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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9236
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices Of Cain And Abel, 78


nanIt is advantageous, therefore, if not with reference to the acquisition of perfect virtue, still at all events with reference to political considerations, both to be nourished in ancient and primeval opinions, and also to be acquainted with the ancient records of glorious actions, which historians and the whole race of poets have delivered to their contemporaries and to subsequent ages, to be preserved in their recollection. But when the sudden light of self-taught wisdom has shone upon those who had no foreknowledge or expectation of it, and opening the previously closed eyes of the soul, makes men spectators of knowledge instead of being merely hearers of it, implanting in the mind the swiftest of the outward senses, sight, instead of hearing, which is slower; it is then in vain to exercise the ears with speeches. XXIII.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

30 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.11-13.13, 20.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.11. וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְךָ וְלַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וּנְתָנָהּ לָךְ׃ 13.12. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 13.13. וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 13.11. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee," 13.12. that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s." 13.13. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 11.26-11.28, 15.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.26. וַיְחִי־תֶרַח שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן׃ 11.27. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת תֶּרַח תֶּרַח הוֹלִיד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן וְהָרָן הוֹלִיד אֶת־לוֹט׃ 11.28. וַיָּמָת הָרָן עַל־פְּנֵי תֶּרַח אָבִיו בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתּוֹ בְּאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 11.26. And Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran." 11.27. Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begot Lot." 11.28. And Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees." 15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 62.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

62.12. אַחַת דִּבֶּר אֱלֹהִים שְׁתַּיִם־זוּ שָׁמָעְתִּי כִּי עֹז לֵאלֹהִים׃ 62.12. God hath spoken once, Twice have I heard this: That strength belongeth unto God;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 23.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.29. הֲלוֹא כֹה דְבָרִי כָּאֵשׁ נְאֻם־יְהוָה וּכְפַטִּישׁ יְפֹצֵץ סָלַע׃ 23.29. Is not My word like as fire? Saith the LORD; And like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces?"
6. Euripides, Trojan Women, 888, 887 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246a. that that which moves itself is nothing else than the soul,—then the soul would necessarily be ungenerated and immortal. Concerning the immortality of the soul this is enough; but about its form we must speak in the following manner. To tell what it really is would be a matter for utterly superhuman and long discourse, but it is within human power to describe it briefly in a figure; let us therefore speak in that way. We will liken the soul to the composite nature of a pair of winged horses and a charioteer. Now the horses and charioteers of the gods are all good and
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

81. Again, she gives Hagar to him, not the first moment that he arrives in the country of the Canaanites, but after he has abode there ten years. And what the meaning of this statement is we must investigate in no careless manner. Now, at the beginning of our existence, our soul dwelt among the passions alone as its fosterbrethren, griefs, pains, fears, desires, and pleasures, which reach it through the medium of the external senses, before reason was as yet able to see good and evil, and to distinguish accurately the points wherein these things differ from one another, but while it was still wavering and hesitating, and as it were closing its eyes in profound sleep;
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 222, 190 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

190. the evident proofs of which you will see even while involved in the corporeal cares perceptible by the outward senses, sometimes while in deep slumber (for then the mind, roaming abroad, and straying beyond the confines of the outward senses, and of all the other affections of the body, begins to associate with itself, looking on truth as at a mirror, and discarding all the imaginations which it has contracted from the outward senses, becomes inspired by the truest divination respecting the future, through the instrumentality of dreams), and at other times in your waking moments.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

46. Let them run over in their minds the first creation of the universe, when, before the sun or the moon existed, the earth brought forth all kinds of plants and all kinds of fruits: and seeing this in their minds let them hope that it will again also bring forth such, according to the appointment of the Father, when it shall seem good to him, without his having need of the aid of any of the sons of men beneath the heavens, to whom he has given powers, though not absolute ones." For as a charioteer holding the reigns or a helmsman with his hand upon the rudder, he guides everything as he pleases, in accordance with law and justice, needing no one else as his assistant; for all things are possible to God. XV.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 38, 41-42, 37 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. What is it then that the gravest philosophers, who have talked in the most grandiloquent manner about divine law and the honour due to God, have determined both to say and to allow to be said, If ye have in ye a mind which is equal to God, which regulating by its own power all the good and bad things which exist among men, occasionally mingles both in certain persons, and sometimes distributes both good and bad to some in an unalloyed state;
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 14, 2, 51-52, 69, 74, 88, 111 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

111. And in another passage it is said, "My gifts, and my offerings, and my sacrifices, ye will take care to offer to me at my festivals:" not taking away form them, nor dividing them, but bringing them forward full, and entire, and perfect; for the feast of the soul is cheerfulness in perfect virtues; and the perfect virtues are all those which the human race exhibits, free from all stain or spot. But the wise man alone can keep such a festival as this, and no other human being; for it is a most rare thing to find a soul which has never tasted of wickedness of passions. XXXIV.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.80, 1.165 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.80. which, after it has arisen, arouses as if from sleep the senses of seeing, and of hearing, and also of taste, and of touch, and of smell, and sends to sleep the intellectual qualities of prudence, and justice, and knowledge, and wisdom, which were all awake. 1.165. It is becoming then for you to act thus; but as for ye, O souls, who have once tasted of divine love, as if you had even awakened from deep sleep, dissipate the mist that is before you; and hasten forward to that beautiful spectacle, putting aside slow and hesitating fear, in order to comprehend all the beautiful sounds and sights which the president of the games has prepared for your advantage. XXVII.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 13, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. But they who apply themselves to this kind of worship, not because they are influenced to do so by custom, nor by the advice or recommendation of any particular persons, but because they are carried away by a certain heavenly love, give way to enthusiasm, behaving like so many revellers in bacchanalian or corybantian mysteries, until they see the object which they have been earnestly desiring.
15. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.223-3.224 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. But some say that the proper name of the man who found him wandering in the plain is not mentioned, and they themselves are in some degree mistaken here, because they are unable clearly to discover the true way of this business, for if they had not been mutilated as to the eye of the soul, they would have known that of one who is truly a man, the most proper, and appropriate, and felicitous name is this very name of man, being the most appropriate appelation of a well regulated and rational mind.
