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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Philo Of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 13

nanIt is therefore not incredible that the barren woman, not being one who is incapable of becoming fruitful, but one who is still vigorous and fresh, striving for the chief reward in the arena of fortitude, patience, and perseverance, may bring forth a seven, equal in honour to the unit, of which numbers, nature is very productive and prolific.

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1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "11.30" "11.30" "11 30"\n1 "2.2" "2.2" "2 2" (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.11, 1.14, 1.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.11. וַתִּדֹּר נֶדֶר וַתֹּאמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־רָאֹה תִרְאֶה בָּעֳנִי אֲמָתֶךָ וּזְכַרְתַּנִי וְלֹא־תִשְׁכַּח אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ וְנָתַתָּה לַאֲמָתְךָ זֶרַע אֲנָשִׁים וּנְתַתִּיו לַיהוָה כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו וּמוֹרָה לֹא־יַעֲלֶה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ עֵלִי עַד־מָתַי תִּשְׁתַּכָּרִין הָסִירִי אֶת־יֵינֵךְ מֵעָלָיִךְ׃ 1.28. וְגַם אָנֹכִי הִשְׁאִלְתִּהוּ לַיהוָה כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה הוּא שָׁאוּל לַיהוָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ שָׁם לַיהוָה׃ 1.11. And she vowed a vow, and said, O Lord of hosts, if Thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of Thy handmaid, and remember me, and not forget Thy handmaid, but wilt give to Thy handmaid a man child, then I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall come upon his head." 1.14. And ῾Eli said to her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee." 1.28. therefore also I have presented him to the Lord; as long as he lives he shall be devoted to the Lord. And he bowed down to the Lord there."
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 105 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 144-152, 143 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

143. And it is an especial property of law and of instruction to distinguish what is profane from what is holy, and what is unclean from what is clean; as, on the other hand, it is the effect of lawlessness and ignorance to combine things that are at variance with one another by force, and to throw everything into disorder and confusion. XXXVI. On this account the greatest of the kings and prophets, Samuel, as the sacred scriptures tell us, drank no wine or intoxicating liquors to the day of his death; for he is enrolled among the ranks of the divine army which he will never leave in consequence of the prudence of the wise captain.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 184 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

184. and twelve is the perfect number, of which the circle of the zodiac in the heaven is a witness, studded as it is with such numbers of brilliant constellations. The periodical revolution of the sun is another witness, for he accomplishes his circle in twelve months, and men also reckon the hours of the day and of the night as equal in number to the months of the year
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 144, 143 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

143. and to those who ask, whether she who is barren has an offspring (for the holy scriptures, which some time ago represented Sarrah as barren, now confess that she will become a mother); this answer must be given, that a woman who is barren cannot, in the course of nature, bring forth an offspring, just as a blind man cannot see, nor a deaf man hear; but that the soul, which is barren of bad things, and which is unproductive of immoderate license of the passions and vices, is alone very nearly attaining to a happy delivery, bringing forth objects worthy of love, namely, the number seven, according to the hymn which is sung by Grace, that is, by Hannah, who says, "she who was barren hath born seven, and she who had many children has become weak:
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 101-128, 168, 89-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. But seven alone, as I said before, neither produces nor is produced, on which account other philosophers liken this number to Victory, who had no mother, and to the virgin goddess, whom the fable asserts to have sprung from the head of Jupiter: and the Pythagoreans compare it to the Ruler of all things. For that which neither produces, nor is produced, remains immovable. For generation consists in motion, since that which is generated, cannot be so without motion, both to cause production, and to be produced. And the only thing which neither moves nor is moved, is the Elder, Ruler, and Lord of the universe, of whom the number seven may reasonably be called a likeness. And Philolaus gives his testimony to this doctrine of mine in the following Words:ù"for God," says he "is the ruler and Lord of all things, being one, eternal, lasting, immovable, himself like to himself, and different from all other beings." XXXIV.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 159 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

159. For the love of virtue being inflamed and excited by the brilliant appearance of virtue, burns to ashes the pleasures of the body, and then cuts them to pieces and pounds them to nothing, using the divine word which can at all times divide everything. And in this manner he teaches us that among the bodily advantages are health, and beauty, and the accuracy of the outward senses, and the perfection of bodily vigour with strength and mighty energy; but still that all these things are common to accursed and wicked persons, while if they were really good no wicked person would be allowed to partake of them.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.254 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.254. and there is an evidence in favour of my argument, in the conduct of the prophetess, and mother of a prophet, Hannah, whose name being translated, signifies grace; for she says that she gives her son, "Samuel, as a gift to the Holy One," not dedicating him more as a human being, than as a disposition full of inspiration, and possessed by a divinely sent impulse; and the name Samuel being interpreted means, "appointed to God.
10. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

170. At all events, when the Creator determined to purify the earth by means of water, and that the soul should receive purification of all its unspeakable offences, having washed off and effaced its pollutions after the fashion of a holy purification, he recommended him who was found to be a just man, who was not borne away the violence of the deluge, to enter into the ark, that is to say, into the vessel containing the soul, namely, the body, and to lead into it "seven of all clean beasts, male and Female," thinking it proper that virtuous reason should employ all the pure parts of the irrational portion of man. XLVII.
11. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 11-12, 14-15, 5-8, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Now the most evident sign of a soul devoted to God is that song in which that expression occurs, "She that was barren has borne seven children, and she that had many children has become weak."7
12. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

46b. (במדבר כד, כא) איתן מושבך ושים בסלע קנך ואומר (מיכה ו, ב) שמעו הרים את ריב ה' והאיתנים מוסדי ארץ אחרים אומרים מנין לאיתן שהוא ישן שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, טו) גוי איתן הוא גוי מעולם הוא,ועורפין אותה בקופיץ מאחוריה מ"ט גמר עריפה עריפה מחטאת העוף,ומקומה אסור מלזרוע ומליעבד ת"ר (דברים כא, ד) אשר לא יעבד בו ולא יזרע לשעבר דברי רבי יאשיה רבי יונתן אומר להבא,רבא אמר להבא דכ"ע לא פליגי דכתיב ולא יזרע כי פליגי לשעבר רבי יאשיה סבר מי כתיב ולא יעובד ורבי יונתן מי כתיב אשר לא נעבד ורבי יאשיה אשר לשעבר משמע ור' יונתן אשר רבויא הוא,ומותר לסרוק שם פשתן ולנקר שם אבנים ת"ר אשר לא יעבד בו ולא יזרע אין לי אלא זריעה שאר עבודות מנין תלמוד לומר אשר לא יעבד בו מכל מקום,אם כן מה ת"ל ולא יזרע לומר לך מה זריעה מיוחדת שהיא בגופה של קרקע אף כל שהיא בגופה של קרקע יצא סריקת פשתן וניקור אבנים שאינן בגופה של קרקע,ואימא אשר לא יעבד בו כלל ולא יזרע פרט כלל ופרט אין בכלל אלא מה שבפרט זריעה אין מידי אחרינא לא אשר רבויא הוא,זקני העיר רוחצין ידיהן כו' ת"ר (דברים כא, ו) וכל זקני העיר ההיא הקרובים אל החלל ירחצו את ידיהם על העגלה הערופה בנחל שאין ת"ל הערופה ומה ת"ל הערופה על מקום עריפתה של עגלה,ואמרו ידינו לא שפכו את הדם הזה ועינינו לא ראו וכי על לבנו עלתה שב"ד שופכין דמים אלא לא בא לידינו ופטרנוהו בלא מזונות ולא ראינוהו והנחנוהו בלא לויה,תניא היה ר"מ אומר כופין ללויה ששכר הלויה אין לה שיעור שנאמר (שופטים א, כד) ויראו השומרים איש יוצא מן העיר ויאמרו לו הראנו נא את מבוא העיר ועשינו עמך חסד וכתיב ויראם את מבוא העיר ומה חסד עשו עמו שכל אותה העיר הרגו לפי חרב ואותו האיש ומשפחתו שלחו,(שופטים א, כו) וילך האיש ארץ החתים ויבן עיר ויקרא שמה לוז היא שמה עד היום הזה תניא היא לוז שצובעין בה תכלת היא לוז שבא סנחריב ולא בלבלה נבוכדנצר ולא החריבה ואף מלאך המות אין לו רשות לעבור בה אלא זקנים שבה בזמן שדעתן קצה עליהן יוצאין חוץ לחומה והן מתים,והלא דברים ק"ו ומה כנעני זה שלא דיבר בפיו ולא הלך ברגליו גרם הצלה לו ולזרעו עד סוף כל הדורות מי שעושה לויה ברגליו על אחת כמה וכמה,במה הראה להם חזקיה אמר בפיו עקם להם ר' יוחנן אמר באצבעו הראה להם תניא כוותיה דר' יוחנן בשביל שכנעני זה הראה באצבעו גרם הצלה לו ולזרעו עד סוף כל הדורות,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המהלך בדרך ואין לו לויה יעסוק בתורה שנאמר (משלי א, ט) כי לוית חן הם לראשך וענקים לגרגרותיך ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי בשביל ארבעה פסיעות שלוה פרעה לאברהם שנאמר (בראשית יב, כ) ויצו עליו פרעה אנשים וגו' נשתעבד בבניו ארבע מאות שנה שנאמר (בראשית טו, יג) ועבדום וענו אותם ארבע מאות שנה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המלוה את חבירו ארבע אמות בעיר אינו ניזוק רבינא אלויה לרבא בר יצחק ד' אמות בעיר מטא לידיה היזיקא ואיתציל,ת"ר הרב לתלמיד עד עיבורה של עיר חבר לחבר עד תחום שבת תלמיד לרב אין לו שיעור וכמה א"ר ששת עד פרסה ולא אמרן אלא רבו שאינו מובהק אבל רבו מובהק שלשה פרסאות,רב כהנא אלויה לרב שימי בר אשי מפום נהרא עד בי ציניתא דבבל כי מטו התם אמר ליה ודאי דאמריתו הני ציניתא דבבל משני אדם הראשון איתנהו,א"ל אדכרתן מלתא דאמר רבי יוסי בר' חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו ב, ו) בארץ לא עבר בה איש ולא ישב אדם שם וכי מאחר שלא עבר היכן ישב (ומאחר שלא ישב היכן עבר) אלא ארץ שגזר עליה אדם הראשון לישוב נתישבה ארץ שלא גזר עליה אדם הראשון לא נתישבה,רב מרדכי אלויה לרב אשי מהגרוניא ועד בי כיפי ואמרי לה עד בי דורא,אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי מאיר כל שאינו מלוה ומתלוה כאילו שופך דמים שאילמלי ליווהו אנשי יריחו לאלישע לא גירה דובים לתינוקות שנאמר (מלכים ב ב, כג) ויעל משם בית אל והוא עלה בדרך ונערים קטנים יצאו מן העיר ויתקלסו בו ויאמרו לו עלה קרח עלה קרח,אמרו לו עלה שהקרחת עלינו את המקום מאי ונערים קטנים אמר ר' אלעזר שמנוערים מן