Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9239
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.57


nanAnd the reason why the flour is to be made of barley is, perhaps, because the food which is made of barley is of a somewhat ambiguous character, and is suited for the use both of irrational animals and of needy men; and is therefore a sign that a woman who has committed adultery differs in no respect from the beasts, whose connections with one another are promiscuous and incessant; but she who is pure from all such accusations is devoted to that manner of life which befits human beings.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 22.22-22.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.22. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא אִישׁ שֹׁכֵב עִם־אִשָּׁה בְעֻלַת־בַּעַל וּמֵתוּ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶם הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִם־הָאִשָּׁה וְהָאִשָּׁה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 22.23. כִּי יִהְיֶה נער [נַעֲרָה] בְתוּלָה מְאֹרָשָׂה לְאִישׁ וּמְצָאָהּ אִישׁ בָּעִיר וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ׃ 22.24. וְהוֹצֵאתֶם אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֶל־שַׁעַר הָעִיר הַהִוא וּסְקַלְתֶּם אֹתָם בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתוּ אֶת־הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צָעֲקָה בָעִיר וְאֶת־הָאִישׁ עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר־עִנָּה אֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 22.22. If a man be found lying with a woman married to a husband, then they shall both of them die, the man that lay with the woman, and the woman; so shalt thou put away the evil from Israel." 22.23. If there be a damsel that is a virgin betrothed unto a man, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her;" 22.24. then ye shall bring them both out unto the gate of that city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die: the damsel, because she cried not, being in the city; and the man, because he hath humbled his neighbour’s wife; so thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 13.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.7. וַיְהִי־רִיב בֵּין רֹעֵי מִקְנֵה־אַבְרָם וּבֵין רֹעֵי מִקְנֵה־לוֹט וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי אָז יֹשֵׁב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 13.7. And there was a strife between the herdmen of Abram’s cattle and the herdmen of Lot’s cattle. And the Canaanite and the Perizzite dwelt then in the land."
3. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Let not then our appetites rush eagerly in pursuit of all the things that are pleasant to the flesh, for the pleasures are often untameable, when like dogs they fawn upon us, and all of a sudden, change and bite us, inflicting incurable sounds. So that by cleaving to frugality, which is a friend to virtue, in preference to the pleasures akin to the body, we shall defeat the numerous and infinite multitude of irreconcilable enemies. And if any occasion should seek to compel us to take more than what is moderate or sufficient, let us not yield; for the scripture saith, "He shall come near to him to uncover his nakedness." IX.
4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 148, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. When therefore the mind begins to become acquainted with itself, and to dwell among the speculations which come under the province of the intellect, all the inclinations of the soul for the species which is comprehensible by the intellect will be repelled, which inclination is called by the Hebrews, Lot; for which reason the wise man is represented as distinctly saying, "Depart, and separate yourself from Me;" for it is impossible for a man who is overwhelmed with the love of incorporeal and imperishable objects to dwell with one, whose every inclination is towards the mortal objects of the outward senses.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.52-3.56, 3.58-3.63, 3.67, 3.69 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.52. The law has pronounced all acts of adultery, if detected in the fact, or if proved by undeniable evidence, liable to the punishment of death; but cases in which guilt is only suspected, it does not choose should be investigated by men, but it brings them before the tribunal of nature; since men are able to judge of what is visible, but God can judge also of what is unseen, since he alone is able to behold the soul distinctly 3.53. therefore he says to the man who suspects such a thing, "Write an accusation, and go up to the holy city with thy wife, and standing before the judges, lay bare the passion of suspicion which affects you, not like a false accuser or treacherous enemy, seeking to gain the victory by any means whatever, but as a man may do who wishes accurately to ascertain the truth without any sophistry. 3.54. And the woman, having incurred two dangers, one of her life, and the other of her reputation, the loss of which last is more grievous than any kind of death, shall judge the matter with herself; and if she be pure, let her make her defence with confidence; but if she be convicted by her own conscience, let her cover her face, making her modesty the veil for her iniquities, for to persist in her impudence is the very extravagance of wickedness. 3.55. But if the charge which is made against her be contested, and if the evidence be doubtful, so as not to incline to either side, then let the two parties go up to the temple, and let the man stand in front of the altar, in the presence of the priest for the day, and then let him state his suspicions and his grounds for them, and let him produce and offer some barley flour, as a species of oblation on behalf of his wife, to prove that he accuses her, not out of insult, but with an honest intention, because he has a reasonable doubt. 3.56. And the priest shall take the barley and offer it to the woman, and shall take away from her the head-dress on her head, that she may be judged with her head bare, and deprived of the symbol of modesty, which all those women are accustomed to wear who are completely blameless; and there shall not be any oil used, nor any frankincense, as in the case of other sacrifices, because the sacrifice now offered is to be accomplished on no joyful occasion, but on one which is very grievous. 3.58. Then the law proceeds to say, the priest, having taken an earthen vessel, shall pour forth pure water, having drawn it from a fountain, and shall also bring a lump of clay from the ground of the temple, which also I think has in it a symbolical reference to the search after truth; for the earthenware vessel is appropriate to the commission of adultery because it is easily broken, and death is the punishment appointed for adulterers; but the earth and the water are appropriate to the purging of the accusation, since the origin, and increase, and perfection of all things, take place by them: 3.59. on which account it was very proper for the law-giver to set them both off by epithets, saying, that the water which the priest was to take must be pure and living water, since blameless woman is pure as to her life, and deserves to live; and the earth too is to be taken, not from any chance spot, but from the soil of the ground of the temple, which must, of necessity, be most excellent, just as a modest woman is. 3.60. And when all these things are previously prepared, the woman with her head uncovered, bearing the barley flour in her hand, as has been already specified, shall come forward; and the priest standing opposite to her and holding the earthenware vessel in which are the water and the earth, shall speak thus: 3.61. If you have not transgressed the laws of your marriage, and if no other man has been associated with you, so that you have not violated the rights of him who is joined to you by the law, you are blameless and innocent; but if you have neglected your husband and have followed empty appetites, either loving some one yourself or yielding to some lover, betraying your nearest and dearest connections, and adulterating them by a spurious mixture, then learn that you are deservedly liable to every kind of curse, the proofs of which you will exhibit on your body. Come then and drink the draught of conviction, which shall uncover and lay bare all thy hidden and secret actions. 