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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Philo Of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.1-3.6

nanThere was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world.

nanAt that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life.

nanNevertheless, the most grievous of all evils was lying in wait for me, namely, envy, that hates every thing that is good, and which, suddenly attacking me, did not cease from dragging me after it by force till it had taken me and thrown me into the vast sea of the cares of public politics, in which I was and still am tossed about without being able to keep myself swimming at the top.

nanBut though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne

nanAnd if at any time unexpectedly there shall arise a brief period of tranquillity, and a short calm and respite from the troubles which arise from state affairs, I then rise aloft and float above the troubled waves, soaring as it were in the air, and being, I may almost say, blown forward by the breezes of knowledge, which often persuades me to flee away, and to pass all my days with her, escaping as it were from my pitiless masters, not men only, but also affairs which pour upon me from all quarters and at all times like a torrent.

nanBut even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II.

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 31.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.2. רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן־אוּרִי בֶן־חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃ 31.2. ’See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.9, 11.31, 12.1-12.8, 16.1-16.6, 17.1, 17.5, 18.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 11.31. וַיִּקַּח תֶּרַח אֶת־אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־הָרָן בֶּן־בְּנוֹ וְאֵת שָׂרַי כַּלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וַיֵּצְאוּ אִתָּם מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־חָרָן וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 12.2. וַיְצַו עָלָיו פַּרְעֹה אֲנָשִׁים וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 12.2. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה׃ 12.3. וַאֲבָרֲכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ כֹּל מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלָיו יְהוָה וַיֵּלֶךְ אִתּוֹ לוֹט וְאַבְרָם בֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵחָרָן׃ 12.5. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־אָחִיו וְאֶת־כָּל־רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן וַיֵּצְאוּ לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ אַרְצָה כְּנָעַן׃ 12.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר אַבְרָם בָּאָרֶץ עַד מְקוֹם שְׁכֶם עַד אֵלוֹן מוֹרֶה וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי אָז בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 12.8. וַיַּעְתֵּק מִשָּׁם הָהָרָה מִקֶּדֶם לְבֵית־אֵל וַיֵּט אָהֳלֹה בֵּית־אֵל מִיָּם וְהָעַי מִקֶּדֶם וַיִּבֶן־שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וַיִּקְרָא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 16.1. וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר׃ 16.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֵךְ וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב׃ 16.2. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל־אַבְרָם הִנֵּה־נָא עֲצָרַנִי יְהוָה מִלֶּדֶת בֹּא־נָא אֶל־שִׁפְחָתִי אוּלַי אִבָּנֶה מִמֶּנָּה וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם לְקוֹל שָׂרָי׃ 16.3. וַתִּקַּח שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת־אַבְרָם אֶת־הָגָר הַמִּצְרִית שִׁפְחָתָהּ מִקֵּץ עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים לְשֶׁבֶת אַבְרָם בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַתִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ לְאַבְרָם אִישָׁהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 16.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָגָר וַתַּהַר וַתֵּרֶא כִּי הָרָתָה וַתֵּקַל גְּבִרְתָּהּ בְּעֵינֶיהָ׃ 16.5. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל־אַבְרָם חֲמָסִי עָלֶיךָ אָנֹכִי נָתַתִּי שִׁפְחָתִי בְּחֵיקֶךָ וַתֵּרֶא כִּי הָרָתָה וָאֵקַל בְּעֵינֶיהָ יִשְׁפֹּט יְהוָה בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶיךָ׃ 16.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־שָׂרַי הִנֵּה שִׁפְחָתֵךְ בְּיָדֵךְ עֲשִׂי־לָהּ הַטּוֹב בְּעֵינָיִךְ וַתְּעַנֶּהָ שָׂרַי וַתִּבְרַח מִפָּנֶיהָ׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 17.5. וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 18.15. וַתְּכַחֵשׁ שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר לֹא צָחַקְתִּי כִּי יָרֵאָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ׃ 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 11.31. And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there." 12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee." 12.2. And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing." 12.3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’" 12.4. So Abram went, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him; and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran." 12.5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came." 12.6. And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Shechem, unto the terebinth of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land." 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 12.8. And he removed from thence unto the mountain on the east of Beth-el, and pitched his tent, having Beth-el on the west, and Ai on the east; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, and called upon the name of the LORD." 16.1. Now Sarai Abram’s wife bore him no children; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar." 16.2. And Sarai said unto Abram: ‘Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing; go in, I pray thee, unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall be builded up through her.’ And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai." 16.3. And Sarai Abram’s wife took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to Abram her husband to be his wife." 16.4. And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived; and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes." 16.5. And Sarai said unto Abram: ‘My wrong be upon thee: I gave my handmaid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee.’" 16.6. But Abram said unto Sarai: ‘Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her that which is good in thine eyes.’ And Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she fled from her face." 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 17.5. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee." 18.15. Then Sarah denied, saying: ‘I laughed not’; for she was afraid. And He said: ‘Nay; but thou didst laugh.’"
3. Hesiod, Works And Days, 288-289, 287 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

287. Perses, remember this, serve righteousne
4. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

248a. that which best follows after God and is most like him, raises the head of the charioteer up into the outer region and is carried round in the revolution, troubled by the horses and hardly beholding the realities; and another sometimes rises and sometimes sinks, and, because its horses are unruly, it sees some things and fails to see others. The other souls follow after, all yearning for the upper region but unable to reach it, and are carried round beneath
6. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7. Anon., 1 Enoch, 22.3, 22.13 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.3. Then Raphael answered, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: 'These hollow places have been created for this very purpose, that the spirits of the souls of the dead should 22.13. of the sinners. Such has been made for the spirits of men who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression, and of the transgressors they shall be companions: but their spirits shall not be slain in the day of judgement nor shall they be raised from thence.'
8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 20.11-20.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 20.11-20.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.26, 9.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 28-29, 41, 27 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

