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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9458
Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.22-35.28


nanAccording to Juba sandarach or realgar and ochre are products of the island of Topazus in the Red Sea, but they are not imported from those parts to us. We have stated the method of making sandarach. An adulterated sandarach is also made from ceruse boiled in a furnace. It ought to be flame-coloured. Its price is 5 asses per lb.


nanIf ceruse is mixed with red ochre in equal quantities and burnt, it produces sandyx or vermilion — though it is true that I observe Virgil held the view that sandyx is a plant, from the line: Sandyx self-grown shall clothe the pasturing lambs. Its cost per lb. is half that of sandarach. No other colours weigh heavier than these.


nanAmong the artificial colours is also Syrian colour, which as we said is used as an undercoating for cinnabar and red lead. It is made by mixing sinopis and sandyx together.


nanBlack pigment will also be classed among the artificial colours, although it is also derived from earth in two ways; it either exudes from the earth like the brine in salt pits, or actual earth of a sulphur colour is approved for the purpose. Painters have been known to dig up charred remains from graves thus violated to supply it. All these plans are troublesome and new-fangled; for black paint can he made in a variety of ways from the soot produced by burning resin or pitch, owing to which factories have actually been built with no exit for the smoke produced by this process. The most esteemed black paint is obtained in the same way from the wood of the pitch-pine. It is adulterated by mixing it with the soot of furnaces and baths, which is used as a material for writing. Some people calcine dried wine-lees, and declare that if the lees from a good wine are used this ink has the appearance of Indian ink. The very celebrated painters Polygnotus and Micon at Athens made black paint from the skins of grapes, and called it grape-lees ink. Apelles invented the method of making black from burnt ivory; the Greek name for this is elephantinon. There is also an Indian black, imported from India, the composition of which I have not yet discovered. A black is also produced with dyes from the black florescence which adheres to bronze pans. One is also made by burning logs of pitch-pine and pounding the charcoal in a mortar. The cuttlefish has, a remarkable property in forming a black secretion, but no colour is made from this. The preparation of all black is completed by exposure to the sun, black for writing ink receiving an admixture of gum and black for painting walls an admixture of glue. Black pigment that has been dissolved in vinegar is difficult to wash out.


nanAmong the remaining colours which because of their high cost, as we said, are supplied by patrons, dark purple holds the first place. It is produced by dipping silversmiths' earth along with purple cloth and in like manner, the earth absorbing the colour more quickly than the wool. The best is that which being the first formed in the boiling cauldron becomes saturated with the dyes in their primary state, and the next best produced when white earth is added to the same liquor after the first has been removed; and every time this is done the quality deteriorates, the liquid becoming more diluted at each stage. The reason why the dark purple of Pozzuoli is more highly praised than that of Tyre or Gaetulia or Laconia, places which produce the most costly purples, is that it combines most easily with hysginum and madder which cannot help absorbing it. The cheapest comes from Canusium. The price is from one to thirty denarii per lb. Painters using it put a coat of sandyx underneath and then add a coat of dark purple mixed with egg, and so produce the brilliance of cinnabar; if they wish instead to produce the glow of purple, they lay a coat of blue underneath, and then cover this with dark purple mixed with egg.


nanOf next greatest importance after this is indigo, a product of India, being a slime that adheres to the scum upon reeds. When it is sifted out it is black, but in dilution it yields a marvellous mixture of purple and blue. There is another kind of it that floats on the surface of the pans in the purple dye-shops, and this is the 'scum of purple.' People who adulterate it stain pigeons' droppings with genuine indigo, or else colour earth of Selinus or ring-earth with woad. It can be tested by means of a live coal, as if genuine it gives off a brilliant purple flame and a smell of the sea while it smokes; on this account some people think that it is collected from rocks on the coast. The price of indigo is 20 denarii per pound. Used medicinally it allays cramps and fits and dries up sores.


