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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9458
Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.11-35.15


nanWe stated what were the various single colours used by the first painters when we were discussing while on the subject of metals the pigments called monochromes from the class of painting for which they are used. Subsequent a inventions and their authors and dates we shall specify in enumerating the artists, because a prior motive for the work now in hand is to indicate the nature of colours. Eventually art differentiated itself, and discovered light and shade, contrast of colours heightening their effect reciprocally. Then came the final adjunct of shine, quite a different thing from light. The opposition between shine and light on the one hand and shade on the other was called contrast, while the juxtaposition of colours and their passage one into another was termed attunement.


nanSome colours are sombre and some brilliant, the difference being due to the nature of the substances or to their mixture. The brilliant colours, which the patron supplies at his own expense to the painter, are cinnabar, Armenium, dragon's blood, gold-solder, indigo, bright purple; the rest are sombre. Of the whole list some are natural colours and some artificial. Natural colours are sinopis, ruddle, Paraetonium, Melinum, Eretrian earth and orpiment; all the rest are artificial, and first of all those which we specified among minerals, and moreover among the commoner kinds yellow ochre, burnt lead acetate, realgar, sandyx, Syrian colour and black.


nanSinopis was first discovered in Pontus, and hence takes its name from the city of Sinope. It is also produced in Egypt, the Balearic Islands and Africa, but the best is what is extracted from the caverns of Lemnos and Cappadocia, the part found adhering to the rock being rated highest. The lumps of it are self-coloured, but speckled on the outside. It was employed in old times to give a glow. There are three kinds of Sinopis, the red, the faintly red and the intermediate. The price of the best is 2 denarii a pound: this is used for painting with a brush or else for colouring wood; the kind imported from Africa costs 8 as-pieces a pound, and is called chick-pea colour; it is of a deeper red than the other kinds, and more useful for panels. The same price is charged for the kind called 'low toned' which is of a very dusky colour. It is employed for the lower parts of panelling; but used as a drug it has a soothing effect in lozenges and plasters and poultices, mixing easily either dry or moistened, as a remedy for ulcers in the humid parts of the body such as the mouth and the anus. Used in an enema it arrests diarrhoea, and taken through the mouth in doses of one denarius weight it checks menstruation. Applied in a burnt state, particularly with wine, it dries roughnesses of the eyes.


nanSome persons have wished to make out that Sinopis only consists in a kind of red-ochre of inferior quality, as they gave the palm to the red ochre of Lemnos. This last approximates very closely to cinnabar and it was very famous in old days, together with the island that produces it; it used only to be sold in sealed packages, from which it got the name of 'seal red-ochre.' It is used to supply an undercoating to cinnabar and also for adulterating cinnabar. In medicine it is a substance ranked very highly. Used as a liniment round the eyes it relieves defluxions and pains, and checks the discharge from eye-tumours; it is given in vinegar as a draught in cases of vomiting or spitting blood. It is also taken as a draught for troubles of the spleen and kidneys and for excessive menstruation; and likewise as a remedy for poisons and snake bites and the sting of sea serpents; hence it is in common use for all antidotes.


nanAmong the remaining kinds of red ochre the most useful for builders are the Egyptian and the African varieties, as they are most thoroughly absorbed by plaster. Red ochre is also found in a native state in iron mines.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 8.83-8.88 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Pro Sulla, 43, 42 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

42. at quos viros! non solum summa virtute et fide, cuius generis erat erat Te π : om. cett. in senatu facultas maxima, sed etiam quos sciebam memoria, scientia scientia e, Schol. : consuetudine et add. cett. , celeritate scribendi facillime quae dicerentur persequi posse, C. Cosconium, qui tum erat praetor, M. Messalam, qui tum praeturam petebat, P. Nigidium, App. Claudium. credo esse neminem qui his hominibus hominibus TEe π : omnibus cett. ad ... referendum TEe : aut ... referendis cett. ad vere referendum aut fidem putet aut ingenium defuisse. quid deinde? quid feci? Cum scirem ita esse esse Te : om. cett. indicium relatum relatum Tea π : om. cett. in tabulas publicas ut illae tabulae privata tamen custodia more maiorum continerentur, non occultavi, non continui domi, sed statim statim hoc loco hab. Te, post describi πς, post omnibus cett. describi ab omnibus librariis, dividi passim et pervolgari atque edi populo Romano imperavi. divisi tota toti (-ae e ) Italiae codd. : corr. Madvig Italia, emisi emisi E : dimisi T π : divisi cett. in omnis provincias; eius indici ex ex (et e ) Te : e cett. quo oblata salus obl. salus Te : salus obl. cett. esset omnibus expertem esse neminem volui.