27. I have also, on one occasion, heard a more ingenious train of reasoning from my own soul, which was accustomed frequently to be seized with a certain divine inspiration, even concerning matters which it could not explain even to itself; which now, if I am able to remember it accurately, I will relate. It told me that in the one living and true God there were two supreme and primary powers--goodness and authority; and that by his goodness he had created every thing, and by his authority he governed all that he had created; 27. For one may almost say that the whole infinity of numbers is measured by this one, because the boundaries which make it up are four, namely, one, two, three, and four; and an equal number of boundaries, corresponding to them in equal proportions, make up the number of a hundred out of decades; for ten, and twenty, and thirty, and forty produce a hundred. And in the same way one may produce the number of a thousand from hundreds, and that of a myriad from thousands.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 12, 14, 73, 11 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

11. And as you must know that it is common for there to be great preludes to great propositions, and the greatest of all propositions is virtue, for it is conversant about the most important of all materials, namely, about the universal life of man; very naturally, therefore, that will not employ any short preface, but rather it will use as such, grammar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and all the other sorts of contemplation which proceed in accordance with reason; of which Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, is an emblem, as we will proceed to show.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 11, 32, 6, 98, 10 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

14. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 44, 56-62, 80, 150 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

150. In the first place it calls itself a severe day, having regard to the boy who is mocking it; for by him and by every fool the road which leads to virtue is looked upon as rough and difficult to travel and most painful, as one of the old poets testifies, saying:-- Vice one may take in troops with ease, But in fair virtue's front Immortal God has stationed toil, And care, and sweat, to bar the road. Long is the road and steep, And rough at first, which leads the steps Or mortal men thereto; But when you reach the height, the path Is easy which before was hard, And swift the onward course. XXXVII.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 102, 122, 126, 16, 2, 20, 33-37, 44-45, 47-49, 53-60, 67-69, 89-93, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1. And the Lord said to Abraham, "Depart from thy land, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house to a land which I will show thee; and I will make thee into a great nation. And I will bless thee, and I will magnify thy name, and thou shalt be blessed. And I will bless them that bless thee, and I will curse them that curse thee; and in thy name shall all the nations of the earth be Blessed.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 76 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

76. This is the lesson which we have been taught concerning the man who in word indeed had his name changed, but who in reality changed his nature from the consideration of natural to that of moral philosophy, and who abandoned the contemplation of the world itself for the knowledge of the Being who created the world; by which knowledge he acquired piety, the most excellent of all possessions. XI.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 70-71, 77, 8, 69 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

69. So then after all the other things, as has been said before, Moses says that man was made in the image and likeness of God. And he says well; for nothing that is born on the earth is more resembling God than man. And let no one think that he is able to judge of this likeness from the characters of the body: for neither is God a being with the form of a man, nor is the human body like the form of God; but the resemblance is spoken of with reference to the most important part of the soul, namely, the mind: for the mind which exists in each individual has been created after the likeness of that one mind which is in the universe as its primitive model, being in some sort the God of that body which carries it about and bears its image within it. In the same rank that the great Governor occupies in the universal world, that same as it seems does the mind of man occupy in man; for it is invisible, though it sees everything itself; and it has an essence which is undiscernible, though it can discern the essences of all other things, and making for itself by art and science all sorts of roads leading in divers directions, and all plain; it traverses land and sea, investigating everything which is contained in either element.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 8 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

8. If it is hard to depart from before the face and out of the sight of a mortal king, how can it be anything but extremely difficult to depart and quit the appearance of God, and to determine no longer to come into his sight. This indeed is to be left without any idea of him, and to be mutilated as to the eyes of the soul
19. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 31, 53, 58, 121 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

121. and the law is a witness to this which in the great hymn speaks thus--"He was fat, he was rich, he was exceeding broad, and he forsook God who had made him, and he forgot God his Saviour." For in truth those men whose lives have been exceedingly fortunate and are so at the time, do not remember the eternal God, but they think time their god;
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 69, 78, 36 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