nanArmenia sends us the substance Azarite, etc. named after it Armenian. This also is a mineral that is dyed like malachite, and the best is that which most closely approximates to that substance, the colour partaking also of dark blue. Its price used to be rated at 300 sesterces per pound. A sand has been found all over the Spanish provinces that admits of similar preparation, and accordingly the price has dropped to as low as six denarii. It differs from dark blue by a light white glow which renders this blue colour thinner in comparison. It is only used in medicine to give nourishment to the hair, and especially the eyelashes.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Cicero, In Verrem, 2.4.98 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Philippicae, 2.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, Pro Scauro, 48 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.4. non satis Graecorum gloriae responderunt. an censemus, cessemus KRH si Fabio, GFabio V 1 nobilissimo homini, laudi datum esset, quod pingeret, non multos etiam apud nos futuros Polyclitos et Parrhasios fuisse? honos alit artes, omnesque incenduntur acceduntur ( vel ac- cenduntur) Aug. incenduntur ex acc. H 1 ecl. 212 gloriae H ibid. cum Aug. plerisque codd. (gloriae L) Lup. ad studia gloria, iacentque ea semper, quae apud quosque improbantur. honos ... 219,2 improbantur Aug. civ. 5,13 (H ecl. 212 ) et ex eo Serv. Lupus ep. 1 summam eruditionem Graeci sitam censebant in nervorum vocumque cantibus; igitur et Epaminondas, princeps meo iudicio Graeciae, graecis X -ę pro -s V 1 aut c fidibus praeclare cecinisse dicitur, Themistoclesque aliquot ante annos annis edd. vett. cum in epulis recusaret recusasset V 2 s lyram, liram X est habitus indoctior. est... indoctior Quint. inst. 1,10,19 ergo in Graecia musici floruerunt, discebantque id omnes, nec qui nesciebat nesciebant V 1 satis excultus doctrina putabatur.
5. Livy, History, 39.5.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Ovid, Fasti, 6.437-6.454 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6.437. How worried the Senate was, when Vesta’s temple 6.438. Caught fire: and she was nearly buried by her own roof! 6.439. Holy fires blazed, fed by sinful fires 6.440. Sacred and profane flames were merged. 6.441. The priestesses with streaming hair, wept in amazement: 6.442. Fear had robbed them of their bodily powers. 6.443. Metellus rushed into their midst, crying in a loud voice: 6.444. ‘Run and help, there’s no use in weeping. 6.445. Seize fate’s pledges in your virgin hands: 6.446. They won’t survive by prayers, but by action. 6.447. Ah me! Do you hesitate?’ he said. He saw them 6.448. Hesitating, sinking in terror to their knees. 6.449. He took up water, and holding his hands aloft, cried: 6.450. ‘Forgive me, holy relics! A man enters where no man should. 6.451. If it’s wrong, let the punishment fall on me: 6.452. Let my life be the penalty, so Rome is free of harm.’ 6.453. He spoke and entered. The goddess he carried away 6.454. Was saved by her priest’s devotion, and she approved.
7. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 7.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 7.139-7.147 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.139. But what afforded the greatest surprise of all was the structure of the pageants that were borne along; for indeed he that met them could not but be afraid that the bearers would not be able firmly enough to support them, such was their magnitude; 7.141. for upon many of them were laid carpets of gold. There was also wrought gold and ivory fastened about them all; 7.142. and many resemblances of the war, and those in several ways, and variety of contrivances, affording a most lively portraiture of itself. 7.143. For there was to be seen a happy country laid waste, and entire squadrons of enemies slain; while some of them ran away, and some were carried into captivity; with walls of great altitude and magnitude overthrown and ruined by machines; with the strongest fortifications taken, and the walls of most populous cities upon the tops of hills seized on 7.144. and an army pouring itself within the walls; as also every place full of slaughter, and supplications of the enemies, when they were no longer able to lift up their hands in way of opposition. Fire also sent upon temples was here represented, and houses overthrown, and falling upon their owners: 7.145. rivers also, after they came out of a large and melancholy desert, ran down, not into a land cultivated, nor as drink for men, or for cattle, but through a land still on fire upon every side; for the Jews related that such a thing they had undergone during this war. 7.146. Now the workmanship of these representations was so magnificent and lively in the construction of the things, that it exhibited what had been done to such as did not see it, as if they had been there really present. 7.147. On the top of every one of these pageants was placed the commander of the city that was taken, and the manner wherein he was taken. Moreover, there followed those pageants a great number of ships;
9. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 88, 46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 88, 46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 6.139, 7.214, 9.129, 10.5, 14.2, 16.232-16.233, 34.55, 34.57-34.60, 34.62, 35.2-35.13, 35.15, 35.18, 35.20, 35.23-35.28, 35.31, 35.34, 35.44, 35.46, 35.49, 35.51-35.52, 35.57-35.58, 35.60, 35.64-35.68, 35.70, 35.72, 35.74, 35.76-35.77, 35.81-35.83, 35.85-35.86, 35.88, 35.91, 35.93, 35.95, 35.97-35.98, 35.100, 35.102-35.103, 35.108-35.110, 35.114, 35.116-35.117, 35.119-35.120, 35.127-35.128, 35.130-35.133, 35.136, 35.139, 35.144, 35.151, 37.82 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Plutarch, Aemilius Paulus, 6.8-6.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.8. Afterwards he often made it clear that he was desirous of a second consulship, and once actually announced his candidacy, but when he was passed by and not elected, he made no further efforts to obtain the office, giving his attention to his duties as augur, and training his sons, not only in the native and ancestral discipline in which he himself had been trained, but also, and with greater ardour, in that of the Greeks. 6.9. For not only the grammarians and philosophers and rhetoricians, but also the modellers and painters, the overseers of horses and dogs, and the teachers of the art of hunting, by whom the young men were surrounded, were Greeks.
13. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 12.10.3-12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.10.3.  The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste. 12.10.4.  Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war; for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line. 12.10.5.  For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible. 12.10.6.  It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Proto­genes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as φαντασίαι, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved a marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting. 12.10.7.  The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur. 12.10.8.  For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunken from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. 12.10.9.  On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.
14. Suetonius, Nero, 52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Tacitus, Annals, 2.41.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 8.14.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 43.45.4, 54.35.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43.45.4.  Now it occurs to me to marvel at the coincidence: there were eight such statues, — seven to the kings, and an eighth to the Brutus who overthrew the Tarquins, — and they set up the statue of Caesar beside the last of these; and it was from this cause chiefly that the other Brutus, Marcus, was roused to plot against him. 54.35.2.  When the senate and the people once more contributed money for statues of Augustus, he would set up no statue of himself, but instead set up statues of Salus Publica, Concordia, and Pax. The citizens, it seems, were nearly always and on every pretext collecting money for this same object, and at last they ceased paying it privately, as one might call it, but would come to him on the very first day of the year and give, some more, some less, into his own hands;
18. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.3, 1.38.7, 4.33.5, 5.27.3, 10.18.5, 10.32.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14.3. Some extant verses of Musaeus, if indeed they are to be included among his works, say that Triptolemus was the son of Oceanus and Earth; while those ascribed to Orpheus (though in my opinion the received authorship is again incorrect) say that Eubuleus and Triptolemus were sons of Dysaules, and that because they gave Demeter information about her daughter the sowing of seed was her reward to them. But Choerilus, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Cercyon and Triptolemus were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphictyon, while the father of Triptolemus was Rarus, of Cercyon, Poseidon. After I had intended to go further into this story, and to describe the contents of the sanctuary at Athens, called the Eleusinium, I was stayed by a vision in a dream. I shall therefore turn to those things it is lawful to write of to all men. 1.38.7. My dream forbade the description of the things within the wall of the sanctuary, and the uninitiated are of course not permitted to learn that which they are prevented from seeing. The hero Eleusis, after whom the city is named, some assert to be a son of Hermes and of Daeira, daughter of Ocean; there are poets, however, who have made Ogygus father of Eleusis . Ancient legends, deprived of the help of poetry, have given rise to many fictions, especially concerning the pedigrees of heroes. 4.33.5. I may not reveal the rites of the Great Goddesses, for it is their mysteries which they celebrate in the Carnasian grove, and I regard them as second only to the Eleusinian in sanctity. But my dream did not prevent me from making known to all that the brazen urn, discovered by the Argive general, and the bones of Eurytus the son of Melaneus were kept here. A river Charadrus flows past the grove; 5.27.3. This is the horse in which is, say the Eleans, the hippomanes (what maddens horses). It is plain to all that the quality of the horse is the result of magic skill. It is much inferior in size and beauty to all the horses standing within the Altis. Moreover, its tail has been cut off which makes the figure uglier still. But male horses, not only in spring but on any day, are at heat towards it. 10.18.5. The men of Orneae in Argolis, when hard pressed in war by the Sicyonians, vowed to Apollo that, if they should drive the host of the Sicyonians out of their native land, they would organize a daily procession in his honor at Delphi, and sacrifice victims of a certain kind and of a certain number. Well, they conquered the Sicyonians in battle. But finding the daily fulfillment of their vow a great expense and a still greater trouble, they devised the trick of dedicating to the god bronze figures representing a sacrifice and a procession. 10.32.13. About forty stades distant from Asclepius is a precinct and shrine sacred to Isis, the holiest of all those made by the Greeks for the Egyptian goddess. For the Tithoreans think it wrong to dwell round about it, and no one may enter the shrine except those whom Isis herself has honored by inviting them in dreams. The same rule is observed in the cities above the Maeander by the gods of the lower world; for to all whom they wish to enter their shrines they send visions seen in dreams.
19. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Hadrian, 16.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Marcus Antoninus, 4.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21. Victor, De Caesaribus, 14.6 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aesculapius, temple at antium Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
agrippa, marcus vipsanius Bianchetti et al., Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition (2015) 220
alexander the great, and the alexander mosaic Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
ambracia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
anger Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79
antium Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
athens Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
audience Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
augustodunum Bianchetti et al., Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition (2015) 220
augustus Bianchetti et al., Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition (2015) 220
authentic versus copy, and education Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
authentic versus copy, decline of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
authentic versus copy, ignorance of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
battle, in sicily Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
battle, of marathon Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
boeotia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
carthage Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
charax Bianchetti et al., Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition (2015) 220
commemoration Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
concordia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
