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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9249
Philo Of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.188
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1. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 174-177, 180, 172 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

172. Again, it is by means of these powers that the incorporeal world, perceptible by the intellect, has been put together, which is the archetypal model of this invisible world, being compounded by invisible species, just as this world is of invisible bodies.
2. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 66 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

66. for it is not becoming for God himself to inflict punishment, as being the first and most excellent Lawgiver; but he punishes by the ministry of others, and not by his own act. It is very suitable to his character that he himself should bestow his graces, and his free gifts, and his great benefits, inasmuch as he is by nature good and bountiful. But it is not fitting that he should inflict his punishments further than by his mere command, inasmuch as he is a king; but he must act in this by the instrumentality of others, who are suitable for such purposes.
3. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 11, 16, 6-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Since what shall we say? Must we not say that these animals which are terrestrial or aquatic live in air and spirit? What? Are not pestilential afflictions accustomed to exist when the air is tainted or corrupted, as if that were the cause of all such assuming vitality? Again, when the air is free from all taint and innocent, such as it is especially wont to be when the north wind prevails, does not the imbibing of a purer air tend to a more vigorous and more lasting duration of life?
4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 63, 65-68, 84, 144 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

144. And who could these have been but rational divine natures, some of them incorporeal and perceptible only by intellect, and others not destitute of bodily substance, such in fact as the stars? And he who associated with and lived among them was naturally living in a state of unmixed happiness. And being akin and nearly related to the ruler of all, inasmuch as a great deal of the divine spirit had flowed into him, he was eager both to say and to do everything which might please his father and his king, following him step by step in the paths which the virtues prepare and make plain, as those in which those souls alone are permitted to proceed who consider the attaining a likeness to God who made them as the proper end of their existence. LI.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 14, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.134-1.141 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.134. By the ladder in this thing, which is called the world, is figuratively understood the air, the foundation of which is the earth, and the head is the heaven; for the large interior space, which being extended in every direction, reaches from the orb of the moon, which is described as the most remote of the order in heaven, but the nearest to us by those who contemplate sublime objects, down to the earth, which is the lowest of such bodies, is the air. 1.135. This air is the abode of incorporeal souls, since it seemed good to the Creator of the universe to fill all the parts of the world with living creatures. On this account he prepared the terrestrial animals for the earth, the aquatic animals for the sea and for the rivers, and the stars for the heaven; for every one of these bodies is not merely a living animal, but is also properly described as the very purest and most universal mind extending through the universe; so that there are living creatures in that other section of the universe, the air. And if these things are not comprehensible by the outward senses, what of that? For the soul is also invisible. 1.136. And yet it is probable that the air should nourish living animals even more than the land or the water. Why so? Because it is the air which has given vitality to those animals which live on the earth and in the water. For the Creator of the universe formed the air so that it should be the habit of those bodies which are immovable, and the nature of those which are moved in an invisible manner, and the soul of such as are able to exert an impetus and visible sense of their own. 1.137. Is it not then absurd that that element, by means of which the other elements have been filled with vitality, should itself be destitute of living things? Therefore let no one deprive the most excellent nature of living creatures of the most excellent of those elements which surrounds the earth; that is to say, of the air. For not only is it not alone deserted by all things besides, but rather, like a populous city, it is full of imperishable and immortal citizens, souls equal in number to the stars. 1.138. Now of these souls some descend upon the earth with a view to be bound up in mortal bodies, those namely which are most nearly connected with the earth, and which are lovers of the body. But some soar upwards, being again distinguished according to the definitions and times which have been appointed by nature. 1.139. of these, those which are influenced by a desire for mortal life, and which have been familiarised to it, again return to it. But others, condemning the body of great folly and trifling, have pronounced it a prison and a grave, and, flying from it as from a house of correction or a tomb, have raised themselves aloft on light wings towards the aether, and have devoted their whole lives to sublime speculations. 1.140. There are others, again, the purest and most excellent of all, which have received greater and more divine intellects, never by any chance desiring any earthly thing whatever, but being as it were lieutets of the Ruler of the universe, as though they were the eyes and ears of the great king, beholding and listening to everything. 1.141. Now philosophers in general are wont to call these demons, but the sacred scripture calls them angels, using a name more in accordance with nature. For indeed they do report (diangellousi) the injunctions of the father to his children, and the necessities of the children to the father.
7. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 14, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Those then that are affected by motion, inducing change of place, which we call animals, are attached to the most important portions of the universe; the terrestrial animals to the earth, the animals which swim to the water, the winged animals to the air and those which can live in the flame to the fire (which last are said to be most evidently produced in Macedonia), and the stars are attached to the heaven. For those who have studied philosophy pronounce the stars also to be animals, being endowed with intellect and pervading the whole universe; some being planets, and moving by their own intrinsic nature; and others, that is the fixed stars, being borne along with the revolutions of the universe; so that they likewise appear to change their places.
8. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.127-7.128 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.127. It is a tenet of theirs that between virtue and vice there is nothing intermediate, whereas according to the Peripatetics there is, namely, the state of moral improvement. For, say the Stoics, just as a stick must be either straight or crooked, so a man must be either just or unjust. Nor again are there degrees of justice and injustice; and the same rule applies to the other virtues. Further, while Chrysippus holds that virtue can be lost, Cleanthes maintains that it cannot. According to the former it may be lost in consequence of drunkenness or melancholy; the latter takes it to be inalienable owing to the certainty of our mental apprehension. And virtue in itself they hold to be worthy of choice for its own sake. At all events we are ashamed of bad conduct as if we knew that nothing is really good but the morally beautiful. Moreover, they hold that it is in itself sufficient to ensure well-being: thus Zeno, and Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Virtues, and Hecato in the second book of his treatise On Goods: 7.128. For if magimity by itself alone can raise us far above everything, and if magimity is but a part of virtue, then too virtue as a whole will be sufficient in itself for well-being – despising all things that seem troublesome. Panaetius, however, and Posidonius deny that virtue is self-sufficing: on the contrary, health is necessary, and some means of living and strength.Another tenet of theirs is the perpetual exercise of virtue, as held by Cleanthes and his followers. For virtue can never be lost, and the good man is always exercising his mind, which is perfect. Again, they say that justice, as well as law and right reason, exists by nature and not by convention: so Chrysippus in his work On the Morally Beautiful.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288, 291
abraham Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288
angels Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 11
christ Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291
chrysippus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291
cleanthes Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291
demons, demonic Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 11
diogenes laertius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288
drunkenness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291
egypt Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288
gladness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291
god, creator Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291
heavenly bodies Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291
isaac Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288, 291
progress, moral Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288, 291
rebecca Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288, 291
sage/wise person Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288, 291
sarah Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 11
testing passim, agents of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 11
virtues' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 291
watchers Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 11