36. For, as it is impossible to see without light, since neither colours nor eyes are sufficient for the comprehension of things which we arrive at by means of sight (for nature has made light beforehand to serve as a link to connect the two, by which the eye is brought near and adapted to colour, for the powers of both eye and of colour are equally useless in darkness), so in the same manner is the eye of the soul unable to comprehend anything whatever of the actions in accordance with virtue, unless it takes to itself labour as a coadjutor, as the eye borrows the assistance of light; for this, being placed in the middle, between the intellect and the good object which the intellect desires, and understanding the whole nature of both the one and the other, does itself bring about friendship and harmony, two perfect goods between the two things on either hand of it. VII.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.69, 1.167-1.168, 1.232, 2.252 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.69. For God, not condescending to come down to the external senses, sends his own words or angels for the sake of giving assistance to those who love virtue. But they attend like physicians to the disease of the soul, and apply themselves to heal them, offering sacred recommendations like sacred laws, and inviting men to practice the duties inculcated by them, and, like the trainers of wrestlers, implanting in their pupils strength, and power, and irresistible vigour. 1.167. is it not then worth while to examine into the cause of this difference? Undoubtedly it is; let us then in a careful manner apply ourselves to the consideration of the cause. Philosophers say that virtue exists among men, either by nature, or by practice, or by learning. On which account the sacred scriptures represent the three founders of the nation of the Israelites as wise men; not indeed originally endowed with the same kind of wisdom, but arriving rapidly at the same end. 1.168. For the eldest of them, Abraham, had instruction for his guide in the road which conducted him to virtue; as we shall show in another treatise to the best of our power. And Isaac, who is the middle one of the three, had a self-taught and self-instructed nature. And Jacob, the third, arrived at this point by industry and practice, in accordance with which were his labours of wrestling and contention. 1.232. Accordingly, to the incorporeal souls which are occupied in his service, it is natural for him to appear as he is, conversing with them as a friend with his friends; but to those souls which are still in the body he must appear in the resemblance of the angels, though without changing his nature (for he is unchangeable), but merely implanting in those who behold him an idea of his having another form, so that they fancy that it is his image, not an imitation of him, but the very archetypal appearance itself. 2.252. And again, the invisible spirit which is accustomed to converse with me in an unseen manner prompts me with a suggestion, and says, O my friend, you seem to be ignorant of an important and most desirable matter which I will explain to you completely; for I have also in a most seasonable manner explained many other things to you also.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.1, 1.224, 1.269, 2.52, 2.54-2.55, 3.2-3.7, 4.102, 4.112, 4.154 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.1. The genera and heads of all special laws, which are called "the ten commandments," have been discussed with accuracy in the former treatise. We must now proceed to consider the particular commands as we read them in the subsequent passages of the holy scriptures; and we will begin with that which is turned into ridicule by people in general. 1.224. To this species of sacrifice for preservation that other sacrifice also belongs, which is called the sacrifice of praise, and which rests on the following Principle.{27}{#le 19:1.} The man who has never fallen into any unexpected disaster whatever, neither as to his body nor as to his external circumstances, but who has passed a tranquil and peaceful life, living in happiness and prosperity, being free from all calamity and all mishap, steering through the long voyage of life in calmness and serenity of circumstances, good fortune always blowing upon the stern of his vessel, is, of necessity, bound to requite God, who has been the pilot of his voyage, who has bestowed upon him untroubled salvation and unalloyed benefits, and, in short, all sorts of blessings unmingled with any evil, with hymns, and songs, an prayers, and also with sacrifices, and all other imaginable tokens of gratitude in a holy manner; all which things taken together have received the one comprehensive name of praise. 1.269. And what figurative meanings he conceals under these orders as symbols, we have accurately explained in another treatise, in which we have discussed the allegories. It is necessary, therefore, for those who are about to go into the temple to partake of the sacrifice, to be cleansed as to their bodies and as to their souls before their bodies. For the soul is the mistress and the queen, and is superior in every thing, as having received a more divine nature. And the things which cleanse the mind are wisdom and the doctrines of wisdom, which lead to the contemplation of the world and the things in it; and the sacred chorus of the rest of the virtues, and honourable and very praiseworthy actions in accordance with the virtues. 2.52. In considering the melancholy and fearful condition of the human race, and how full it is of innumerable evils, which the covetousness of the soul begets, which the defects of the body produce, and which all the inequalities of the soul inflict upon us, and which the retaliations of those among whom we live, both doing and suffering innumerable evils, are continually causing us, he then wondered whether any one being tossed about in such a sea of troubles, some brought on deliberately and others unintentionally, and never being able to rest in peace nor to cast anchor in the safe haven of a life free from danger, could by any possibility really keep a feast, not one in name, but one which should really be so, enjoying himself and being happy in the contemplation of the world and all the things in it, and in obedience to nature, and in a perfect harmony between his words and his actions, between his actions and his words. 2.54. In reference to which fact, a certain pre-eminently virtuous mind among the people of old, {8}{#ge 18:10.} when all its passions were tranquil, smiled, being full of and completely penetrated with joy, and reasoning with itself whether perhaps to rejoice was not a peculiar attribute of God, and whether it might not itself miss this joy by pursuing what are thought delights by men, was timorous, and denied the laughter of her soul until she was comforted. 2.55. For the merciful God lightened her fear, bidding her by his holy word confess that she did laugh, in order to teach us that the creature is not wholly and entirely deprived of joy; but that joy is unmingled and the purest of all which can receive nothing of an opposite nature, the chosen peculiar joy of God. But the joy which flows from that is a mingled one, being alloyed, being that of a man who is already wise, and who has received as the most valuable gift possible such a mixture as that in which the pleasant are far more numerous than the unpleasant ingredients. And this is enough to say on this subject.THE SECOND FESTIVALXV. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life. 3.3. Nevertheless, the most grievous of all evils was lying in wait for me, namely, envy, that hates every thing that is good, and which, suddenly attacking me, did not cease from dragging me after it by force till it had taken me and thrown me into the vast sea of the cares of public politics, in which I was and still am tossed about without being able to keep myself swimming at the top. 3.4. But though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne 3.5. And if at any time unexpectedly there shall arise a brief period of tranquillity, and a short calm and respite from the troubles which arise from state affairs, I then rise aloft and float above the troubled waves, soaring as it were in the air, and being, I may almost say, blown forward by the breezes of knowledge, which often persuades me to flee away, and to pass all my days with her, escaping as it were from my pitiless masters, not men only, but also affairs which pour upon me from all quarters and at all times like a torrent. 3.6. But even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II. 3.7. And since of the ten commandments which God himself gave to his people without employing the agency of any prophet or interpreter, five which are engraved in the first tablet have been already discussed and explained, as have also all the particular injunctions which were comprehended under them; and since it is now proper to examine and expound to the best of our power and ability the rest of the commandments which are found in the second table, I will attempt as before to adapt the particular ordices which are implied in them to each of the general laws. 4.102. at the same time not approving of unnecessary rigour, like the lawgiver of Lacedaemon, nor undue effeminacy, like the man who taught the Ionians and the Sybarites lessons of luxury and license, but keeping a middle path between the two courses, so that he has relaxed what was over strict, and tightened what was too loose, mingling the excesses which are found at each extremity with moderation, which lies between the two, so as to produce an irreproachable harmony and consistency of life, on which account he has laid down not carelessly, but with minute particularity, what we are to use and what to avoid. 4.112. Now both these things are symbols; the former of a soul devoted to pleasure, and the latter of one which loves perseverance and temperance. For the road which leads to pleasure is a down-hill one and very easy, being rather an absorbing gulf than a path. But the path which leads to temperance is up hill and laborious, but above all other roads advantageous. And the one leads men downwards, and prevents those who travel by it from retracing their steps until they have arrived at the very lowest bottom, but the other leads to heaven; making those who do not weary before they reach it immortal, if they are only able to endure its rugged and difficult ascent.ABOUT Reptile 4.154. again, with reference to the successful voyage and safety of men at sea, it is not any man who may obtain the office of pilot by lot, who is sent at once to the stern to steer the vessel, and who then by his ignorance may cause a needless wreck in calm and tranquil weather, but that person has that charge given to him who, from his earliest youth, appears to have learnt and carefully studied the business of a pilot; this is a man who has made many voyages, and who has traversed every sea, or at all events most seas, and who has carefully ascertained the character of all the marts, and harbours, and anchorages, and places of refuge in the different islands and continents, and who is still better, or at all events not worse acquainted with the tracks over the sea, than he is with the roads on land, through his accurate observation of the heavenly bodies;
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 51-52, 147 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