3. Polybius, Histories, 6.53 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.53. 1.  Whenever any illustrious man dies, he is carried at his funeral into the forum to the so‑called rostra, sometimes conspicuous in an upright posture and more rarely reclined.,2.  Here with all the people standing round, a grown-up son, if he has left one who happens to be present, or if not some other relative mounts the rostra and discourses on the virtues and success­ful achievements of the dead.,3.  As a consequence the multitude and not only those who had a part in these achievements, but those also who had none, when the facts are recalled to their minds and brought before their eyes, are moved to such sympathy that the loss seems to be not confined to the mourners, but a public one affecting the whole people.,4.  Next after the interment and the performance of the usual ceremonies, they place the image of the departed in the most conspicuous position in the house, enclosed in a wooden shrine.,5.  This image is a mask reproducing with remarkable fidelity both the features and complexion of the deceased.,6.  On the occasion of public sacrifices they display these images, and decorate them with much care, and when any distinguished member of the family dies they take them to the funeral, putting them on men who seem to them to bear the closest resemblance to the original in stature and carriage.,7.  These representatives wear togas, with a purple border if the deceased was a consul or praetor, whole purple if he was a censor, and embroidered with gold if he had celebrated a triumph or achieved anything similar.,8.  They all ride in chariots preceded by the fasces, axes, and other insignia by which the different magistrates are wont to be accompanied according to the respective dignity of the offices of state held by each during his life;,9.  and when they arrive at the rostra they all seat themselves in a row on ivory chairs. There could not easily be a more ennobling spectacle for a young man who aspires to fame and virtue.,10.  For who would not be inspired by the sight of the images of men renowned for their excellence, all together and as if alive and breathing? What spectacle could be more glorious than this?
4. Asconius Pedianus Quintus, In Milonianam, 32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Ovid, Tristia, 3.1.71-3.1.72 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Sallust, Iugurtha, 4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.115, 34.55, 34.57-34.60, 34.62, 34.80, 35.2-35.10, 35.12-35.15, 35.18, 35.20, 35.22-35.28, 35.31, 35.34, 35.44, 35.46, 35.49, 35.51-35.52, 35.57-35.58, 35.60, 35.64-35.68, 35.70, 35.72, 35.74, 35.76-35.77, 35.81-35.83, 35.85-35.86, 35.88, 35.91, 35.93, 35.95, 35.97-35.98, 35.100, 35.102-35.103, 35.108-35.110, 35.114, 35.116-35.117, 35.119-35.120, 35.127-35.128, 35.130-35.133, 35.136, 35.139, 35.144 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 12.10.3-12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.10.3.  The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste. 12.10.4.  Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war; for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line. 12.10.5.  For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible. 12.10.6.  It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Proto­genes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as φαντασίαι, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved a marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting. 12.10.7.  The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur. 12.10.8.  For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunken from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. 12.10.9.  On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.
