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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9458
Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.20


nanBurnt ceruse (usta) was discovered by accident, when some was burnt up in jars in a fire at Piraeus. It was first employed by Nicias above mentioned. Asiatic ceruse is now thought the best; it is also called purple ceruse and it costs 6 denarii per lb. It is also made at Rome by calcining yellow ochre which is as hard as marble and quenching it with vinegar. Burnt ceruse is indispensable for representing shadows.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Cicero, In Verrem, 2.4.98 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Philippicae, 2.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 7.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 88, 46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 88, 46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 14.2, 34.55, 34.57-34.60, 34.62, 35.2-35.13, 35.15, 35.18, 35.22-35.28, 35.31, 35.34, 35.44, 35.46, 35.49, 35.51-35.52, 35.57-35.58, 35.60, 35.64-35.68, 35.70, 35.72, 35.74, 35.76-35.77, 35.81-35.83, 35.85-35.86, 35.88, 35.91, 35.93, 35.95, 35.97-35.98, 35.100, 35.102-35.103, 35.108-35.110, 35.114, 35.116-35.117, 35.119-35.120, 35.127-35.128, 35.130-35.133, 35.136, 35.139, 35.144 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Plutarch, Aemilius Paulus, 6.8-6.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.8. Afterwards he often made it clear that he was desirous of a second consulship, and once actually announced his candidacy, but when he was passed by and not elected, he made no further efforts to obtain the office, giving his attention to his duties as augur, and training his sons, not only in the native and ancestral discipline in which he himself had been trained, but also, and with greater ardour, in that of the Greeks. 6.9. For not only the grammarians and philosophers and rhetoricians, but also the modellers and painters, the overseers of horses and dogs, and the teachers of the art of hunting, by whom the young men were surrounded, were Greeks.
8. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 12.10.3-12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.10.3.  The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste. 12.10.4.  Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war; for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line. 12.10.5.  For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible. 12.10.6.  It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Proto­genes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as φαντασίαι, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved a marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting. 12.10.7.  The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur. 12.10.8.  For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunken from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. 12.10.9.  On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.
9. Suetonius, Nero, 52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 43.45.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43.45.4.  Now it occurs to me to marvel at the coincidence: there were eight such statues, — seven to the kings, and an eighth to the Brutus who overthrew the Tarquins, — and they set up the statue of Caesar beside the last of these; and it was from this cause chiefly that the other Brutus, Marcus, was roused to plot against him.
11. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.3, 1.38.7, 4.33.5, 5.27.3, 10.18.5, 10.32.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14.3. Some extant verses of Musaeus, if indeed they are to be included among his works, say that Triptolemus was the son of Oceanus and Earth; while those ascribed to Orpheus (though in my opinion the received authorship is again incorrect) say that Eubuleus and Triptolemus were sons of Dysaules, and that because they gave Demeter information about her daughter the sowing of seed was her reward to them. But Choerilus, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Cercyon and Triptolemus were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphictyon, while the father of Triptolemus was Rarus, of Cercyon, Poseidon. After I had intended to go further into this story, and to describe the contents of the sanctuary at Athens, called the Eleusinium, I was stayed by a vision in a dream. I shall therefore turn to those things it is lawful to write of to all men. 1.38.7. My dream forbade the description of the things within the wall of the sanctuary, and the uninitiated are of course not permitted to learn that which they are prevented from seeing. The hero Eleusis, after whom the city is named, some assert to be a son of Hermes and of Daeira, daughter of Ocean; there are poets, however, who have made Ogygus father of Eleusis . Ancient legends, deprived of the help of poetry, have given rise to many fictions, especially concerning the pedigrees of heroes. 4.33.5. I may not reveal the rites of the Great Goddesses, for it is their mysteries which they celebrate in the Carnasian grove, and I regard them as second only to the Eleusinian in sanctity. But my dream did not prevent me from making known to all that the brazen urn, discovered by the Argive general, and the bones of Eurytus the son of Melaneus were kept here. A river Charadrus flows past the grove; 5.27.3. This is the horse in which is, say the Eleans, the hippomanes (what maddens horses). It is plain to all that the quality of the horse is the result of magic skill. It is much inferior in size and beauty to all the horses standing within the Altis. Moreover, its tail has been cut off which makes the figure uglier still. But male horses, not only in spring but on any day, are at heat towards it. 10.18.5. The men of Orneae in Argolis, when hard pressed in war by the Sicyonians, vowed to Apollo that, if they should drive the host of the Sicyonians out of their native land, they would organize a daily procession in his honor at Delphi, and sacrifice victims of a certain kind and of a certain number. Well, they conquered the Sicyonians in battle. But finding the daily fulfillment of their vow a great expense and a still greater trouble, they devised the trick of dedicating to the god bronze figures representing a sacrifice and a procession. 10.32.13. About forty stades distant from Asclepius is a precinct and shrine sacred to Isis, the holiest of all those made by the Greeks for the Egyptian goddess. For the Tithoreans think it wrong to dwell round about it, and no one may enter the shrine except those whom Isis herself has honored by inviting them in dreams. The same rule is observed in the cities above the Maeander by the gods of the lower world; for to all whom they wish to enter their shrines they send visions seen in dreams.
12. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Hadrian, 16.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Marcus Antoninus, 4.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14. Victor, De Caesaribus, 14.6 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
appadurai, a. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
authentic versus copy, and education Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
authentic versus copy, decline of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
authentic versus copy, ignorance of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
baudrillard, j. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
bennett, t. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
clifford, j. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
cult images, danger of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
deity, powers of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
delphi, offering of the orneatai Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
dreams, and images Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
geertz, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
greece, and roman culture Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
hadrian, as artist Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
identity, xv–xvi, of prototype and representation Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, and ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, as ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, identified with prototype Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
magic Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
mimesis Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
miracles, pagan Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
monster, communicate history Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
naples Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
nero, artistic aspirations Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
objects, and identity Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
objects, and power Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
objects, their communicative value Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
objects Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
offering, art work as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
orneatai, offering at delphi Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
pacuvius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
painting, in roman education' Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
pausanias, and ritual-centered visuality Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
pearce, s. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 16
pericles Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
petronius, and the decline of art Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
philostratus the elder, his imagines Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
pliny the elder, on decline of art Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
ritual, image and Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ritual, image as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
rome, temple of mars ultor Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
tarentum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
trimalchio Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
tullius cicero, m., and the de finibus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
valerius messalla, m., his campaign against tarentum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
velitrae Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84
vitruvius, on decline of art Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 84