147. But, nevertheless, the lawgiver neither neglected the safety of the unclean animals, nor did he permit those which were clean to use their strength in disregard of justice, crying out and declaring loudly in express words, if one may say so, to those persons who have ears in their soul, not to injure any one of a different nation, unless they have some grounds for bringing accusations against them beyond the fact of their being of another nation, which is not ground of blame; for those things which are not wickedness, and which do not proceed from wickedness, are free from all reproach. XXVIII.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 90 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

90. This then is what I have to say of those who are called therapeutae, who have devoted themselves to the contemplation of nature, and who have lived in it and in the soul alone, being citizens of heaven and of the world, and very acceptable to the Father and Creator of the universe because of their virtue, which has procured them his love as their most appropriate reward, which far surpasses all the gifts of fortune, and conducts them to the very summit and perfection of happiness.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.66, 1.158-1.159, 1.188, 2.11, 2.26-2.27, 2.31-2.40, 2.74, 2.129, 2.215-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.66. And in the middle of the flame there was seen a certain very beautiful form, not resembling any visible thing, a most Godlike image, emitting a light more brilliant than fire, which any one might have imagined to be the image of the living God. But let it be called an angel, because it merely related (dieµngelleto 1.158. What more shall I say? Has he not also enjoyed an even greater communion with the Father and Creator of the universe, being thought unworthy of being called by the same appellation? For he also was called the god and king of the whole nation, and he is said to have entered into the darkness where God was; that is to say, into the invisible, and shapeless, and incorporeal world, the essence, which is the model of all existing things, where he beheld things invisible to mortal nature; for, having brought himself and his own life into the middle, as an excellently wrought picture, he established himself as a most beautiful and Godlike work, to be a model for all those who were inclined to imitate him. 1.159. And happy are they who have been able to take, or have even diligently laboured to take, a faithful copy of this excellence in their own souls; for let the mind, above all other parts, take the perfect appearance of virtue, and if that cannot be, at all events let it feel an unhesitating and unvarying desire to acquire that appearance; 1.188. and so they arrive at a second halting place, well supplied with water, and well shaded with trees, called Aileem, irrigated with twelve fountains, near which were young and vigorous trunks of palm trees to the number of seventy, a visible indication and token of good to the whole nation, to all who were gifted with a clear-sighted intellect. 2.11. And those who are well versed in the sacred scriptures know this, for if he had not had these principles innate within him he would never have compiled those scriptures at the promptings of God. And he gave to those who were worthy to use them the most admirable of all possessions, namely, faithful copies and imitations of the original examples which were consecrated and enshrined in the soul, which became the laws which he revealed and established, displaying in the clearest manner the virtues which I have enumerated and described above. 2.26. In olden time the laws were written in the Chaldaean language, and for a long time they remained in the same condition as at first, not changing their language as long as their beauty had not made them known to other nations; 2.27. but when, from the daily and uninterrupted respect shown to them by those to whom they had been given, and from their ceaseless observance of their ordices, other nations also obtained an understanding of them, their reputation spread over all lands; for what was really good, even though it may through envy be overshadowed for a short time, still in time shines again through the intrinsic excellence of its nature. Some persons, thinking it a scandalous thing that these laws should only be known among one half portion of the human race, namely, among the barbarians, and that the Greek nation should be wholly and entirely ignorant of them, turned their attention to their translation. 2.31. He, then, being a sovereign of this character, and having conceived a great admiration for and love of the legislation of Moses, conceived the idea of having our laws translated into the Greek language; and immediately he sent out ambassadors to the high-priest and king of Judea, for they were the same person. 2.32. And having explained his wishes, and having requested him to pick him out a number of men, of perfect fitness for the task, who should translate the law, the high-priest, as was natural, being greatly pleased, and thinking that the king had only felt the inclination to undertake a work of such a character from having been influenced by the providence of God, considered, and with great care selected the most respectable of the Hebrews whom he had about him, who in addition to their knowledge of their national scriptures, had also been well instructed in Grecian literature, and cheerfully sent them. 2.33. And when they arrived at the king's court they were hospitably received by the king; and while they feasted, they in return feasted their entertainer with witty and virtuous conversation; for he made experiment of the wisdom of each individual among them, putting to them a succession of new and extraordinary questions; and they, since the time did not allow of their being prolix in their answers, replied with great propriety and fidelity as if they were delivering apophthegms which they had already prepared. 2.34. So when they had won his approval, they immediately began to fulfil the objects for which that honourable embassy had been sent; and considering among themselves how important the affair was, to translate laws which had been divinely given by direct inspiration, since they were not able either to take away anything, or to add anything, or to alter anything, but were bound to preserve the original form and character of the whole composition, they looked out for the most completely purified place of all the spots on the outside of the city. For the places within the walls, as being filled with all kinds of animals, were held in suspicion by them by reason of the diseases and deaths of some, and the accursed actions of those who were in health. 2.35. The island of Pharos lies in front of Alexandria, the neck of which runs out like a sort of tongue towards the city, being surrounded with water of no great depth, but chiefly with shoals and shallow water, so that the great noise and roaring from the beating of the waves is kept at a considerable distance, and so mitigated. 2.36. They judged this place to be the most suitable of all the spots in the neighbourhood for them to enjoy quiet and tranquillity in, so that they might associate with the laws alone in their minds; and there they remained, and having taken the sacred scriptures, they lifted up them and their hands also to heaven, entreating of God that they might not fail in their object. And he assented to their prayers, that the greater part, or indeed the universal race of mankind might be benefited, by using these philosophical and entirely beautiful commandments for the correction of their lives. 