cult images, danger of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
deity, powers of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
delphi, offering of the orneatai Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
dreams, and images Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
edwards, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
eumenes, rhetor Bianchetti et al., Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition (2015) 220
exemplarity Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
fabius maximus rullianus, q. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
fabius pictor, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
fulvius flaccus, m. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
fulvius nobilior, m., conquers ambracia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
funerary (art, rituals, monuments, processions) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
germania Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
greece, and roman culture Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
hadrian, as artist Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
hanno Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
hieron ii of syracuse Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
identity, xv–xvi, of prototype and representation Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, and ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, as ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, identified with prototype Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ingenium Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79
innovation Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79
jerusalem, temple treasures repatriated Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
junius bubulcus, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
justinian Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
lucretius gallus, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
magic Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
maximinus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
mimesis Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
miracles, pagan Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
monster, communicate history Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
museum, and national identity Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
naples Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
nature Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79
nero, artistic aspirations Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
nero claudius caesar augustus germanicus Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79
objects, and identity Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
offering, art work as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
orneatai, offering at delphi Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
pacuvius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
painting, in roman education Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
painting, triumphal Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
paintings Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 254
papirius cursor, t. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
pausanias, and ritual-centered visuality Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
peace Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
pearce, s. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
pericles Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
persia Bianchetti et al., Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition (2015) 220
perversion Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79
petronius, and the decline of art Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
philostratus the elder, his imagines Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
pietas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
pliny the elder, on decline of art Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
pliny the elder Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 254; Bianchetti et al., Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition (2015) 220
pompey the great, and venus victrix Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
punic wars Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
ritual, image and Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ritual, image as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
rome, aventine hill Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
rome, basilica porcia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
rome, curia hostilia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
rome, esquiline hill Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
rome, temple of aesculapius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
rome, temple of consus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
rome, temple of mars ultor Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
rome, temple of salus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
salus publica Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 17
samnites Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
self-representation Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
sempronius gracchus, ti., liberates beneventum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
sempronius gracchus, ti. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
severus, propaganda of Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 254
sparta, spartans Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79
tarentum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84, 140
trimalchio Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
triumphator, garb worn by Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
triumphs, artwork of' Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 254
tullius cicero, m., and the de finibus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
valerius messalla, m., his campaign against tarentum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
valerius messalla, m. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
velitrae Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
veteran (soldier) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
virtue Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79
virtus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
vitruvius, on decline of art Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
volsinii Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
vortumnus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 140
war, trojan war (fall of troy) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
warfare Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 28
weakening Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 79