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.155-1.156, 1.158 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.155. for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinion all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first that ventured to publish this notion, That there was but one God, the Creator of the universe; and that, as to other [gods], if they contributed any thing to the happiness of men, that each of them afforded it only according to his appointment, and not by their own power. 1.156. This his opinion was derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land and sea, as well as those that happen to the sun, and moon, and all the heavenly bodies, thus:—“If [said he] these bodies had power of their own, they would certainly take care of their own regular motions; but since they do not preserve such regularity, they make it plain, that in so far as they co-operate to our advantage, they do it not of their own abilities, but as they are subservient to Him that commands them, to whom alone we ought justly to offer our honor and thanksgiving.” 1.158. 2. Berosus mentions our father Abram without naming him, when he says thus: “In the tenth generation after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a man righteous and great, and skillful in the celestial science.”
19. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, 75 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

75. The crocodile, Cf. Herodotus, ii. 69. certainly, has acquired honour which is not devoid of a plausible reason, but he is declared to be a living representation of God, since he is the only creature without a tongue; for the Divine Word has no need of a voice, and through noiseless ways advancing, guides By Justice all affairs of mortal men. Euripides, Troades, 887-888; Cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 1007 c. They say that the crocodile is the only animal living in the water which has a thin and transparent membrane extending down from his forehead to cover up his eyes, so that he can see without being seen; and this prerogative belongs also unto the First God. In whatever part of the land the female crocodile lays her eggs, well she knows that this is destined to mark the limit of the rise of the Nile Ibid. 982 c; Aristotle, Hist. Animalium, v. 33 (558 a 17). ; for the females, being unable to lay their eggs in the water and afraid to lay them far from it, have such an accurate perception of the future that they make use of the oncoming river as a guide in laying their eggs and in keeping them warm; and thus they preserve them dry and untouched by the water. They lay sixty eggs Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animalium, ii. 33, v. 52. and hatch them in the same number of days, and those crocodiles that live longest live that number of years: the number sixty is the first of measures for such persons as concern themselves with the heavenly bodies. of the animals that are held in honour for both reasons, mention has already been made of the dog. supra, 355and 368 f. The ibis, Cf. Diodorus, i. 87. 6. which kills the deadly creeping things, was the first to teach men the use of medicinal purgations when they observed her employing clysters and being purged by herself. Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animalium, ii. 35; Pliny, Natural History, x. 40 (75). The most strict of the priests take their lustral water for purification from a place where the ibis has drunk Cf. Moralia, 974 c; Aelian, De Natura Animalium, vii. 45. : for she does not drink water if it is unwholesome or tainted, nor will she approach it. By the spreading of her feet, in their relation to each other and to her bill, she makes an equilateral triangle. Cf. Moralia, 670 c. Moreover the variety and combination of her black feathers with her white picture the moon in its first quarter. There is no occasion for surprise that the Egyptians were so taken with such slight resemblances; for the Greeks in their painted and sculptured portrayals of the gods made use of many such. Tor example, in Crete there was a statue of Zeus having no ears; for it is not fitting for the Ruler and Lord of all to listen to anyone. Beside the statue of Athena Pheidias placed the serpent and in Elis beside the statue of Aphroditê the tortoise, Cf. Moralia, 142 d; Pausanias, vi. 25. 2. to indicate that maidens need watching, and that for married women staying at home and silence is becoming. The trident of Poseidon is a symbol of the Third Region where the sea holds sway, for it. has been assigned to a demesne of less importance than the heavens and the air. For this reason they thus named Amphitritê and the Tritons. An effort to derive these names from τρίτος, third. The Pythagoreans embellished also numbers and figures with the appellations of the gods. The equilateral triangle they called Athena, born from the head and third-born, because it is divided by three perpendiculars drawn from its three angles. The number one they called Apollo Cf. the note on 354 f, supra . because of its rejection of plurality Cf. 393 b, infra . and because of the singleness of unity. The number two they called Strife, and Daring, and three they called Justice, for, although the doing of injustice and suffering from injustice are caused by deficiency and excess, Justice, by reason of its equality, intervenes between the two. The so-called sacred quaternion, the number thirtysix, was, so it is famed, the mightiest of oaths, and it has been given the name of World since it is made up of the first four even numbers and the first four odd numbers added together. 75. The crocodile, certainly, has acquired honour which is not devoid of a plausible reason, but he is declared to be a living representation of God, since he is the only creature without a tongue; for the Divine Word has no need of a voice, and through noiseless ways advancing, guides By Justice all affairs of mortal men. They say that the crocodile is the only animal living in the water which has a thin and transparent membrane extending down from his forehead to cover up his eyes, so that he can see without being seen; and this prerogative belongs also unto the First God. In whatever part of the land the female crocodile lays her eggs, well she knows that this is destined to mark the limit of the rise of the Nile; for the females, being unable to lay their eggs in the water and afraid to lay them far from it, have such an accurate perception of the future that they make use of the oncoming river as a guide in laying their eggs and in keeping them warm; and thus they preserve them dry and untouched by the water. They lay sixty eggs and hatch them in the same number of days, and those crocodiles that live longest live that number of years: the number sixty is the first of measures for such persons as concern themselves with the heavenly bodies. of the animals that are held in honour for both reasons, mention has already been made of the dog. The ibis, which kills the deadly creeping things, was the first to teach men the use of medicinal purgations when they observed her employing clysters and being purged by herself. The most strict of the priests take their lustral water for purification from a place where the ibis has drunk: for she does not drink water if it is unwholesome or tainted, nor will she approach it. By the spreading of her feet, in their relation to each other and to her bill, she makes an equilateral triangle. Moreover the variety and combination of her black feathers with her white picture the moon in its first quarter. There is no occasion for surprise that the Egyptians were so taken with such slight resemblances; for the Greeks in their painted and sculptured portrayals of the gods made use of many such. For example, in Crete there was a statue of Zeus having no ears; for it is not fitting for the Ruler and Lord of all to listen to anyone. Beside the statue of Athena Pheidias placed the serpent and in Elis beside the statue of Aphroditê the tortoise, to indicate that maidens need watching, and that for married women staying at home and silence is becoming. The trident of Poseidon is a symbol of the Third Region where the sea holds sway, for it has been assigned to a demesne of less importance than the heavens and the air. For this reason they thus named Amphitritê and the Tritons. The Pythagoreans embellished also numbers and figures with the appellations of the gods. The equilateral triangle they called Athena, born from the head and third-born, because it is divided by three perpendiculars drawn from its three angles. The number one they called Apollo because of its rejection of plurality and because of the singleness of unity. The number two they called "Strife," and "Daring," and three they called "Justice," for, although the doing of injustice and suffering from injustice are caused by deficiency and excess, Justice, by reason of its equality, intervenes between the two. The so‑called sacred quaternion, the number thirty-six, was, so it is famed, the mightiest of oaths, and it has been given the name of "World" since it is made up of the first four even numbers and the first four odd numbers added together.
20. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 39.1, 44.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39.1. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם לֶךְ לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וגו' (בראשית יב, א), רַבִּי יִצְחָק פָּתַח (תהלים מה, יא): שִׁמְעִי בַת וּרְאִי וְהַטִּי אָזְנֵךְ וְשִׁכְחִי עַמֵּךְ וּבֵית אָבִיךְ, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מָשָׁל לְאֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, וְרָאָה בִּירָה אַחַת דּוֹלֶקֶת, אָמַר תֹּאמַר שֶׁהַבִּירָה הַזּוֹ בְּלֹא מַנְהִיג, הֵצִיץ עָלָיו בַּעַל הַבִּירָה, אָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי הוּא בַּעַל הַבִּירָה. כָּךְ לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם אוֹמֵר תֹּאמַר שֶׁהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא מַנְהִיג, הֵצִיץ עָלָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי הוּא בַּעַל הָעוֹלָם. (תהלים מה, יב): וְיִתְאָו הַמֶּלֶךְ יָפְיֵךְ כִּי הוּא אֲדֹנַיִךְ. וְיִתְאָו הַמֶּלֶךְ יָפְיֵךְ, לְיַפּוֹתֵךְ בָּעוֹלָם, (תהלים מה, יב): וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִי לוֹ, הֱוֵי וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם. 39.1. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וְנָפְלָה מַרְגָּלִית מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ, עָמַד הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהֶעֱמִיד פַּמַּלְיָא שֶׁלּוֹ שָׁם וְעָשָׂה צִבּוּרִים וְהֵבִיא מִכְבָּרוֹת וְכָבַר אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְלֹא מָצָא, הַשֵּׁנִי וְלֹא מָצָא, וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁית מְצָאָהּ, אָמְרוּ מָצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ מַרְגָּלִית שֶׁלּוֹ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מַה צֹּרֶךְ הָיָה לִי לְיַחֵס שֵׁם, אַרְפַּכְשַׁד, שֶׁלַח, עֵבֶר, פֶּלֶג, רְעוּ, שְׂרוּג, נָחוֹר, תֶּרַח, אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִילָךְ, (נחמיה ט, ח): וּמָצָאתָ אֶת לְבָבוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְפָנֶיךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְדָוִד, מַה צֹּרֶךְ הָיָה לִי לְיַחֵס פֶּרֶץ, חֶצְרוֹן, רָם, עַמִּינָדָב, נַחְשׁוֹן, שַׂלְמוֹן, בֹּעַז, עוֹבֵד, יִשַּׁי, דָּוִד, לֹא בִּשְׁבִילָךְ, (תהלים פט, כא): מָצָאתִי דָּוִד עַבְדִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן קָדְשִׁי מְשַׁחְתִּיו. 44.12. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה (בראשית טו, ה), רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי וְכִי מִחוּץ לָעוֹלָם הוֹצִיאוֹ, שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה, אֶלָּא אַחְוֵי לֵיהּ שׁוֹקְקֵי שְׁמַיָא, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כו): עַד לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֶעֱלָה אוֹתוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִכִּפַּת הַרָקִיעַ, הוּא דְּאָמַר לֵיהּ (בראשית טו, ה): הַבֶּט נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה, אֵין הַבָּטָה אֶלָּא מִלְּמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי נָבִיא אַתְּ וְאֵין אַתְּ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוֹס, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כ, יז): וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת הָאִישׁ כִּי נָבִיא הוּא. בִּימֵי יִרְמְיָהוּ בִּקְּשׁוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לָבוֹא לִידֵי מִדָּה זוֹ, וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ירמיה י, ב): כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֶל דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל תִּלְמָדוּ וּמֵאֹתוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם אַל תֵּחָתּוּ וגו', כְּבָר אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיכֶם בִּקֵּשׁ לָבוֹא לִידֵי מִדָּה זוֹ וְלֹא הִנַּחְתִּי אוֹתוֹ. וְאָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי עַד דְּסַנְדְּלָא בְּרַגְלִיךְ דְּרִיס כּוּבָא, וְכָל מִי שֶׁהוּא נָתוּן לְמַטָּה מֵהֶם הוּא מִתְיָרֵא מֵהֶם, אֲבָל אַתְּ שֶׁאַתְּ נָתוּן לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶם דָּיְישֵׁם. רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים מְבַטְּלִים גְּזֵרוֹת רָעוֹת, וְאֵלּוּ הֵם, תְּפִלָּה וּצְדָקָה וּתְשׁוּבָה, וּשְׁלָשְׁתָּן נֶאֶמְרוּ בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב ז, יד): וְיִכָּנְעוּ עַמִּי אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא שְׁמִי עֲלֵיהֶם וְיִתְפַּלְּלוּ, זוֹ תְּפִלָּה. (דברי הימים ב ז, יד): וִיבַקְּשׁוּ פָנַי, הֲרֵי צְדָקָה, כְּמָא דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים יז, טו): אֲנִי בְּצֶדֶק אֶחֱזֶה פָנֶיךָ. (דברי הימים ב ז, יד): וְיָשֻׁבוּ מִדַּרְכֵיהֶם הָרָעִים, זוֹ תְּשׁוּבָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (דברי הימים ב ז, יד) וְאֶסְלַח לְחַטָּאתָם וְאֶרְפָּא אֶת אַרְצָם. רַבִּי הוּנָא בַּר רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר אַף שִׁנּוּי שֵׁם וּמַעֲשֶׂה טוֹב, שִׁנּוּי הַשֵּׁם, מֵאַבְרָהָם (בראשית יז, ה): וְלֹא יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם. מַעֲשֶׂה טוֹב, מֵאַנְשֵׁי נִינְוֵה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יונה ג, י): וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם כִּי שָׁבוּ וגו'. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַף שִׁנּוּי מָקוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יב, א): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם לֶךְ לְךָ. רַבִּי מוּנָא אָמַר אַף הַתַּעֲנִית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים כ, ב): יַעַנְךָ ה' בְּיוֹם צָרָה וגו'. רָבָא בַּר מַחְסֵיָא וְרַבִּי חָמָא בֶּן גּוּרְיוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַב אָמַר יָפָה תַּעֲנִית לַחֲלוֹם כָּאֵשׁ בִּנְעֹרֶת. אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף וּבוֹ בַּיּוֹם, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת. 39.1. (1) YHVH said to Abram, \"Go you forth from your land…\" … Rabbi Yitzchak said: this may be compared to a man who was traveling from place to place when he saw a bira doleket/castle aglow/lit up (full of light/in flames). He said, \"Is it possible that this castle lacks a person to look after it? The owner of the building looked out and said, “I am the owner of the castle.” Similarly, because Abraham our father said, “Is it possible that this castle has no guide, no one to look after it?,\" the Holy Blessed One looked out and said to him, “I am the Master of the Universe.” … Hence, God said to Avraham, Lech Lecha.
22. Anon., Sifra, 10.1 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

23. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 112, 102 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

24. Palestinian Talmud, Nedarim, 3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

25. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) חולל אילות תשמור אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לד, לה) [איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל (וכתיב (איוב מב, ז) כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב) אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו,(איוב ב, יא) וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי,מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא,(בראשית ו, א) ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב על פני האדמה ובנות יולדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רביה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב,אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב (איוב מב, יג) ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך,ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר (ירמיהו ד, ל) כי תקרעי בפוך,רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי,כתנאי (בראשית כד, א) וה' ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא,דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו,[ומ"ש של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי,אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה,בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם (דברים כב, כז) כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם (ירמיהו ד, לא) אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להורגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, לב) למה זה לי וכתיב התם (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב (בראשית כה, לב) הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב (בראשית כה, לד) ויבז עשו את הבכורה,ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא א"ל רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן,והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי א"ר יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר (בראשית כה, ט) ויקברו אותו יצחק וישמעאל בניו,ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה (בראשית לה, כט) ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו,תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקב"ה בעולם הזה 16b. bto give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so thatthe kid bshould fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and ifthe eagle breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late,the kid bwould immediately die.Now, if bI do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,Similarly: b“Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThe womb of this hind is narrow,which makes for a difficult delivery. bWhen she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [ iderakon /i] that bites her at the opening of the womb, whichthen bbecomes loose, and she gives birth, and ifthe snake breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die.Now, if I bdo not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: b“Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom”(Job 34:35). bButon the other hand, bit is writtenwith regard to Job’s friends: b“You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job”(Job 42:8). bRava said: From hereit may be inferred bthat a person is not held responsiblefor what he says bwhen he is in distress.Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.,The verse states: b“And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him”(Job 2:11). bWhatdoes b“they had made an appointment together”mean? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Thisphrase bteaches that they all enteredthrough bone gateat the same time. bAnda Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: There were bthree hundred parasangs between each and every oneof them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.,The Gemara asks: bHow did theyall bknowat the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? bThere arethose bwho saythat btheyeach bhad a crownwhich displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. bAnd there arethose bwho say theyeach bhad trees and whenthe trees bwithered they knewthat sorrow had visited one of them. bRava saidthat bthiscloseness between Job and his friends explains the adage bthat people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death.If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.,The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. b“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [ ilarov /i] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them”(Genesis 6:1). bRabbi Yoḥa says: iLarovmeans that bpropagation [ ireviyya /i] came to the worldthrough these daughters. bReish Lakish says: Strife [ imeriva /i] came to the world.Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa: According to you who saythat due to the daughters bpropagation came to the world, for whatreason bwerethe number of bJob’s daughters not doubled,when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Granted,the numbers of Job’s daughters bwere not doubled in name,meaning they did not become twice as many, bbut they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch”(Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty., bJemimah [ iYemima /i];in her beauty bshe was similar to the day [ iyom /i]. Keziah; her scent wafted likethe bcassia [ iketzia /i]tree. bKeren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [ ikeren /i] of a ikeresh /i,an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. bThey laughed at this in the West,Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered ba blemishwhen a person resembles bthe horn of a ikeresh /i. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said:She was blike garden saffron [ ikekurkema derishka /i],which is the best bof its kind. iKerenrefers to a garden, and ipukhmeans ornament, bas it is stated: “Though you enlargeyour eyes bwith paint [ ipukh /i],you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).,It is reported that ba daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and bhe was upsetthat he did not have a son. bHis father said to him: Propagation has come to the worldthrough the birth of a daughter. bBar Kappara said toRabbi Shimon: bYour father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe world cannot endure without males and females,as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. bBut fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females.Similarly, bthe world cannot endure without either a spice dealerwhose wares are sweet-smelling, bor a tanner [ ibursi /i],who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. bFortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller,and bwoe to him whose occupation is a tanner. /b,The Gemara comments that this disagreement is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states: b“And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [ ibakkol /i]”(Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about bwhat ibakkol /imeans. bRabbi Meir says:The blessing is bthat he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says:On the contrary, the blessing was bthat he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [ iitztagninut /i] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his doordue to his wisdom. This is the blessing of ibakkol /i, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hungthis