2.37. Therefore, being settled in a secret place, and nothing even being present with them except the elements of nature, the earth, the water, the air, and the heaven, concerning the creation of which they were going in the first place to explain the sacred account; for the account of the creation of the world is the beginning of the law; they, like men inspired, prophesied, not one saying one thing and another another, but every one of them employed the self-same nouns and verbs, as if some unseen prompter had suggested all their language to them. 2.38. And yet who is there who does not know that every language, and the Greek language above all others, is rich in a variety of words, and that it is possible to vary a sentence and to paraphrase the same idea, so as to set it forth in a great variety of manners, adapting many different forms of expression to it at different times. But this, they say, did not happen at all in the case of this translation of the law, but that, in every case, exactly corresponding Greek words were employed to translate literally the appropriate Chaldaic words, being adapted with exceeding propriety to the matters which were to be explained; 2.39. for just as I suppose the things which are proved in geometry and logic do not admit any variety of explanation, but the proposition which was set forth from the beginning remains unaltered, in like manner I conceive did these men find words precisely and literally corresponding to the things, which words were alone, or in the greatest possible degree, destined to explain with clearness and force the matters which it was desired to reveal. 2.40. And there is a very evident proof of this; for if Chaldaeans were to learn the Greek language, and if Greeks were to learn Chaldaean, and if each were to meet with those scriptures in both languages, namely, the Chaldaic and the translated version, they would admire and reverence them both as sisters, or rather as one and the same both in their facts and in their language; considering these translators not mere interpreters but hierophants and prophets to whom it had been granted it their honest and guileless minds to go along with the most pure spirit of Moses. 2.74. Therefore Moses now determined to build a tabernacle, a most holy edifice, the furniture of which he was instructed how to supply by precise commands from God, given to him while he was on the mount, contemplating with his soul the incorporeal patterns of bodies which were about to be made perfect, in due similitude to which he was bound to make the furniture, that it might be an imitation perceptible by the outward senses of an archetypal sketch and pattern, appreciable only by the intellect; 2.129. not but what he has also assigned their two appropriate virtues to those two kinds of reason which exist in each of us, namely, that which is uttered and that which is kept concealed, attributing clearness of manifestation to the uttered one, and truth to that which is concealed in the mind; for it is suitable to the mind that it should admit of no error or falsehood, and to explanation that it should not hinder anything that can conduce to the most accurate manifestation. 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 132-134, 182, 206, 5, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1. How long shall we, who are aged men, still be like children, being indeed as to our bodies gray-headed through the length of time that we have lived, but as to our souls utterly infantine through our want of sense and sensibility, looking upon that which is the most unstable of all things, namely, fortune, as most invariable, and that which is of all things in the world the most steadfast, namely, nature, as utterly untrustworthy? For, like people playing at draughts, we make changes, altering the position of actions, and considering the things which are the result of fortune as more durable than those which result from nature, and the things which proceed in accordance with nature as less stable than those which are the result of chance.
27. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.19, 1.21, 2.90, 3.8, 3.36, 3.87, 3.96 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.19. This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth, when they were Created." This is perfect reason, which is put in motion in accordance with the number seven, being the beginning of the creation of that mind which was arranged according to the ideas, and also of the sensation arranged according to the ideas, and perceptible only by the intellect, if one can speak in such a manner. And Moses calls the word of God a book, in which it is come to pass that the formations of other things are written down and engraved. 1.21. On which day God created the heaven and the earth, and every green herb of the field, before it appeared upon the earth, and all the grass of the field before it sprang up. For God did not rain upon the earth, and man did not exist to cultivate the earth." This day Moses has previously called a book, since at least he describes the generation of both heaven and earth in each place. For by his most conspicuous and brilliant word, by one command, God makes both things: the idea of mind, which, speaking symbolically, he calls heaven, and the idea of sensation, which by a sign he named earth.
28. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.19 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

29. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 265, 246 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

246. But the attacks and conflicts of those powers which are not irreconcilable resemble the frequent effect of the discussions and quarrels about doctrines which arise among the Sophists. For inasmuch as they all labour for one end, namely the contemplation of the things of nature, they may be said to be friends; but inasmuch as they do not agree in their particular investigations they may be said to be in a state of domestic sedition; as, for instance, those who affirm the universe to be uncreated are at variance with those who insist upon its creation; and again those who urge that it will be destroyed are at strife with those who affirm that it is indeed perishable by nature but that it never will be destroyed, because it is held together by a more powerful chain, the will of the Creator. And again, those who affirm that there is nothing self-existent, but that everything has been created, are at variance with those who are of a contrary opinion. Those too, who say that man is the measure of all things, differ from those who would restrain the judicial faculties of the outward senses and of the intellect. And, in short, to sum up all these differences in a few words, those who represent everything as incomprehensible are at variance with those who say that a great number of things are properly understood.
30. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 22, 66, 68, 124 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

124. For God is the author of virtuous laughter and joy; so that we must look upon Isaac not as the offspring of creation, but as the work of the uncreate God. For if Isaac, being interpreted, means laughter, and if it be God who is the cause of laughter according to the true testimony of Sarah, then he may be most properly said to be the father of Isaac. And he also gives a share to Abraham of his own proper appellation, to whom, when he eradicated pain from wisdom, he gave rejoicing as an offspring.
31. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 129 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

