans think it wrong to dwell round about it, and no one may enter the shrine except those whom Isis herself has honored by inviting them in dreams. The same rule is observed in the cities above the Maeander by the gods of the lower world; for to all whom they wish to enter their shrines they send visions seen in dreams.
18. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 2.4.21 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 2.4.21 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20. Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, 6.5.1-6.5.2 (6th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeschylus (tragic poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
alcaeus (lyric poet), statue of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
alexandria, library of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
antisthenes (philosopher), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
apollo Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
apollonius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
architecture Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
archive Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
asinius pollio, collection of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
asinius pollio, his republicanism Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
asinius pollio Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
asinius pollio (politician and writer), library of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
atticus (titus pomponius) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
auctoritas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
augustus, his funeral Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
augustus, his hellenism Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
augustus, independent building projects encouraged Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
authentic versus copy, and pleasure Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
bacchants Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
barberini togatus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
benefactor Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
bibliotheca palatina Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
bust or herm, preferred by romans Zanker, The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity (1996) 42
caryatids Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
censor Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
cephisodotus, works in atrium libertatis Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
cephisodotus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
clodius pulcher, p., his funeral Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
cult images, danger of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
danaans Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
deity, powers of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
delphi, offering of the orneatai Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
dionysus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
diphilus (comic poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
dirce Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
documents, legal and administrative Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
dreams, and images Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
epicharmus (comic poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
euripides (tragic poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
eutychides Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
forma urbis romae Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
funeral speech Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 154; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 154
funerals, and virtus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
funerals Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
hadrian (emperor), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
heracles/hercules (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
herennius severus Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
herm / double herm Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
hermes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
hermoerotes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
herodotus (historian), statue of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
his oceanus and zeus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
historiography Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
homer (poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
house, imagines in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
hyginus (librarian) Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
identity, xv–xvi, of prototype and representation Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, and ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, as ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, identified with prototype Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
imagines, in funerals Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
impietas against, and memory Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
impietas against, and virtus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
impietas against, veneration of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
impietas against, viewer response to Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
julius caesar, c., his funeral Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
julius caesar, c. Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
julius caesar, planned a massive library Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
libraries, decorated with portraits Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
libraries, private and public Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
libraries Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
library, administration of Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
library, imperial Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
library Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
magic Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
marcius philippus, l. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
menander (comic poet), pompeii, casa del medro Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
menander (comic poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
menander (comic poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
mimesis Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
miracles, pagan Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
mos maiorum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
neptune Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
offering, art work as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
orestes (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
orneatai, offering at delphi Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
papylus, his zeus hospitalis Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
pausanias, and ritual-centered visuality Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
pergamum, library of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
philoxenus (lyric poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
plato Zanker, The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity (1996) 42
pliny the elder Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
pliny the younger Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
pollio, asinius Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
polybius, on roman funerals Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
pompeius macer Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
pomponius atticus, t. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
porticus octaviae Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
praxiteles Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
pylades (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
realism Zanker, The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity (1996) 42
rhodes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
ritual, image and Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ritual, image as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
roman, power Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
rome, its collection Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
rome, temple of apollo sosianus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
rome, temple of jupiter capitolinus, cult statue of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
rome, theatre of balbus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
rome Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 154; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 154
rule, atrium libertatis Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
rule, bibliotheca pollionis Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
rule, bibliotheca traiani Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
rule, forum julium Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
rule, forum traiani Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
rule, momumenta pollionis Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
rule, rome, city of Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
sallust, on imagines Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
sappho (lyric poet), statue of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
scopas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
sileni Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
socrates (philosopher), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
sophocles (tragic poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
statilius taurus, t. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
stephanus, his nymphs of appia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
tacitus, on imagines Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
tauriscus of tralles Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
telegonus (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
telemachus (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
temples and shrines, of apollo palatinus Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
temples and shrines, of libertas' Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
terentius varro, m. Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 295
timotheus (lyric poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
trojans Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
valerius publicola, p., his hebdomades Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
varro, marcus terentius (scholar), library of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
varro of reate, julius caesars choice to run his planned library Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 156
venus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
vesta Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
viewers, elite versus non-elite Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
viewers, shared values of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
virtus, and memory Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
vitruvius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 224
xenophon (historian), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157