9. Suetonius, Augustus, 29.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Suetonius, Iulius, 44 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tacitus, Agricola, 46 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Tacitus, Annals, 1.8, 2.73.1, 3.5, 3.76, 4.9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.8.  The only business which he allowed to be discussed at the first meeting of the senate was the funeral of Augustus. The will, brought in by the Vestal Virgins, specified Tiberius and Livia as heirs, Livia to be adopted into the Julian family and the Augustan name. As legatees in the second degree he mentioned his grandchildren and great-grandchildren; in the third place, the prominent nobles — an ostentatious bid for the applause of posterity, as he detested most of them. His bequests were not above the ordinary civic scale, except that he left 43,500,000 sesterces to the nation and the populace, a thousand to every man in the praetorian guards, five hundred to each in the urban troops, and three hundred to all legionaries or members of the Roman cohorts. The question of the last honours was then debated. The two regarded as the most striking were due to Asinius Gallus and Lucius Arruntius — the former proposing that the funeral train should pass under a triumphal gateway; the latter, that the dead should be preceded by the titles of all laws which he had carried and the names of all peoples whom he had subdued. In addition, Valerius Messalla suggested that the oath of allegiance to Tiberius should be renewed annually. To a query from Tiberius, whether that expression of opinion came at his dictation, he retorted — it was the one form of flattery still left — that he had spoken of his own accord, and, when public interests were in question, he would (even at the risk of giving offence) use no man's judgment but his own. The senate clamoured for the body to be carried to the pyre on the shoulders of the Fathers. The Caesar, with haughty moderation, excused them from that duty, and warned the people by edict not to repeat the enthusiastic excesses which on a former day had marred the funeral of the deified Julius, by desiring Augustus to be cremated in the Forum rather than in the Field of Mars, his appointed resting-place. On the day of the ceremony, the troops were drawn up as though on guard, amid the jeers of those who had seen with their eyes, or whose fathers had declared to them, that day of still novel servitude and freedom disastrously re-wooed, when the killing of the dictator Caesar to some had seemed the worst, and to others the fairest, of high exploits:— "And now an aged prince, a veteran potentate, who had seen to it that not even his heirs should lack for means to coerce their country, must needs have military protection to ensure a peaceable burial! 2.73.1.  His funeral, devoid of ancestral effigies or procession, was distinguished by eulogies and recollections of his virtues. There were those who, considering his personal appearance, his early age, and the circumstances of his death, — to which they added the proximity of the region where he perished, — compared his decease with that of Alexander the Great: — "Each eminently handsome, of famous lineage, and in years not much exceeding thirty, had fallen among alien races by the treason of their countrymen. But the Roman had borne himself as one gentle to his friends, moderate in his pleasures, content with a single wife and the children of lawful wedlock. Nor was he less a man of the sword; though he lacked the other's temerity, and, when his numerous victories had beaten down the Germanies, was prohibited from making fast their bondage. But had he been the sole arbiter of affairs, of kingly authority and title, he would have overtaken the Greek in military fame with an ease proportioned to his superiority in clemency, self-command, and all other good qualities." The body, before cremation, was exposed in the forum of Antioch, the place destined for the final rites. Whether it bore marks of poisoning was disputable: for the indications were variously read, as pity and preconceived suspicion swayed the spectator to the side of Germanicus, or his predilections to that of Piso. 3.5.  There were those who missed the pageantry of a state-funeral and compared the elaborate tributes rendered by Augustus to Germanicus' father, Drusus:— "In the bitterest of the winter, the sovereign had gone in person as far as Ticinum, and, never stirring from the corpse, had entered the capital along with it. The bier had been surrounded with the family effigies of the Claudian and Livian houses; the dead had been mourned in the Forum, eulogized upon the Rostra; every distinction which our ancestors had discovered, or their posterity invented, was showered upon him. But to Germanicus had fallen not even the honours due to every and any noble! Granted that the length of the journey was a reason for cremating his body, no matter how, on foreign soil, it would only have been justice that he should have been accorded all the more distinctions later, because chance had denied them at the outset. His brother had gone no more than one day's journey to meet him; his uncle not even to the gate. Where were those usages of the ancients — the image placed at the head of the couch, the set poems to the memory of departed virtue, the panegyrics, the tears, the imitations (if no more) of sorrow? 3.76.  Junia, too, born niece to Cato, wife of Caius Cassius, sister of Marcus Brutus, looked her last on life, sixty-three full years after the field of Philippi. Her will was busily discussed by the crowd; because in disposing of her great wealth she mentioned nearly every patrician of note in complimentary terms, but omitted the Caesar. The slur was taken in good part, and he offered no objection to the celebration of her funeral with a panegyric at the Rostra and the rest of the customary ceremonies. The effigies of twenty great houses preceded her to the tomb — members of the Manlian and Quinctian families, and names of equal splendour. But Brutus and Cassius shone brighter than all by the very fact that their portraits were unseen.
13. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.3, 1.38.7, 4.33.5, 5.27.3, 10.18.5, 10.32.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14.3. Some extant verses of Musaeus, if indeed they are to be included among his works, say that Triptolemus was the son of Oceanus and Earth; while those ascribed to Orpheus (though in my opinion the received authorship is again incorrect) say that Eubuleus and Triptolemus were sons of Dysaules, and that because they gave Demeter information about her daughter the sowing of seed was her reward to them. But Choerilus, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Cercyon and Triptolemus were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphictyon, while the father of Triptolemus was Rarus, of Cercyon, Poseidon. After I had intended to go further into this story, and to describe the contents of the sanctuary at Athens, called the Eleusinium, I was stayed by a vision in a dream. I shall therefore turn to those things it is lawful to write of to all men. 1.38.7. My dream forbade the description of the things within the wall of the sanctuary, and the uninitiated are of course not permitted to learn that which they are prevented from seeing. The hero Eleusis, after whom the city is named, some assert to be a son of Hermes and of Daeira, daughter of Ocean; there are poets, however, who have made Ogygus father of Eleusis . Ancient legends, deprived of the help of poetry, have given rise to many fictions, especially concerning the pedigrees of heroes. 4.33.5. I may not reveal the rites of the Great Goddesses, for it is their mysteries which they celebrate in the Carnasian grove, and I regard them as second only to the Eleusinian in sanctity. But my dream did not prevent me from making known to all that the brazen urn, discovered by the Argive general, and the bones of Eurytus the son of Melaneus were kept here. A river Charadrus flows past the grove; 5.27.3. This is the horse in which is, say the Eleans, the hippomanes (what maddens horses). It is plain to all that the quality of the horse is the result of magic skill. It is much inferior in size and beauty to all the horses standing within the Altis. Moreover, its tail has been cut off which makes the figure uglier still. But male horses, not only in spring but on any day, are at heat towards it. 10.18.5. The men of Orneae in Argolis, when hard pressed in war by the Sicyonians, vowed to Apollo that, if they should drive the host of the Sicyonians out of their native land, they would organize a daily procession in his honor at Delphi, and sacrifice victims of a certain kind and of a certain number. Well, they conquered the Sicyonians in battle. But finding the daily fulfillment of their vow a great expense and a still greater trouble, they devised the trick of dedicating to the god bronze figures representing a sacrifice and a procession. 10.32.13. About forty stades distant from Asclepius is a precinct and shrine sacred to Isis, the holiest of all those made by the Greeks for the Egyptian goddess. For the Tithoreans think it wrong to dwell round about it, and no one may enter the shrine except those whom Isis herself has honored by inviting them in dreams. The same rule is observed in the cities above the Maeander by the gods of the lower world; for to all whom they wish to enter their shrines they send visions seen in dreams.
14. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.3, 4.14, 9.22.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.3. To Nepos. Isaeus's reputation - and it was a great one - had preceded him to Rome, * but it was found to fall short of his merits. He has consummate oratorical power, fluency and choice of expression, and though he always speaks extempore his speeches might have been carefully written out long beforehand. He speaks in Greek, and that the purest Attic; his prefatory remarks are polished, neat and agreeable, and occasionally stately and sparkling. He asks to be supplied with a number of subjects for discussion, and allows his audience to choose which they will have and often which side they would like him to take. Then he rises to his feet, wraps his gown round him, and begins. Without losing a moment he has everything at his fingers' ends, irrespective of the subject selected. Deep thoughts come crowding into his mind and words flow to his lips. And such words - exquisitely choice! Every now and then there come flashes which show how widely he has read and how much he has written. He opens his case to the point; he states his position clearly; his arguments are incisive; his conclusions are forcible; his word-painting is magnificent. In a word, he instructs, delights, and impresses his hearers, so that you can hardly say wherein he most excels. He makes constant use of rhetorical arguments, ** his syllogisms are crisp and finished - though that is not an easy matter to attain even with a pen. He has a wonderful memory and can repeat, without missing a single word, even his extempore speeches. He has attained this facility by study and constant practice, for he does nothing else day or night Consequently, I look upon Isaeus not only as a wonderfully learned man but as one who possesses a most enviable lot, and you must be made of flint and iron if you do not burn to make his acquaintance. So if there is nothing else to draw you here, if I myself am not a sufficient attraction, do come to hear Isaeus. Have you never read of the man who lived at Gades who was so fired by the name and glory of Titus Livius that he came from the remotest corner of the world to see him, and returned the moment he had set eyes on him? It would stamp a man as an illiterate boor and a lazy idler, it would be disgraceful almost for any one not to think the journey worth the trouble when the reward is a study which is more delightful, more elegant, and has more of the humanities than any other. You will say 0
15. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.3, 4.14, 9.22.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.3. To Nepos. Isaeus's reputation - and it was a great one - had preceded him to Rome, * but it was found to fall short of his merits. He has consummate oratorical power, fluency and choice of expression, and though he always speaks extempore his speeches might have been carefully written out long beforehand. He speaks in Greek, and that the purest Attic; his prefatory remarks are polished, neat and agreeable, and occasionally stately and sparkling. He asks to be supplied with a number of subjects for discussion, and allows his audience to choose which they will have and often which side they would like him to take. Then he rises to his feet, wraps his gown round him, and begins. Without losing a moment he has everything at his fingers' ends, irrespective of the subject selected. Deep thoughts come crowding into his mind and words flow to his lips. And such words - exquisitely choice! Every now and then there come flashes which show how widely he has read and how much he has written. He opens his case to the point; he states his position clearly; his arguments are incisive; his conclusions are forcible; his word-painting is magnificent. In a word, he instructs, delights, and impresses his hearers, so that you can hardly say wherein he most excels. He makes constant use of rhetorical arguments, ** his syllogisms are crisp and finished - though that is not an easy matter to attain even with a pen. He has a wonderful memory and can repeat, without missing a single word, even his extempore speeches. He has attained this facility by study and constant practice, for he does nothing else day or night Consequently, I look upon Isaeus not only as a wonderfully learned man but as one who possesses a most enviable lot, and you must be made of flint and iron if you do not burn to make his acquaintance. So if there is nothing else to draw you here, if I myself am not a sufficient attraction, do come to hear Isaeus. Have you never read of the man who lived at Gades who was so fired by the name and glory of Titus Livius that he came from the remotest corner of the world to see him, and returned the moment he had set eyes on him? It would stamp a man as an illiterate boor and a lazy idler, it would be disgraceful almost for any one not to think the journey worth the trouble when the reward is a study which is more delightful, more elegant, and has more of the humanities than any other. You will say 0 4.14. To Paternus. Perhaps you are asking and looking out for a speech of mine, as you usually do, but I am sending you some wares of another sort, exotic trifles, the fruit of my playtime. You will receive with this letter some hendecasyllables of mine with which I pass my leisure hours pleasantly when driving, or in the bath, or at dinner. They contain my jests, my sportive fancies, my loves, sorrows, displeasures and wrath, described sometimes in a humble, sometimes in a lofty strain. My object has been to please different tastes by this variety of treatment, and I hope that certain pieces will be liked by everyone. Some of them will possibly strike you as being rather wanton, but a man of your scholarship will bear in mind that the very greatest and gravest authors who have handled such subjects have not only dealt with lascivious themes, but have treated them in the plainest language. I have not done that, not because I have greater austerity than they - by no means, but because I am not quite so daring. Otherwise, I am aware that Catullus has laid down the best and truest regulations governing this style of poetry in his lines You may guess from this what store I set on your critical judgment when I say that I prefer you should weigh the whole in the balance rather than pick out a few for your special praise. Yet pieces, perfect in themselves, cease to appear so the moment they are all on a dead level of perfection. Besides, a reader of judgment and acumen ought not to compare different pieces with one another, but to weigh each on its own merits and not to think one inferior to another, if it is perfect of its kind. But why say more? What more foolish than to excuse or commend mere trifles with a long preface? Still there is one thing of which I think I should advise you, and it is that I am thinking of calling these trifles "Hendecasyllables," a title which simply refers to the single metre employed. So, whether you prefer to call them epigrams, or idylls, or eclogues, or little poems, as many do, or any other name, remember that I only offer you "Hendecasyllables." I appeal to your candour to speak to me frankly about my tiny volume as you would to a third person, and this is no hard request. For if this trifling work of mind were my masterpiece, or my one solitary composition, it might perhaps seem harsh to say, "Seek out some other employment for your talent," but it is perfectly gentle and kindly criticism to say, "You have another sphere in which you show to greater advantage."Farewell.
16. Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, 6.5.1-6.5.2 (6th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeschylus (tragic poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
alcaeus (lyric poet), statue of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
alexandria, library of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
antisthenes (philosopher), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
asinius pollio Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
asinius pollio (politician and writer), library of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
athens Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 380
atticus (titus pomponius) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
augustus, his funeral Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
authentic versus copy, and pleasure Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
barberini togatus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
book, for circulation of literature' Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 215
cicero, literature Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 215
clodius pulcher, p., his funeral Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
cult images, danger of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
danaans Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
deity, powers of Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
delphi, offering of the orneatai Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
diphilus (comic poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
dreams, and images Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
emotion Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 380
epicharmus (comic poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
euripides (tragic poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
exemplum Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 380
funeral speech Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 154; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 154
funerals, and virtus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
funerals Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
hadrian (emperor), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
heracles/hercules (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
herennius severus Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
herm / double herm Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
herodotus (historian), statue of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
homer (poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
house, imagines in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
identity, xv–xvi, of prototype and representation Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, and ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, as ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
image, identified with prototype Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
imagines, in funerals Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
impietas against, and memory Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
impietas against, and virtus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
impietas against, veneration of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
impietas against, viewer response to Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
intermediality Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 380
julius caesar, c., his funeral Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
libraries, decorated with portraits Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
libraries Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
magic Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
menander (comic poet), pompeii, casa del medro Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
menander (comic poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
menander (comic poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
mimesis Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
miracles, pagan Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
mos maiorum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
offering, art work as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
orestes (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
orneatai, offering at delphi Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
pausanias, and ritual-centered visuality Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
pergamum, library of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
philoxenus (lyric poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
pliny the elder Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
pliny the younger, on books Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 215
pliny the younger Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
polybius, on roman funerals Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
pomponius atticus, t. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
portrait (imago) Dinter and Guérin, Cultural Memory in Republican and Augustan Rome (2023) 380
pylades (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
ritual, image and Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
ritual, image as Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 42
rome, temple of jupiter capitolinus, cult statue of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
rome Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 154; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 154
sallust, on imagines Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
sappho (lyric poet), statue of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
socrates (philosopher), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
sophocles (tragic poet), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
tacitus, on imagines Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
telegonus (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
telemachus (hero) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
timotheus (lyric poet) Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
trojans Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
valerius publicola, p., his hebdomades Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
varro, marcus terentius (scholar), library of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157
viewers, elite versus non-elite Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
viewers, shared values of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
virtus, and memory Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 106
xenophon (historian), portraits of Csapo et al., Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World (2022) 157