129. This leprosy, therefore, being of a twofold character, and putting forth two complexions, signifies voluntary depravity; for the soul, though it has healthy, and vivifying, and right reason in itself, does not use it for the preservation of its good things, but surrendering itself to persons unskilled in navigation, it overturns the whole bark of life, which might have been saved in calm fine weather;
32. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 126 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

126. And Moses very appropriately says that the fruit of education is not only holy but also praised; for every one of the virtues is a holy thing, but most especially is gratitude holy; but it is impossible to show gratitude to God in a genuine manner, by those means which people in general think the only ones, namely offerings and sacrifices; for the whole world could not be a temple worthy to be raised to his honour, except by means of praises and hymns, and those too must be such as are sung, not by loud voices, but by the invisible and pure mind, which shall raise the shout and song to him.
33. Anon., 2 Baruch, 30.2, 50.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. New Testament, Colossians, 3.1-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 3.6. for which things' sake the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 3.7. You also once walked in those, when you lived in them; 3.8. but now you also put them all away: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and shameful speaking out of your mouth. 3.9. Don't lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man with his doings 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all.
35. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.22-4.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 4.23. and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth.
36. New Testament, Philippians, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things.
37. New Testament, Romans, 8.29-8.30, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 12.2. Don't be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what is the good and acceptable and perfect will of God.
38. New Testament, John, 1.38, 3.2, 13.13-13.14, 14.6, 14.26, 16.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.38. Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said to them, "What are you looking for?"They said to him, "Rabbi" (which is to say, being interpreted, Teacher), "where are you staying? 3.2. The same came to him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him. 13.13. You call me, 'Teacher' and 'Lord.' You say so correctly, for so I am. 13.14. If I then, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 14.26. But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you. 16.13. However when he, the Spirit of truth, has come, he will guide you into all truth, for he will not speak from himself; but whatever he hears, he will speak. He will declare to you things that are coming.
39. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
40. Maximus of Tyre, Dialexeis, 11.10-11.12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. bwith flaming torchesthat they would juggle bin their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praiseto God. bAnd the Leviteswould play bon lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countlessother bmusical instruments.The musicians would stand bon the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteenSongs of the bAscents in Psalms,i.e., chapters 120–134, and bupon whichthe bLevites stand with musical instruments and recitetheir bsong. /b, bAndthis was the ceremony of the Water Libation: bTwo priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands.When bthe rooster crowedat dawn, bthey sounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i.When btheywho would draw the water breached the tenth stairthe trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i,to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When bthey reached theWomen’s bCourtyardwith the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. /b,When bthey reached the groundof the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. They continued soundingthe trumpets buntil they reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east,from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When bthey reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east, they turned fromfacing beast tofacing bwest,toward the Holy of Holies, band said: Our ancestors who were in this placeduring the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b“with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east”(Ezekiel 8:16), band we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthey would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bnever saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructedstate, bnever saw a magnificent structure.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe Temple building to which the Sages refer? bAbaye said, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho said: bThisis referring to the magnificent bbuilding of Herod,who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: bWith whatmaterials bdid he construct it? Rava said:It was bwith stones ofgreen-gray bmarble and white marble [ imarmara /i]. Some say:It was bwith stones of blue marble and white marble.The rows of stones were set with bone rowslightly bprotruded and one rowslightly bindented, so that the plaster would takebetter. bHe thought to platethe Temple bwith gold,but bthe Sages said to him: Leave itas is, and do not plate it, bas it is better this way, aswith the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, bit has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ ideyofloston /i] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They saidthat its structure bwas like a large basilica [ ibasileki /i],with ba colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousandmen bandanother bsix hundred thousandmen bin it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ ikatedraot /i], corresponding to the seventy-onemembers bof the Great Sanhedrin, each of whichconsisted of bno less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. Andthere was ba wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagoguewould bstand on it, with the scarves in his hand. Andbecause the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, bwhenthe prayer leader breachedthe conclusion of a blessing requiring the people bto answer amen,the sexton bwaved the scarf and all the peoplewould banswer amen. /b, bAndthe members of the various crafts bwould not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmithswould sit bamong themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poorstranger bentered there, he would recognize peoplewho plied bhis craft, and he would turn tojoin them bthere. And from therehe would secure bhis livelihoodas well as bthe livelihoodof the bmembers of his household,as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that bAbaye said: All ofthe people who congregated in that synagogue bwere killed by Alexanderthe Great bof Macedonia.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bthey were punishedand killed? It is bdue tothe fact bthat they violatedthe prohibition with regard to Egypt in bthis verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way”(Deuteronomy 17:16), band they returned.Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., bWhenAlexander barrived, he found them,and saw bthat they were readingthe verse bin theTorah bscroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far,from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). bHe said,referring to himself: bNow, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days,and ba wind carried it and the ship arrived inonly bfive days,apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, bhe set upon them and slaughtered them. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAt the conclusion ofthe first bFestivalday, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: bWhatis this bsignificant repair? Rabbi Elazar saidthat bit is like that which we learned:The walls of the Women’s Courtyard bwere smooth,without protrusions, binitially.Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and bsurroundedthe courtyard bwith a balcony [ igezuztra /i]. And they instituted thatthe bwomen should sit above andthe bmen below. /b, bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bInitially, women wouldstand bon the insideof the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, band the menwere bon the outsidein the courtyard and on the rampart. bAnd they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevityin each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages binstituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevity.Therefore, bthey institutedin the interest of complete separation bthat the women would sit above and the men below. /b,The Gemara asks: bHow could one do so,i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the Temple: b“All thisI give you bin writing,as bthe Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me,even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, bRav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homileticallyand acted accordingly:
42. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 13.12.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

43. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.37, 7.88-7.101

7.37. Then the Most High will say to the nations that have been raised from the dead, `Look now, and understand whom you have denied, whom you have not served, whose commandments you have despised! 7.88. Now this is the order of those who have kept the ways of the Most High, when they shall be separated from their mortal body. 7.89. During the time that they lived in it, they laboriously served the Most High, and withstood danger every hour, that they might keep the law of the Lawgiver perfectly. 7.90. Therefore this is the teaching concerning them: 7.91. First of all, they shall see with great joy the glory of him who receives them, for they shall have rest in seven orders. 7.92. The first order, because they have striven with great effort to overcome the evil thought which was formed with them, that it might not lead them astray from life into death. 7.93. The second order, because they see the perplexity in which the souls of the ungodly wander, and the punishment that awaits them. 7.94. The third order, they see the witness which he who formed them bears concerning them, that while they were alive they kept the law which was given them in trust. 7.95. The fourth order, they understand the rest which they now enjoy, being gathered into their chambers and guarded by angels in profound quiet, and the glory which awaits them in the last days. 7.96. The fifth order, they rejoice that they have now escaped what is corruptible, and shall inherit what is to come; and besides they see the straits and toil from which they have been delivered, and the spacious liberty which they are to receive and enjoy in immortality. 7.97. The sixth order, when it is shown to them how their face is to shine like the sun, and how they are to be made like the light of the stars, being incorruptible from then on. 7.98. The seventh order, which is greater than all that have been mentioned, because they shall rejoice with boldness, and shall be confident without confusion, and shall be glad without fear, for they hasten to behold the face of him whom they served in life and from whom they are to receive their reward when glorified. 7.99. This is the order of the souls of the righteous, as henceforth is announced; and the aforesaid are the ways of torment which those who would not give heed shall suffer hereafter. 7.100. I answered and said, "Will time therefore be given to the souls, after they have been separated from the bodies, to see what you have described to me? 7.101. He said to me, "They shall have freedom for seven days, so that during these seven days they may see the things of which you have been told, and afterwards they shall be gathered in their habitations.
44. Aristobulus, Ap. Euseb. Praep. Evang., 13.12.12