3.62. Then the priest shall write these words on a paper and dip it in the water which is in the earthenware vessel, and give it to the woman. And she shall drink it and depart, awaiting the reward of her modesty or the extreme penalty of her incontinence; for if she has been falsely accused she may hope for seed and children, disregarding all apprehensions and anxieties on the subject of barrenness and childlessness. But if she is guilty then a great weight and bulk, form her belly swelling and becoming full, will come upon her, and a terribly evil condition of her womb will afflict her, since she did not choose to keep it pure for her husband, who had married her according to the laws of her nation. 3.63. And the law takes such exceeding pains to prevent any irregularity taking place with respect to marriages, that even in the case of husbands and wives who have come together for legitimate embraces, in strict accordance with the laws of marriage, after they have arisen from their beds it does not allow them to touch anything before they have had recourse to washings and ablutions; keeping them very far from adultery and from all accusations referring to adultery.XI. 3.67. but if, indeed, you have any legitimate feeling of love for the maiden in your soul, go to her parents, if they are alive, and if they are not, then go to her brother or to her guardians, or to any other persons who chance to be her protectors, and having discovered to them your feelings towards her, as a free-born man should do, ask her in marriage, and implore them not to account you unworthy. 3.69. But if any one, being insane and frantic, repudiating and discarding all the suggestions of reason, were to submit himself wholly to passion and desire as his masters, and looking, as people say, on might as stronger than right, were to ravish and seduce women, treating free-born women as slaves, and doing acts of war in time of peace, let such a man be led before the judges.
6. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.31, 4.38, 4.42, 4.51-4.52, 4.55-4.57 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 90 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

90. others again having converted their barbarous frenzy into another kind of wickedness, practising an ineffable degree of savageness, talking with the people quietly, but through the hypocrisy of a more gentle voice, betraying the ferocity of their real disposition, fawning upon their victims like treacherous dogs, and becoming the causes of irremediable miseries to them, have left in all their cities monuments of their impiety, and hatred of all mankind, in the never to be forgotten miseries endured by those whom they oppressed:
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.270-3.273 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.271. and enjoined her to swear that she had not at all injured her husband; and to wish that, if she had violated her chastity, her right thigh might be put out of joint; that her belly might swell; and that she might die thus: but that if her husband, by the violence of his affection, and of the jealousy which arose from it, had been rashly moved to this suspicion, that she might bear a male child in the tenth month. 3.272. Now when these oaths were over, the priest wiped the name of God out of the parchment, and wrung the water into a vial. He also took some dust out of the temple, if any happened to be there, and put a little of it into the vial, and gave it her to drink; whereupon the woman, if she were unjustly accused, conceived with child, and brought it to perfection in her womb: 3.273. but if she had broken her faith of wedlock to her husband, and had sworn falsely before God, she died in a reproachful manner; her thigh fell off from her, and her belly swelled with a dropsy. And these are the ceremonies about sacrifices, and about the purifications thereto belonging, which Moses provided for his countrymen. He also prescribed the following laws to them:—
9. Justinian, Digest, 48.5.14(13).3 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
adornment Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 150
adultery/adulterium Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
allegory Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 154
an eye for an eye Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 150
antoninus Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
betrothal Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
caracalla Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
cattle Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 128
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
corruption Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
dispute between abraham and lot, literal interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
dispute between abraham and lot Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
egypt Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
etymologies, of lot Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
hellenism/hellenistic Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
hiding Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 128
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
innocence Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 128
jewish law Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
lot, as the progressive man Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
lot, as unstable Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
lot, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
lot, servants of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 339
magic Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 154
marriage Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
matrimonium Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
measure for measure, uniqueness of use in sotah Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 150
ordeal Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 128
philo Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 154
philo of alexandria Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
retribution Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 150
right Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
roman law Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
sacrifices Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 128
septimius severus Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
sotah, sotah pericope allegorical interpretations of Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 128
suspicion' Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 128
verbs, repetition of Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 150
µοιχεία Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313
φθορά Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 313