stone bfrom the sphere of the sun,which from that point on brought healing to the sick. bAbaye said: Thisexplains the adage bthat people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted. /b, bAlternatively,what is the blessing of ibakkol /i? bThat Esau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime,that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. bAlternatively,the blessing of ibakkolis bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime.The Gemara explains: bFrom where do wederive that bEsau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime? As it is written:“And Jacob was cooking a stew band Esau came in from the field and he was faint”(Genesis 25:29), banda ibaraita btaught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father,as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.,The Gemara explains: bAnd what is different about lentilsthat they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? bThey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth,i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, bso too a mourner has no mouth,that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. bAlternatively, just as this lentil iscompletely bround, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe two explanations? The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themwith regard to whether it is appropriate bto consolea mourner bwith eggs,which have no opening but are not completely round., bRabbi Yoḥa says: That wickedEsau bcommitted five transgressions on that daythat Abraham died: bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principleof God’s existence, bhe denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright. /b,The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden,as bit is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written therewith regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: b“For he found her in a field”(Deuteronomy 22:27). bHe killed a person,as bit is written here:“And he was bfaint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers”(Jeremiah 4:31). bAnd he denied the principleof God’s existence, as bit is written here: “What profit is this to me”(Genesis 25:32); band it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” bAnd he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death”(Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. bAnd he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright”(Genesis 25:34)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime? Fromthe incident involving bRavina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi,who bwere sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozingwhile they were talking. bRavina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you saythat bany death with regard to whichthe word igevia /i,expire, is mentioned bis the death of the righteous?Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: Yes.For example: “And Isaac expired [ ivayyigva /i], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: bButwith regard to bthe generation of the floodit states: “And all flesh expired [ ivayyigva /i]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: We saythis only when both igeviaand iasifa /i,gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.,Ravina asked: bBut isn’t there Ishmael, about whom igeviaand iasifaare written,as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [ ivayyigva vayyamot /i]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? bMeanwhile Rava,who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully bawokeand bsaid to them: Children [ idardekei /i], this is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe verse blisted them in the order of their wisdom;that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: bBut if that is so,consider that the verse states: b“And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 35:29). bWhat is the reasonthat the verse there bdid not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, sinceIshmael ballowedIsaac bto precede him,it is clear that he bmadeIsaac bhis leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented inAbraham’s blifetime. /b,Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that bthe Sages taught:There were bthreepeople bto whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gavealready bin this world /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. מפני שנתעסק במלון תחילה שנאמר ויהי בדרך במלון (שמות ד, כד),רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא למשה רבינו ביקש שטן להרוג אלא לאותו תינוק שנאמר כי חתן דמים אתה לי (שמות ד כה) צא וראה מי קרוי חתן הוי אומר זה התינוק,דרש רבי יהודה בר ביזנא בשעה שנתרשל משה רבינו מן המילה באו אף וחימה ובלעוהו ולא שיירו ממנו אלא רגליו מיד ותקח צפורה צור ותכרת את ערלת בנה (שמות ד, כה) מיד וירף ממנו (שמות ד, כו),באותה שעה ביקש משה רבינו להורגן שנאמר הרף מאף ועזוב חמה (תהלים לז, ח) ויש אומרים לחימה הֲרָגוֹ שנאמר חמה אין לי (ישעיהו כז, ד) והכתיב כי יגרתי מפני האף והחמה (דברים ט, יט) תרי חימה הוו ואיבעית אימא גונדא דחימה,תניא רבי אומר גדולה מילה שאין לך מי שנתעסק במצוות כאברהם אבינו ולא נקרא תמים אלא על שם מילה שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב),דבר אחר גדולה מילה ששקולה כנגד כל המצוות שבתורה שנאמר כי על פי הדברים האלה וגו' (שמות לד, כז) דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאילמלא מילה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה וגו' (ירמיהו לג, כה),ופליגא דרבי אליעזר דאמר רבי אליעזר גדולה תורה שאילמלא תורה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם אבינו התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) אחזתו רעדה אמר שמא יש בי דבר מגונה כיוון שאמר לו ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב) נתקררה דעתו,ויוצא אותו החוצה (בראשית טו, ה) אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם הסתכלתי במזל שלי ואין לי אלא בן אחד אמר לו צא מאיצטגנינות שלך אין מזל לישראל,אמר רבי יצחק כל המתמים עצמו הקב"ה מתמים עמו שנאמר עם חסיד תתחסד עם גבר תמים תתמם (תהלים יח, כו),אמר רבי הושעיא כל המתמים עצמו שעה עומדת לו שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב והיית לאב המון גוים (בראשית יז, ד),אמר רבי כל המנחש לו נחש שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב (במדבר כג, כג) והא בלמ"ד אל"ף כתיב אלא משום מידה כנגד מידה,תני אהבה בריה דרבי זירא כל אדם שאינו מנחש מכניסין אותו במחיצה שאפילו מלאכי השרת אין יכולין ליכנס בתוכה שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב ולא קסם בישראל וגו' (במדבר כג, כג),אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי אלעזר מפני מה נענש אברהם אבינו ונשתעבדו בניו למצרים מאתיים ועשר שנים מפני שעשה אנגרייא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד),ושמואל אמר מפני שהפריז על מדותיו של הקב"ה שנאמר במה אדע כי אירשנה (בראשית טו, ח) ורבי יוחנן אמר שהפריש בני אדם מלהכנס תחת כנפי השכינה שנאמר תן לי הנפש והרכוש קח לך (בראשית יד, כא),וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד) רב