המצות קטנים שהיו מקטני אמנה תנא נערים היו ובזבזו עצמן כקטנים,מתקיף לה רב יוסף ודלמא על שם מקומן מי לא כתיב (מלכים ב ה, ב) וארם יצאו גדודים וישבו מארץ ישראל נערה קטנה וקשיא לן נערה וקטנה ואמר ר' פדת קטנה דמן נעורן התם לא מפרש מקומה הכא מפורש מקומן,(מלכים ב ב, כד) ויפן אחריו ויראם ויקללם בשם ה' מה ראה אמר רב ראה ממש כדתניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר כל מקום שנתנו חכמים עיניהם או מיתה או עוני ושמואל אמר ראה שכולן נתעברה בהן אמן ביום הכיפורים,ורבי יצחק נפחא אמר בלורית ראה להן כאמוריים ורבי יוחנן אמר ראה שלא היתה בהן לחלוחית של מצוה ודלמא בזרעייהו ניהוה הוה אמר רבי אלעזר לא בם ולא בזרעם עד סוף כל הדורות,(מלכים ב ב, כד) ותצאנה שתים דובים מן היער ותבקענה מהם ארבעים ושני ילדים 46b. b“Firm [ ieitan /i] is your dwelling-place, and your nest is set in the rock”(Numbers 24:21), band it states: “Hear, O you mountains, the Lord’s controversy, and the enduring rocks [ ieitanim /i], the foundations of the earth”(Micah 6:2). The use of the word in these verses indicates that “ ieitan /i” means something hard, like a rock or a mountain. bOthers saya different explanation of the word ieitan /i: bFrom whereis it derived bthat ieitanmeans old? Asit bis stated: “It is an ancient [ ieitan /i] nation, a nation from of old”(Jeremiah 5:15).,§ The mishna taught: bAnd they break the neck [ iorfin /i] ofthe heifer bfrom behind with a cleaver.The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat the Sages understood that the heifer is killed in this manner? They bderivethat the term iarifa /i,which describes what is done to the heifer, refers to breaking the back of the neck, bfromthe term iarifa /istated with regard to the bbirdbrought as ba sin-offering(see Leviticus 5:8).,§ The mishna taught further: bAndwith regard to bits place,it bis prohibitedfor that ground bto be sown or to be worked. The Sages taught:The verse: b“Which may be neither worked nor sown”(Deuteronomy 21:4) is referring bto the past,that is, a place which has not previously been worked or sown. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yoshiya. Rabbi Yonatan says:It speaks bof the future,meaning it is prohibited to sow or work the land from that point onward., bRava said:As bfor the future, everyone agreesthat it is prohibited to sow or work the land, bas it is written“neither worked bnor sown”in the future tense. bWhen they disagreeis with regard to bthe past. Rabbi Yoshiya,who disqualifies a place that was sown beforehand, bholds: Does it state: And shall not be worked,in the form of a future command? bAnd Rabbi Yonatanresponds: bDoes it state: And was not worked,in the past tense? bAnd Rabbi Yoshiyaanswers: The term b“which” indicates the past. Andas for bRabbi Yonatan,in his opinion the term b“which” isa term of bamplification,as will be explained later in the Gemara, and it is not referring to the past.,§ The mishna taught: bBut it is permitted to comb flax there or to cut stones there. The Sages taught:From the phrase b“which may be neither worked nor sown,” I havederived bonly sowing; from wheredo I derive that bothertypes of blaborare also prohibited? bThe verse states: “Which may be neither worked,”indicating that it may not be worked bin any manner. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bIf so, why does the versealso need to bstate “nor sown”?It is in order bto say to you: Just as sowing is uniquein bthat it islabor performed bon the land itself, so too, alllabor bthat isperformed bon the land itselfis prohibited. This bexcludes combing flax and cutting stones, which are notdone bon the land itself. /b,The Gemara raises an objection: bAndperhaps one can bsaya different exposition: b“Which may be neither worked”is ba generalization,and b“nor sown” a detail.When the Torah writes ba generalization and a detail, there is nothing in the generalization otherthan bwhat is in the detail,i.e., the detail serves to impose a limit on the generalization. Consequently, the verse is teaching that with regard to bsowing, yes,it is prohibited, but with regard to banything else, no,it is not prohibited. The Gemara again answers: The term b“which” is an amplification,and the addition of this term results in this verse not belonging to the category of generalizations and details.,§ The mishna taught that bthe Elders of the citywould then bwash their hands. The Sages taught:With regard to the verse: b“And all the Elders of that city, who are nearest to the slain man, shall wash their hands over the heifer whose neck was broken in the valley”(Deuteronomy 21:6), one might have thought bthatthere is bnoneed