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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9251
Philo Of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 84


nanOn this account, Moses represents God as calling the blood the life of the flesh, though he is aware that the nature of the flesh has no participation in intellect, but that it does partake of life, as also does our whole body. And the soul of man he names the spirit, meaning by the term man, not the compound being, as I said before, but that Godlike creation by which we reason, the roots of which he stretched to heaven, and fastened it to the outermost rim of the circle of those bodies which we call the fixed stars.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28, 2.7, 3.14, 4.8-4.15, 6.1-6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ׃ 4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃ 4.11. וְעַתָּה אָרוּר אָתָּה מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה אֶת־פִּיהָ לָקַחַת אֶת־דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ מִיָּדֶךָ׃ 4.12. כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־יְהוָה גָּדוֹל עֲוֺנִי מִנְּשֹׂא׃ 4.14. הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ וְהָיָה כָל־מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ יְהוָה לָכֵן כָּל־הֹרֵג קַיִן שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקָּם וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה לְקַיִן אוֹת לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ כָּל־מֹצְאוֹ׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life." 4.8. And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him." 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’" 4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground." 4.11. And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand." 4.12. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’" 4.13. And Cain said unto the LORD: ‘My punishment is greater than I can bear." 4.14. Behold, Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me.’" 4.15. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.’ And the LORD set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown."
2. Hebrew Bible, Job, 12.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.10. In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, And the breath of all mankind.—"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life."
4. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.39 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 15.8-15.11, 16.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 16.14. A man in his wickedness kills another,but he cannot bring back the departed spirit,nor set free the imprisoned soul.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 6, 84, 271 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

271. Those men, therefore, who have spent a long life in that existence which is in accordance with the body, apart from all virtue, we must call only long-lived children, having never been instructed in those branches of education which befit grey hairs. But the man who has been a lover of prudence, and wisdom, and faith in God, one may justly denominate an elder, forming his name by a slight change from the first.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 60-61, 58 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

58. She also confirmed her statement by another passage in scripture of the following purport: "Behold, I have set before thy face life and death, and good and Evil." Therefore, O all-wise man, good and virtue mean life, and evil and wickedness mean death. And in another passage we read, "This is thy life, and thy length of days, to love the Lord thy God." This is the most admirable definition of immortal life, to be occupied by a love and affection for God unembarrassed by any connection with the flesh or with the body.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 11-18, 6-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Since what shall we say? Must we not say that these animals which are terrestrial or aquatic live in air and spirit? What? Are not pestilential afflictions accustomed to exist when the air is tainted or corrupted, as if that were the cause of all such assuming vitality? Again, when the air is free from all taint and innocent, such as it is especially wont to be when the north wind prevails, does not the imbibing of a purer air tend to a more vigorous and more lasting duration of life?
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

43. in other nations the youths are permitted, after they are fourteen years of age, to use concubines and prostitutes, and women who make gain by their persons, without restraint. But among us a harlot is not allowed even to live, but death is appointed as a punishment for any one who adopts such a way of life. Therefore, before our lawful marriage we know nothing of any connection with any other woman, but, without ever having experienced any similar cohabitation, we approach our virgin brides as pure as themselves, proposing as the end of our marriage not pleasure but the offspring of legitimate children.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 213 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

213. It was therefore indispensable to pray that a good natural disposition, free from all disease and from all mortality, should be joined to the rational race; for they are but few who partake of the life according to virtue, which is the most real and genuine life. I do not mean of the common herd of men only, for of them there is not one who partakes of real life: but even of those to whom it has been granted to shun the objects of human desire, and to live to God alone.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 135, 172, 30, 69-71, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