אמר שהוריקן בתורה ושמואל אמר שהוריקן בזהב,שמנה עשר ושלש מאות (בראשית יד, יד) אמר רבי אמי בר אבא אליעזר כנגד כולם איכא דאמרי אליעזר הוא דחושבניה הכי הוי,ואמר רבי אמי בר אבא בן שלוש שנים הכיר אברהם את בוראו שנאמר עקב אשר שמע אברהם בקולי (בראשית כו, ה) חושבניה מאה ושבעין ותרין,ואמר רמי בר אבא 32a. bBecause he was occupied with lodging firstand did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the way at the lodging-place”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacherthat bSatan wanted to kill, but rather, that infantwho was not circumcised, bas it is stated: “Surely a bridegroom of blood are you to me”(Exodus 4:25). bGo out and see: Whodoes it make sense would be the one that bis called the bridegroomin this instance? bYou must say this is the infant,since he is the one who entered the covet of Abraham by means of the circumcision., bRabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision,the destructive angels named bAf,meaning anger, band Ḥeima,meaning wrath, bcame and swallowed him, and only his legs were leftoutside. bImmediately, “Zipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her son”(Exodus 4:25), and bimmediately “He let him alone”(Exodus 4:26)., bAt that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: “Cease from anger [ iaf] and forsake wrath [ iḥeima /i]”(Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. bAnd there are those who say: He killedthe angel named bḤeima, as it is stated: “Wrath is not in me”(Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed Ḥeima? bIsn’t it writtenthat Moses himself said much later: b“For I was in dread of the anger and wrath”(Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: bThere are twotypes of bwrath. And if you wish, saythat bthe army of Ḥeimaremained but not the angel itself., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, andyet bhe was called wholehearted only due tothe mitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is writtenin the next verse: b“And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is statedat the giving of the Torah: b“For according to these wordsI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), and “covet” refers to circumcision. bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body.,The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagreeswith the words bof Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covet that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: “You should contemplate it day and night” (Joshua 1:8)., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), a sensation of btrembling seized himand bhe said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about medue to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. bWhenGod bsaid to him: “And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), bhis mind was set at ease,since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.,The Gemara expounds the verse b“and He brought him outside”(Genesis 15:5): Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation andaccording to it bIwill bhave only one son,and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. bHe said to him: Emerge from your astrologybecause bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people,as they are not subject to the influence of astrology., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: “With the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedly”(II Samuel 22:26)., bRabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him,i.e., he will be successful, bas it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is written: “And you shall be the father of a multitude of nations”(Genesis 17:4)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Anyone who divines,i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, bthe signwill injure bhim, as it is stated: “For there is to him [ ilo /i] divination with Jacob”(Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: bBut it is written ilo bwiththe letters ilamed alef /i,meaning “no divination,” as opposed to with the letters ilamed vav /i, meaning “there is to him divination.” The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. bRather,the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather bdue tothe concept of bmeasure for measure:Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him., bAhava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divinehis future bis brought inside a partitionclose to God to a place bthat even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: “For there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel,now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wrought” (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egyptfor b210 years? Because he made a draft [ iangarya /i] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: “He led forth his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars., bAnd Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [ ihifriz /i] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:He was punished bbecause he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is statedthat the king of Sodom said to him: b“Give me the people and take the goods to yourself”(Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: b“He led forth [ ivayyarek /i] his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). bRav said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with Torahlike someone who pours from one vessel into another, band Shmuel said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with goldand gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.,The Torah states that he took b“eighteen and three hundred”(Genesis 14:14) men to war. bRabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezerwas bequivalentto ball of them. There arethose bwho say:Only bEliezer isreferred to here, bas the numerical valueof the letters of his name bis thisamount, i.e., 318., bAnd Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: “Because [ iekev /i] Abraham hearkened to My voice”(Genesis 26:5). bThe numerical valueof the letters of the word iekevis b172,indicating that he observed the ihalakhafor this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three., bAnd Rami bar Abba saidin a similar manner:
27. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