for bthe verse to state: “Whose neck was broken,”because there is no heifer mentioned other than the one whose neck was broken. bAnd whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Whose neck was broken”?It serves to teach us that they wash their hands bover the place where the heifer’s neck was broken. /b,The verse further states: b“And they shall say: Our hands did not spill this blood, nor did our eyes see”(Deuteronomy 21:7). The mishna explains: bBut did it enter our minds thatthe Elders of bthe court are spillers of blood,that they must make such a declaration? bRather,they mean to declare: The victim bdid not come to us andthen bwe let him take his leave without food, and we did not see him andthen bleave himalone to depart bwithout accompaniment.They therefore attest that they took care of all his needs and are not responsible for his death even indirectly., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir would say: There is coercion with regard to accompaniment,i.e., one who does not want to accompany another is nevertheless required to do so, bas the reward for accompaniment is without measure.The proof of the importance of accompaniment is from a verse, bas it is statedwith regard to when the Jewish people laid siege to the city of Bethel: b“And the watchers saw a man come out of the city, and they said to him: Show us, please, the entrance into the city, and we will deal kindly with you”(Judges 1:24), band it is written: “And he showed them the entrance to the city”(Judges 1:25). bAnd what kindness did they perform with him?It is bthat they killed the entire city by the sword, but that man and his family they sentfree.,The Gemara elaborates on the reward received in that story. The next verse states: b“And the man went to the land of the Hittites, and he built a city, and he called its name Luz; that is its name to this day”(Judges 1:26). bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: This bisthe city bLuz where sky bluewool bis dyed.It bisthe same city bLuz where,although bSennacherib cameand exiled many nations from place to place, he bdid not disarrangeand exile bitsinhabitants; bNebuchadnezzar,who conquered many lands, bdid not destroy it; and even the angel of death has no permission to pass through it. Rather, its Elders, when they have decided that they have reached the endof life, bgo outside thecity bwall and die. /b, bArethese bmatters notinferred ia fortiori /i: And if this Canaanite, who did not speak with his mouthand explicitly tell them where the city entrance was, band did not walkwith them bby foot,but merely indicated the correct path to them, nevertheless bcaused himselfto be brescued andalso had the merit to provide rescue bfor his descendants until the end of all generations,then with regard to bone who accompaniesanother bby foot, all the more sowill his reward be great.,After stating that the man did not openly guide those watching the city, the Gemara asks: bHow didthat Canaanite bshow themthe entrance to the city? bḤizkiyya says: He twisted his mouth for them,i.e., he showed them the path to the city by moving his lips. bRabbi Yoḥa says: He showed them with his fingeralone. It bis taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa: Because this Canaanite showedthem bwith his finger, he caused himselfto be brescued andmerited rescue for bhis descendantsas well, buntil the end of all generations. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One who walks along the way withouthaving someone to baccompanyhim bshould occupy himself withwords of bTorah, as it is statedwith regard to words of Torah: b“For they shall be a chaplet of grace to your head, and chains around your neck”(Proverbs 1:9). bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levifurther bsays: Due to four steps that Pharaoh accompanied Abraham, as it is stated: “And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him,and they brought him on the way, and his wife, and all that he had” (Genesis 12:20), Pharaoh benslavedAbraham’s bdescendantsfor bfour hundred years, as it is stated: “And shall serve them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years”(Genesis 15:13). bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Anyone who accompanies his friend four cubits in a city will come to no harmby accompanying him. The Gemara relates: bRavina accompanied Rava bar Yitzḥak four cubits in a city. He came close to harm, but he was saved. /b, bThe Sages taught: A teacheraccompanies ba student until the outskirts of the city; a friendaccompanies