134. After this, Moses says that "God made man, having taken clay from the earth, and he breathed into his face the breath of life." And by this expression he shows most clearly that there is a vast difference between man as generated now, and the first man who was made according to the image of God. For man as formed now is perceptible to the external senses, partaking of qualities, consisting of body and soul, man or woman, by nature mortal. But man, made according to the image of God, was an idea, or a genus, or a seal, perceptible only by the intellect, incorporeal, neither male nor female, imperishable by nature.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. and all those who of necessity have endured this fate, being weighed down by the might of irresistible and implacable power, are objects rather for pity than for hatred; but all those who voluntarily and of deliberated purposes have rejected the living God, exceeding even the bounds of wickedness itself, for what other evil of equal weight can possibly be found? Such men should suffer not the usual punishments of evil doers, but something new and extraordinary. And surely no one could invent a more novel or more terrible penalty than a departure and flight from the presence of the Ruler of the universe. III.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.34, 2.70 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.34. For among created things, the heaven is holy in the world, in accordance with which body, the imperishable and indestructible natures revolve; and in man the mind is holy, being a sort of fragment of the Deity, and especially according to the statement of Moses, who says, "God breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living Soul. 2.70. Dost thou not see that the earthly mass, Adam, when it lays its hands upon the two trees, dies, because it has preferred the number two to the unit, and because it has admired the creature in preference to the Creator? But do thou go forth beyond the reach of the smoke and the tempest, and flee from the ridiculous pursuits of mortal life as a fearful whirlpool, and do not, as the proverb has it, touch them even with the tip of thy finger.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 177, 204-205, 152 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

152. And it would be a wicked thing to deprive one's friends of necessary food, who have probably stored up nothing which can be of use to them because of the uncertainty of the future. For this was an admirable Saying which was in vogue among the ancients, that one must enter into friendships without at the same time being blind to the possibility that it may be turned into enmity, and that one must repel an enemy as if he may hereafter become a friend, in order that each man might, through this consideration, lay up something in his own soul which might conduce to his safety, and might not, being laid completely bare and defenceless, in word and in deed repent of his too great facility of temper, blaming himself when there is no need of any such thing.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Then, because of their anxious desire for an immortal and blessed existence, thinking that their mortal life has already come to an end, they leave their possessions to their sons or daughters, or perhaps to other relations, giving them up their inheritance with willing cheerfulness; and those who know no relations give their property to their companions or friends, for it followed of necessity that those who have acquired the wealth which sees, as if ready prepared for them, should be willing to surrender that wealth which is blind to those who themselves also are still blind in their minds.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 192 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

192. And even if we were allowed free access to him, what else could we expect but an inexorable sentence of death? But be it so; we will perish. For, indeed, a glorious death in defence of and for the sake of the preservation of our laws, is a kind of life. "But, indeed, if no advantage is derived from our death, would it not be insanity to perish in addition to what we now have to endure, and this too, while we appear to be ambassadors, so that the calamity appears rather to affect those who have sent us than those who remain?
17. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.32, 1.35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences.
18. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 292 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

292. Listen, therefore, in such a spirit as to think his words a good lesson, to this statement of the lawgiver, that the good man alone has a happy old age, and that he is the most long-lived of men; but that the wicked man is the most short-lived of men, living only to die, or rather having already died as to the life of virtue. LIX.
19. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 83, 85, 89-90, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. for in many places of the law as given by Moses, he pronounces the blood to be the essence of the soul or of life, saying distinctly, "For the life of all flesh is the blood Thereof." And when the Creator of all living things first began to make man, after the creation of the heaven and the earth, and all the things which are between the two, Moses says, "And he breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul," showing again by this expression that it is the breath which is the essence of the life.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexandria Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
allegory, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
angels, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
ascent, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
asceticism Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
ashes Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
athenaeus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
blood Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
body Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
creation Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
creator Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
de plantatione Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
diogenes laertius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
earth, born Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
education Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
evil Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
figures of speech, synonyms Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
free will Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
friendship Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
god, israel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
god Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
gold Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
goodwill Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
health Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
heavenly, retinue Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
hetairai Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
human nature Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
intercession Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
judaism, pneuma (spirit) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
judaism, spirit of god, divine spirit Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
judaism in egypt, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
knowledge Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
life, true Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
life Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
metaphorical language, use of' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
molded Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
mosaic law, for ordinary people Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
philo Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
philo of alexandria, angels Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
philosophy Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246
physis, as nature of things and persons Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
silver Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
sophocles Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
sovereign Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
spirit, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
spirit, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 215
spirit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
stoa/stoic/stoicism, on friendship Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
stobaeus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
theophrastus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 220
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
wickedness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 782
wisdom Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 246