34a. מאי טעמא דר' יוסי בר יהודה דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, ל) עד אחד לא יענה בנפש למות למות הוא דאינו עונה אבל לזכות עונה ורבנן אמר ריש לקיש משום דמיחזי כנוגע בעדותו,ורבנן האי למות מאי דרשי ביה מוקמי ליה באחד מן התלמידים כדתניא אמר אחד מן העדים יש לי ללמד עליו זכות מניין שאין שומעין לו ת"ל עד אחד לא יענה מניין לאחד מן התלמידים שאמר יש לי ללמד עליו חובה מניין שאין שומעין לו ת"ל אחד לא יענה בנפש למות:,דיני נפשות המלמד כו': אמר רב לא שנו אלא בשעת משא ומתן אבל בשעת גמר דין מלמד זכות חוזר ומלמד חובה,מיתיבי למחרת משכימין ובאין המזכה אומר אני המזכה ומזכה אני במקומי המחייב אומר אני המחייב ומחייב אני במקומי המלמד חובה מלמד זכות אבל המלמד זכות אינו יכול לחזור וללמד חובה,והא למחרת גמר דין הוא וליטעמיך למחרת משא ומתן מי ליכא כי קתני בשעת משא ומתן,ת"ש דנין אלו כנגד אלו עד שיראה אחד מן המחייבין דברי המזכין ואם איתא ליתני נמי איפכא תנא אזכות קא מהדר אחובה לא קא מהדר,ת"ש דאמר ר' יוסי בר חנינא אחד מן התלמידים שזיכה ומת רואין אותו כאילו חי ועומד במקומו ואמאי נימא אילו הוה קיים הדר ביה השתא מיהא לא הדר ביה,והא שלחו מתם לדברי ר' יוסי בר חנינא מוצא מכלל רבינו אין מוצא איתמר,תא שמע שני סופרי הדיינין עומדין לפניהן אחד מן הימין ואחד מן השמאל וכותבין דברי המזכין ודברי המחייבין,בשלמא דברי המחייבין למחר חזו טעמא אחרינא ובעו למעבד הלנת דין אלא דברי המזכין מאי טעמא לאו משום דאי חזו טעמא אחרינא לחובה לא משגחינן בהו,לא כדי שלא יאמרו שנים טעם אחד משני מקראות כדבעא מיניה רבי אסי מרבי יוחנן אמרו שנים טעם אחד משני מקראות מהו אמר ליה אין מונין להן אלא אחד,מנהני מילי אמר אביי דאמר קרא (תהלים סב, יב) אחת דבר אלהים שתים זו שמעתי כי עז לאלהים מקרא אחד יוצא לכמה טעמים ואין טעם אחד יוצא מכמה מקראות דבי ר' ישמעאל תנא (ירמיהו כג, כט) וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע מה פטיש זה מתחלק לכמה ניצוצות אף מקרא אחד יוצא לכמה טעמים,היכי דמי טעם אחד משני מקראות אמר רב זביד כדתנן מזבח מקדש את הראוי לו,רבי יהושע אומר כל הראוי לאשים אם עלה לא ירד שנאמר (ויקרא ו, ב) העולה על מוקדה מה עולה שהיא ראויה לאשים אם עלתה לא תרד אף כל שהוא ראוי לאשים אם עלה לא ירד,רבן גמליאל אומר כל הראוי למזבח אם עלה לא ירד שנאמר היא העולה על מוקדה על המזבח מה עולה שהיא ראויה לגבי מזבח אם עלתה לא תרד אף כל שהוא ראוי למזבח אם עלה לא ירד,ותרוייהו מאי קמרבו פסולין מר מייתי לה ממוקדה ומר מייתי לה ממזבח,והא התם מיפלג פליגי דקתני סיפא אין בין דברי רבן גמליאל לדברי ר' יהושע אלא הדם והנסכים שר"ג אומר לא ירדו ור' יהושע אומר ירדו,אלא אמר רב פפא כדתניא ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר מתוך שנאמר 34a. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reason of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda? As the verse states: “But one witness shall not testify against any person that he die.”One can infer: bThat he die isthe matter concerning bwhich he does not testify, but he does testify to acquit.The Gemara asks: bAndwhat is the reasoning of bthe Rabbis? Reish Lakish says:A witness cannot offer any statements beyond his testimony bbecause it appears as though he is biased in his testimony.If the court finds the accused liable based on the witness’s testimony, the witness could later be accused of being a conspiring witness. Therefore, it is to his advantage to have the court acquit the accused.,The Gemara asks: bAndas for bthe Rabbis,in bwhatmanner do bthey interpret thisterm: b“That he die”?The Gemara answers: bThey establish itas teaching the ihalakha bwith regard to one of the students. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone of the witnesses said: I havethe ability bto teacha reason to bacquit him, from whereis it derived bthatthe court bdoes not listen to him? The verse states: “One witness shall not testify.” From whereis it derived bthatif there is bone of the students who said: I havethe ability bto teacha reason to deem bhim liable, from whereis it derived bthatthe court bdoes not listen to him? The verse states:“But bonewitness bshall not testify against any person that he die.” /b,§ The mishna teaches: In cases of bcapital law, one whoinitially bteachesa reason to deem the accused liable may then teach a reason to acquit, but one who initially teaches a reason to acquit him may not return and teach a reason to deem him liable. bRav says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonly with regard to the time ofthe bdeliberationsof the court, bbut at the time ofthe bverdict,one who initially bteachesa reason to bacquit may return and teacha reason to deem him bliable. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a mishna (40a): bThe following day,i.e., the day after the initial deliberations, the judges would barise early and cometo court. bOne whoyesterday was of the opinion to bacquit says: Isaid to bacquit, and I acquit in my place,i.e., I stand by my statement to acquit. bAnd one whoyesterday was of the opinion to bdeemhim bliable says: Isaid to bdeemhim bliable, and I deemhim bliable in my place. One whoyesterday btaughta reason to deem him bliable maythen bteacha reason to bacquit, but one whoyesterday btaughta reason to bacquit may notthen bteacha reason to deem him bliable. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bBut the following day isat the time of bthe verdict,and the mishna rules that a judge who had said to acquit may not change his opinion. The Gemara questions this reading of the mishna: bAnd according to your reasoning, are there no deliberations on the following day?The deliberations may resume on the next day. Therefore, one can say that bwhenthe mishna bteachesthat the judge may not change his opinion, it is bwith regard to the time ofthe bdeliberations. /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from the continuation of that mishna, which teaches that if the number of judges who deem him liable is one more than the number of judges who acquit, btheycontinue to bdeliberatethe matter, bthesejudges bagainst thosejudges, buntil one of those who deemshim bliable seesthe validity of bthe statements of those who acquitand changes his position, as the court does not condemn someone to death by a majority of one judge. The Gemara states its proof: bAnd if it is sothat one who initially bteachesa reason bto acquit may return and teacha reason to deem him bliable, letthe mishna balso teach the oppositepossibility. The Gemara explains: bThe itannais searching forscenarios of bacquittal,he bis not searching forscenarios of bliability.It may be that the ihalakhais the same in the opposite case, but the itannaprefers to employ an example of acquittal.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita /i: bAs Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says:In a case where there was bone of the students whoargued to bacquit andthen bdied,the court bviews him as ifhe were balive and standing in his placeand voting to acquit. The Gemara asks: bBut why?According to the opinion of Rav, that a judge may change his opinion at the time of the verdict, blet us say:Perhaps bifthat student bwere alive,he would bretracthis opinion and find the accused liable. The Gemara explains: bNow, in any event,he bdid not retract fromhis opinion. The assumption is that he would not have changed his opinion, although one can do so.,The Gemara questions this explanation: bButthe Sages bsenta statement bfrom there,Eretz Yisrael: bAccording tothis version of bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina,he engages in ba dispute with our teacher,i.e., Rav. Apparently, the previous explanation, which reconciles their opinions, is incorrect. The Gemara answers: That tradition was not accurate, and it bwas statedthat he does bnotengage in ba disputewith Rav.