ba friend until the Shabbat boundaryof that city, which is two thousand cubits; and for ba studentwho accompanies his bteacher, there is no measureto the distance he accompanies him. The Gemara asks: bAnd howfar? The student is certainly not required to walk with him the entire way. bRav Sheshet says: Up to a parasang [ iparsa /i],which is four imil /i. The Gemara comments: bAnd we saidthis amount bonlywith regard to one who is bnot his most significant teacher, buthe accompanies bhis most significant teacher,who taught him most of his knowledge, bthree parasangs. /b,The Gemara relates a story about accompaniment: bRav Kahana accompanied Rav Shimi bar Ashi fromthe town of bPum Nahara tothe bpalm grove in Babylonia. When they arrived there,Rav Kahana bsaid toRav Shimi bar Ashi: Is it btrue that you saythat bthese palm treesof bBabylonia have beenin this place bsince the years of Adam the firstman?,Rav Shimi bar Ashi bsaid to him:By mentioning Adam the first man byou reminded me of something that Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Through a land that no man passed through, and where no person [ iadam /i] dwelt”?(Jeremiah 2:6). This verse is difficult: bSince itis a land bthrough which noman bhas passed, where would he dwell? And if he did not dwell, where did he pass?Why does the verse add that no person has dwelled there? bRather,this is the meaning: Any blandconcerning bwhich Adam the firstman bdecreed that it would be a settled area, was settled;but ba landconcerning bwhich Adam the firstman bdid not decree thatit should be settled, bwas not settled. /b,The Gemara also relates that bRav Mordekhai accompanied Rav Ashi fromthe town of bHagronya until Bei Keifei, and some saythat he accompanied him buntil Bei Dura. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss the importance of accompaniment. bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Meir: Whoever does not accompanyanother bor will notallow himself to be baccompanied is like a spiller of bloodand is held responsible for any deaths that occur as a result of his inaction. The proof for this is bthat had the inhabitants of Jericho accompanied Elisha, he would not have incited the bears toattack bthe children, as it is stated: “And he went up from there to Bethel, and as he was going up by the way, there came forth young lads out of the city and mocked him, and said to him: Go up, baldhead; go up, baldhead”(II Kings 2:23). Had the residents of Jericho accompanied him, they would have sent away those youths and prevented what occurred next.,The Gemara proceeds to discuss this episode in detail, beginning with the meaning of the youths’ taunt. bThey said to him: Go up,away from here, bfor you have made the place bald,i.e., bare, bfor us.They had previously earned their living by providing the city of Jericho with water. Elisha sweetened the city’s own water, rendering their services unnecessary. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: b“Young lads [ ine’arim ketannim /i]”?One would have expected the verse to state either “young” or “lads,” but not both. bRabbi Elazar says:The word “lads [ ine’arim /i]” means that bthey were shakenempty b[ imeno’arim /i] of the mitzvot;the word b“young [ iketannim /i]”means bthat they were of little faith [ iketannei amana /i],as they had no trust that they would be able to earn their livelihood by any other means. The Sages btaught: They were lads,that is, already of age, bbut they disgraced themselves like youngchildren., bRav Yosef objects to thisinterpretation: bAnd perhapsthey were called ine’arim bafter their placeof origin? bIsn’t it written: “Andthe Arameans had gone out in bands, band had brought away captive from Eretz Yisrael a minor young woman [ ina’ara ketana /i]”(II Kings 5:2), bandthis verse raised ba difficulty to us: A minor and a young woman;how could she be both of these? bAnd Rabbi Pedat saysit means ba minorgirl bfromthe town of bNe’oran.This verse concerning the lads can be explained in a similar manner: They were young children from Ne’oran. The Gemara answers: These two cases are not comparable. bTherethe verse bdoes not specify her placeof origin, so “ ina’ara /i” could mean from the town of Ne’oran; but bherethe verse bspecifies their placeof origin, namely Jericho.,The verse further states with regard to the same incident: b“And he turned behind him and saw them, and he cursed them in the name of the Lord”(II Kings 2:24). The Gemara asks: bWhat did he see?There are four explanations offered. bRav says:He bliterally saw,i.e., he stared and bored his eyes into them, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Whereverit states bthat the Sages placed their eyesupon a certain person, they brought upon that person beither death or poverty. And Shmuel says: He sawtheir essential nature, bthat all their mothers became pregt with them on Yom Kippur,when conjugal relations are forbidden., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says: He sawthat bthey had plaited locksgrown on the back of their heads blike the gentiles. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: He saw that they did not containeven ba smidgen of a mitzva.The Gemara raises an objection to this last interpretation of Rabbi Yoḥa: bButhow could he curse them just because they did not have any mitzvot? bPerhaps their descendants would havemany mitzvot. bRabbi Elazar says:He saw that mitzvot would be found bneither in them nor in their descendants, through all generations. /b,The verse states: b“And two she-bears came out of the forest and tore forty-two children from them”(II Kings 2:24).

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 359; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 177
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 395
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 211, 395
allegory/allegoresis, of the soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 211
allegory Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 177
antithesis Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 359
arithmology, seven Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 394, 395
arithmology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
creation Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 394
emotions, good Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
etymology, hebrew Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 394
fall Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 211
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
goodenough, e. r. Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 52
grace Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 394
hagar Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 394, 395
hannah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 394; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 177
heinemann, isaak Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 52
homer Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 211
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 394, 395
keturah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 394, 395
law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
life, daily, worldy Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
mercy Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 359
midian Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
motherhood Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 177
music Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
myth Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 359
nature Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
neopythagoreanism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
number Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
onomasticon Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 211
philo of alexandria Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
phintys Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 52
platonism' Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 359
plutarch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 211
prophets Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 211, 393, 395
pythagorean tradition Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 52
rachel Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
rhetoric Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 211, 394
sabbath Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
samuel Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 177
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 394, 395
septuagint Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 177
soul, eight-part Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
stobaeus Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 52
stoics Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 52
virginity Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 177
virtue, cardinal Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 394
voice Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 188
womanhood Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 177