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham,vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
afterlife conceptions Keener(2005) 178
alexandria,and violence of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 16, 17
alexandria Levison (2009) 356
allegorical commentary,relation of,to other philonic series Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 16
allegorical commentary Geljon and Runia (2019) 5, 6
american academy of religion (aar) Werline et al. (2008) 83
ancestors vs. descendants Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
ascend,ascension,ascent Werline et al. (2008) 90, 93, 103
ascetic,asceticism Werline et al. (2008) 93
astronomy Werline et al. (2008) 90
augustus Sly (1990) 2
authority Brooke et al (2008) 144
baron,s. w. Sly (1990) 2
bezalel Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
body,bodily Werline et al. (2008) 84, 93
body Putthoff (2016) 73, 90
breath,breathe Werline et al. (2008) 84
brother of the soul,soul and Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
caligula,embassy to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 16, 17
child sacrifice Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
claudius Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13
cohn,l. Geljon and Runia (2019) 5, 6
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179, 229, 331
commandment Werline et al. (2008) 83, 103
constitution Brooke et al (2008) 144
contact Putthoff (2016) 73
contemplation Putthoff (2016) 90
cosmology,ancient Keener(2005) 178
culture,greco- roman Levison (2009) 356
dance,dancing Werline et al. (2008) 90
de abrahamo,dating Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 16, 17
de abrahamo,place of,in philos life Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 16, 17
de plantatione,chronology Geljon and Runia (2019) 5, 6
dead sea scrolls Levison (2009) 356
delphi Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400
diatribe Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
diodorus siculus Sly (1990) 2
dirt,slime Werline et al. (2008) 93
disciple Levison (2009) 400
dream,vision Werline et al. (2008) 83
dreams Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400
drink Putthoff (2016) 90
earth Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
ecstasis,ecstasy,ecstatic,ex stasis Werline et al. (2008) 90
ecstasy Putthoff (2016) 73
encyclical studies,hagar representing Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
equable states (εὐπάθειαι) Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
etymologies,of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
etymologies,of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
eve,excellence,patriarchs as types of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
exegesis Brooke et al (2008) 144; Putthoff (2016) 73; Werline et al. (2008) 88
exiles Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 17
exposition of the law,dating Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 16, 17
exposition of the law,relation of,to other philonic works Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13
exposition of the law Geljon and Runia (2019) 6
external goods,the eye of the soul Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
eye Werline et al. (2008) 84
ezra Levison (2009) 356
fear,of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
fire Levison (2009) 344
flight Werline et al. (2008) 90, 93
food Putthoff (2016) 90
gaius,emperor Levison (2009) 356
genealogy of virtues,genesis,title of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13
genealogy of virtues Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
gnosis,gnostic,gnosticism Werline et al. (2008) 103
god,and Brooke et al (2008) 144
god,lawgiver Brooke et al (2008) 144
god,salvation of Levison (2009) 400
god,secrets/mysteries of Levison (2009) 356
gomorrah,the graces Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13
hagar,as encyclical studies Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
hagar Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
heaven Brooke et al (2008) 144
hesychius Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
immortality Putthoff (2016) 90
initiation Werline et al. (2008) 93, 103
inspiration Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400
instruction Werline et al. (2008) 84, 90
interpretation,hellenistic jewish Brooke et al (2008) 144
isaac,name of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
isaac,nature and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
jacob,practice and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
jesus christ,in luke-acts Levison (2009) 356
jesus christ,in the fourth gospel Levison (2009) 400
jew/jewish,literature/ authors Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400
john,fourth gospel Levison (2009) 400
josephus Brooke et al (2008) 144
joy,sacrifice of isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
judaism and christianity Keener(2005) 178
kinship Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
knowledge,of god's wisdom/secrets/glory" Levison (2009) 356
knowledge,winds/breezes of' "151.0_356.0@law,god's" Levison (2009) 400
laughter,of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
laughter,sarahs denial of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
laughter Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
law,god's" "151.0_400.0@law,god's" '151.0_356.0@law,torah Levison (2009) 344
law,mosaic Brooke et al (2008) 144
law,natural/of nature Brooke et al (2008) 144
law,revealed Brooke et al (2008) 144
law,torah Levison (2009) 344
learning and teaching,abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
levison,j.r. Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
lewis,naphtali Sly (1990) 2
life,human Levison (2009) 400
light,illumination Werline et al. (2008) 84
liminality Putthoff (2016) 90
literature Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400
logos,sabbath and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
logos Werline et al. (2008) 88
massebieau,l. Geljon and Runia (2019) 5
migrations of abraham,literal and ethical interpretations of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 229
migrations of abraham,second Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 229
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199, 229
mimesis Putthoff (2016) 90
mind Putthoff (2016) 73, 90
mosaic discourse Brooke et al (2008) 144
moses,art Brooke et al (2008) 144
moses,example Brooke et al (2008) 144
moses,name of,inferred Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13
moses,prophet Brooke et al (2008) 144
moses Brooke et al (2008) 144; Levison (2009) 344, 356; Putthoff (2016) 90; Werline et al. (2008) 83, 84, 88, 93
mourning customs,the multitude Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 229
mysteries,mystery,lesemysterium Werline et al. (2008) 83, 90, 93, 103
mystic,mystical,mysticism Werline et al. (2008) 88, 93, 103
names of god Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13
nature,isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
nautical metaphors Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
nicodemus Levison (2009) 400
niehoff,m. Geljon and Runia (2019) 6
nn. Werline et al. (2008) 90
noah,generations of,as virtues Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
noah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179; Geljon and Runia (2019) 5, 6
paraclete Levison (2009) 400
paul (saul) Levison (2009) 344
peter Levison (2009) 356
philo,civil cares of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 16, 17
philo,de abrahamo reflecting life of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 17
philo,de abrahamos place in life of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 16, 17
philo,intellectual and spiritual development of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 16
philo,style of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13
philo Putthoff (2016) 73
philo of alexandria Brooke et al (2008) 144
philosopher,philosophical,philosophy Werline et al. (2008) 84, 88, 90, 93, 103
philosophy Keener(2005) 170, 178; Levison (2009) 400
plato(nism) and philo Geljon and Runia (2019) 6
plato,platonic,platonism Werline et al. (2008) 88, 90, 103
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
platonic,dating Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 16, 17
pleasure Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
politics Brooke et al (2008) 144
powers of god Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
practice,jacob and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
practice Werline et al. (2008) 93, 103
prayer Brooke et al (2008) 144; Levison (2009) 400; Putthoff (2016) 73
priest Werline et al. (2008) 103
prophecy Brooke et al (2008) 144
psalm/psalmist Levison (2009) 400
punishment,exile as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 17
questions and answers Geljon and Runia (2019) 5, 6
questions and answers on genesis and exodus (qge),relation of,to other philonic series Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 16
reveal,revelation Werline et al. (2008) 88
revelation Brooke et al (2008) 144; Levison (2009) 400
ritual Putthoff (2016) 73; Werline et al. (2008) 93, 103
rome,exile as punishment in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 17
sabbath Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
sacrifice of isaac,allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
sacrifice of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
salvation Levison (2009) 400
sarah,as virtue Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
sarah,etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
sarah,laughter of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 331
scribal,scribe Werline et al. (2008) 103
sennaar,longing of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
sense-perception Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
shekhina,re-written scripture Brooke et al (2008) 144
shekhina,universal Brooke et al (2008) 144
sinai,lawgiving Brooke et al (2008) 144
sinai Brooke et al (2008) 144
society of biblical literature (sbl) Werline et al. (2008) 83
solitude,vs. public places Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
solitude Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 229
sophia Werline et al. (2008) 84
soul,flight of Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
soul,the eyes of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
soul Werline et al. (2008) 84, 88, 90
speaking in (other) tongues Levison (2009) 344
speech,articulate vs. internal Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
spirit,characterizations as,breath (life itself) Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400
spirit,characterizations as,fire Levison (2009) 344
spirit,characterizations as,holy Levison (2009) 344, 356
spirit,characterizations as,teacher Levison (2009) 400
spirit,characterizations as,truth Levison (2009) 400
spirit,divine' Geljon and Runia (2019) 130
spirit,effects of,ecstasy/frenzy Levison (2009) 344
spirit,effects of,interpret dreams/scripture Levison (2009) 344, 356
spirit,effects of,intoxication Levison (2009) 344
spirit,effects of,knowledge/understanding Levison (2009) 356, 400
spirit,effects of,life itself Levison (2009) 400
spirit,effects of,mind enlightened Levison (2009) 344
spirit,effects of,praise Levison (2009) 344
spirit,effects of,prophecy Levison (2009) 344
spirit,effects of,wisdom Levison (2009) 356
spirit,modes of presence,guiding Levison (2009) 344, 400
spirit,modes of presence,indwelling Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400
spirit,modes of presence,receiving of Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400
sterling,g. Geljon and Runia (2019) 6
stoa/stoic/stoicism Geljon and Runia (2019) 6, 130
sun,moon Werline et al. (2008) 84, 90
teacher of righteousness Levison (2009) 356
telos Putthoff (2016) 90
temple Putthoff (2016) 73
the cosmos,the country,good men withdrawing to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179, 229
torah,constitution Brooke et al (2008) 144
torah,universality Brooke et al (2008) 144
transformation into a divine image,ancient views of Keener(2005) 170
transmission of tradition Brooke et al (2008) 144
triads,first Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
triads,second Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 199
vocation Levison (2009) 400
wilderness,migration to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 229
wisdom,kinship in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
wisdom tradition,jewish Keener(2005) 170
γένεσις Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13
λόγος Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
νοῦς Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179
τὸ τῆς ψυχῆς ὄμμα Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 199
ἀστεῖος Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179