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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9458
Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.136
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Cicero, On Divination, 1.30-1.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.30. Non igitur obnuntiatio Ateii causam finxit calamitatis, sed signo obiecto monuit Crassum, quid eventurum esset, nisi cavisset. Ita aut illa obnuntiatio nihil valuit aut, si, ut Appius iudicat, valuit, id valuit, ut peccatum haereat non in eo, qui monuerit, sed in eo, qui non obtemperarit. Quid? lituus iste vester, quod clarissumum est insigne auguratus, unde vobis est traditus? Nempe eo Romulus regiones direxit tum, cum urbem condidit. Qui quidem Romuli lituus, id est incurvum et leviter a summo inflexum bacillum, quod ab eius litui, quo canitur, similitudine nomen invenit, cum situs esset in curia Saliorum, quae est in Palatio, eaque deflagravisset, inventus est integer. 1.31. Quid? multis annis post Romulum Prisco regte Tarquinio quis veterum scriptorum non loquitur, quae sit ab Atto Navio per lituum regionum facta discriptio? Qui cum propter paupertatem sues puer pasceret, una ex iis amissa vovisse dicitur, si recuperasset, uvam se deo daturum, quae maxima esset in vinea; itaque sue inventa ad meridiem spectans in vinea media dicitur constitisse, cumque in quattuor partis vineam divisisset trisque partis aves abdixissent, quarta parte, quae erat reliqua, in regiones distributa mirabili magnitudine uvam, ut scriptum videmus, invenit. Qua re celebrata cum vicini omnes ad eum de rebus suis referrent, erat in magno nomine et gloria. 1.31. What ancient chronicler fails to mention the fact that in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, long after the time of Romulus, a quartering of the heavens was made with this staff by Attus Navius? Because of poverty Attus was a swineherd in his youth. As the story goes, he, having lost one of his hogs, made a vow that if he recovered it he would make an offering to the god of the largest bunch of grapes in his vineyard. Accordingly, after he had found the hog, he took his stand, we are told, in the middle of the vineyard, with his face to the south and divided the vineyard into four parts. When the birds had shown three of these parts to be unfavourable, he subdivided the fourth and last part and then found, as we see it recorded, a bunch of grapes of marvellous size.This occurrence having been noised abroad, all his neighbours began to consult him about their own affairs and thus greatly enhanced his name and fame.
2. Cicero, On Laws, 2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 34.55, 34.57-34.60, 34.62, 35.2-35.13, 35.15, 35.18, 35.20, 35.22-35.28, 35.31, 35.34, 35.44, 35.46, 35.49, 35.51-35.52, 35.57-35.58, 35.60, 35.64-35.68, 35.70, 35.72, 35.74, 35.76-35.77, 35.81-35.83, 35.85-35.86, 35.88, 35.91, 35.93, 35.95, 35.97-35.98, 35.100, 35.102-35.103, 35.108-35.110, 35.114, 35.116-35.117, 35.119-35.120, 35.127-35.128, 35.130-35.133, 35.139, 35.144 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Plutarch, Fabius, 22.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22.6. However, he removed the colossal statue of Heracles from Tarentum, and set it up on the Capitol, and near it an equestrian statue of himself, in bronze. He thus appeared far more eccentric in these matters than Marcellus, nay rather, the mild and humane conduct of Marcellus was thus made to seem altogether admirable by contrast, as has been written in his Life. Chapter xxi. Marcellus had enriched Rome with works of Greek art taken from Syracuse in 212 B.C. Livy’s opinion is rather different from Plutarch’s: sed maiore animo generis eius praeda abstinuit Fabius quam Marcellus, xxvii. 16. Fabius killed the people but spared their gods; Marcellus spared the people but took their gods.
5. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 12.10.3-12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.10.3.  The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste. 12.10.4.  Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war; for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line. 12.10.5.  For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible. 12.10.6.  It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Proto­genes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as φαντασίαι, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved a marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting. 12.10.7.  The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur. 12.10.8.  For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunken from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. 12.10.9.  On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.
6. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 1.8.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.3, 1.38.7, 4.33.5, 5.27.3, 10.18.5, 10.32.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14.3. Some extant verses of Musaeus, if indeed they are to be included among his works, say that Triptolemus was the son of Oceanus and Earth; while those ascribed to Orpheus (though in my opinion the received authorship is again incorrect) say that Eubuleus and Triptolemus were sons of Dysaules, and that because they gave Demeter information about her daughter the sowing of seed was her reward to them. But Choerilus, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Cercyon and Triptolemus were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphictyon, while the father of Triptolemus was Rarus, of Cercyon, Poseidon. After I had intended to go further into this story, and to describe the contents of the sanctuary at Athens, called the Eleusinium, I was stayed by a vision in a dream. I shall therefore turn to those things it is lawful to write of to all men. 1.38.7. My dream forbade the description of the things within the wall of the sanctuary, and the uninitiated are of course not permitted to learn that which they are prevented from seeing. The hero Eleusis, after whom the city is named, some assert to be a son of Hermes and of Daeira, daughter of Ocean; there are poets, however, who have made Ogygus father of Eleusis . Ancient legends, deprived of the help of poetry, have given rise to many fictions, especially concerning the pedigrees of heroes. 4.33.5. I may not reveal the rites of the Great Goddesses, for it is their mysteries which they celebrate in the Carnasian grove, and I regard them as second only to the Eleusinian in sanctity. But my dream did not prevent me from making known to all that the brazen urn, discovered by the Argive general, and the bones of Eurytus the son of Melaneus were kept here. A river Charadrus flows past the grove; 5.27.3. This is the horse in which is, say the Eleans, the hippomanes (what maddens horses). It is plain to all that the quality of the horse is the result of magic skill. It is much inferior in size and beauty to all the horses standing within the Altis. Moreover, its tail has been cut off which makes the figure uglier still. But male horses, not only in spring but on any day, are at heat towards it. 10.18.5. The men of Orneae in Argolis, when hard pressed in war by the Sicyonians, vowed to Apollo that, if they should drive the host of the Sicyonians out of their native land, they would organize a daily procession in his honor at Delphi, and sacrifice victims of a certain kind and of a certain number. Well, they conquered the Sicyonians in battle. But finding the daily fulfillment of their vow a great expense and a still greater trouble, they devised the trick of dedicating to the god bronze figures representing a sacrifice and a procession. 10.32.13. About forty stades distant from Asclepius is a precinct and shrine sacred to Isis, the holiest of all those made by the Greeks for the Egyptian goddess. For the Tithoreans think it wrong to dwell round about it, and no one may enter the shrine except those whom Isis herself has honored by inviting them in dreams. The same rule is observed in the cities above the Maeander by the gods of the lower world; for to all whom they wish to enter their shrines they send visions seen in dreams.
8. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.22 (2nd cent. CE

2.22. While he was waiting in the Temple, — and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived, — Apollonius said: O Damis, is there such a thing as painting? Why yes, he answered, if there be any such thing as truth. And what does this art do? It mixes together, replied Damis, all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow. And for what reason, said the other, does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax. It is, said Damis, for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods. Then, O Damis, painting is imitation? And what else could it be? said he: for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors. And, said the other, the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation? It would seem so, he replied. Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand. Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures. We may, he said, rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea. Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone. Not twofold, replied Damis, for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects. Then, said Apollonius, you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease? No, he answered, but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw. Then, said the other, we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d'oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accius, l. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
achilles Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
aesthetics, of horror Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
ajax Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
art, roman Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
auctoritas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29, 231
augustus, writes an ajax Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
battle Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
constantinople Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
cult images, danger of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
deity, powers of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
delphi, offering of the orneatai Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
dreams, and images Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ennius, his aiax mastigophorus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
epigram Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
furor Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
heracles Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
identity, construction of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
identity, roman Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
identity, xv–xvi, of prototype and representation Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, and ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, as ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, identified with prototype Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
jason Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
julius caesar, c., and alexander the great Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
julius caesar, c., descended from venus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
julius caesar, c., private tastes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
julius caesar, c., public collection in temple of venus genetrix Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
julius caesar, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
magic Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
mars, father of rome Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
medea Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
mimesis Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
miracles, pagan Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
mnemosyne Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
muse Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
myth, foundation Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
neoptolemos Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
niobe/niobids Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
offering, art work as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
orneatai, offering at delphi Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
pacuvius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
painting, vase p. Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
painting, wall p. Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
pausanias, and ritual-centered visuality Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
plunders cyprus, his suicide Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
pompeii Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
porcius cato the younger, m., opposes caesar Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
res gestae Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
ritual, image and Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ritual, image as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
rome, curia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
rome, forum of julius caesar, its collection Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
rome, forum of julius caesar Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
rome, temple of divus augustus, victoria in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
rome, temple of venus genetrix, its collection Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
rule, forum julium Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
rule, rome, city of Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
sallust, on caesar and cato Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
sarcophagi, roman Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
sophocles Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
state reliefs, mythological Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
state reliefs, of colossal scale' Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
timomachos Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
timomachus of byzantium, his ajax Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
timomachus of byzantium, his medea Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 231
troilos Borg, Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic (2008) 111
venus, mother of rome Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29
venus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 29