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita /i: After the initial deliberations, btwo judges’ scribes stand beforethe court, bone on the right, and one on the left, and they write the statements of those who acquitthe accused band the statements of those who findhim bliable. /b,The Gemara explains the proof: bGranted,they write the bstatements of those who findthe accused bliableeven though they may not change their opinions, as bon the following day theymay bsee another reasonto find the accused liable, not the reason they gave the day before. bAndonce this new reason is given, the court bis required to perform a suspension of the trialuntil the following day, as they may not issue a verdict in cases of capital law on the same day as the deliberations. bBut what is the reasonthe scribes write bthe statements of those who acquitthe accused? Is it bnot becausethe ihalakhais that bifthe judges would bsee another reason tofind the accused bliable, we do not pay heed to them,and in order to ensure that the judges do not change their opinions, the scribes write their statements?,The Gemara answers: bNo,the reason they write their statements is bso that twoof the judges bshould not say one explanationto acquit bfrom twodifferent bverses.If two judges each say the same reason to acquit, but derive their reason from different verses, they are not counted as two votes. bAs Rabbi Asi asked of Rabbi Yoḥa:If btwoof the judges bsay one explanationto acquit bfrom twodifferent bverses, what isthe ihalakha /i? bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: We count them only as one,as it is clear that one of the derivations is in error.,§ The Gemara discusses the ruling of Rabbi Yoḥa: bFrom where is this matterderived? bAbaye says: As the verse states: “God has spoken once, twice I have heard this; that strength belongs to God”(Psalms 62:12). Abaye explains: bOne verseis stated by God and from it bemerge several explanations, but one explanation does not emerge from several verses.Alternatively, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse states: “Is not My word like as fire? says the Lord; band like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces”(Jeremiah 23:29). bJust as this hammer breaksa stone binto several fragments, so too, one verseis stated by God bandfrom it bemerge several explanations. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bWhat is considered one explanation from twodifferent bverses? Rav Zevid says: As we learnedin a mishna ( iZevaḥim83a): With regard to certain items that are disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, once they have been placed on the altar they are nevertheless sacrificed, but bthe altar sanctifiesonly items bthat are suited for it,as the Gemara will explain. The itanna’imdisagree as to what is considered suited for the altar., bRabbi Yehoshua says: Anyitem bthat is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, e.g., burnt-offerings and the portions of other offerings burned on the altar, bif it ascendedupon the altar, even if it is disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, bit shall not descend.Since it was sanctified by its ascent upon the altar, it is sacrificed upon it, bas it is stated:“It is bthe burnt-offering on the pyreupon the altar” (Leviticus 6:2), from which it is derived: bJust aswith regard to ba burnt-offering that is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, bif it ascended, it shall not descend, so toowith regard to banyitem bthat is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, bif it ascended, it shall not descend. /b, bRabban Gamliel says:With regard to banyitem bthat is suited toascend upon bthe altar,even if it is not typically consumed, bif it ascended, it shall not descend,even if it is disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, bas it is stated: “It is the burnt-offering on the pyre upon the altar,”from which it is derived: bJust as a burnt-offering that is fit for the altar, if it ascended, it shall not descend, so too anyitem bthat is fit for the altar, if it ascended, it shall not descend. /b,Rav Zevid explains: bAnd what do the two of them includeby means of these explanations? bDisqualifiedofferings, teaching that if they ascend they do not descend. One bSage,Rabbi Yehoshua, bbringsproof for bthis ihalakha bfromthe term b“on the pyre,” andone bSage,Rabban Gamliel, bbringsproof to bthis ihalakha bfromthe term “upon the baltar.”This is an example of one explanation from two different verses.,The Gemara questions this example: bBut there,Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabban Gamliel bdisagree,and their explanations cannot therefore be identical. bAs the latter clauseof that mishna bteaches: The difference between the statement of Rabban Gamliel and the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua is onlywith regard to disqualified bblood and libations,which are not consumed by the fire, but do ascend onto the altar, bas Rabban Gamliel says: They shall not descend,as they are fit to ascend on the altar, band Rabbi Yehoshua says: They shall descend,as they are not burned on the altar., bRather, Rav Pappa says:An example of one explanation from two different verses is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: From the fact that it is stated: /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

88b. דסגינן בשלימותא כתיב בן (משלי יא, ג) תומת ישרים תנחם הנך אינשי דסגן בעלילותא כתיב בהו (משלי יא, ג) וסלף בוגדים ישדם:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ד, ט) לבבתני אחותי כלה לבבתני באחת מעיניך בתחילה באחת מעיניך לכשתעשי בשתי עיניך אמר עולא עלובה כלה מזנה בתוך חופתה אמר רב מרי ברה דבת שמואל מאי קרא (שיר השירים א, יב) עד שהמלך במסיבו נרדי וגו' אמר רב ועדיין חביבותא היא גבן דכתי' נתן ולא כתב הסריח ת"ר עלובין ואינן עולבין שומעין חרפתן ואינן משיבין עושין מאהבה ושמחין ביסורין עליהן הכתוב אומר (שופטים ה, לא) ואוהביו כצאת השמש בגבורתו,א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים סח, יב) ה' יתן אומר המבשרות צבא רב כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הגבורה נחלק לשבעים לשונות תני דבי ר' ישמעאל (ירמיהו כג, כט) וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע מה פטיש זה נחלק לכמה ניצוצות אף כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה נחלק לשבעים לשונות אמר רב חננאל בר פפא מ"ד (משלי ח, ו) שמעו כי נגידים אדבר למה נמשלו דברי תורה כנגיד לומר לך מה נגיד זה יש בו להמית ולהחיות אף ד"ת יש בם להמית ולהחיות,היינו דאמר רבא למיימינין בה סמא דחיי למשמאילים בה סמא דמותא ד"א נגידים כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה קושרים לו שני כתרים: א"ר יהושע בן לוי מ"ד (שיר השירים א, יג) צרור המור דודי לי בין שדי ילין אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע אף על פי שמיצר ומימר לי דודי בין שדי ילין (שיר השירים א, יד) אשכול הכופר דודי לי בכרמי עין גדי מי שהכל שלו מכפר לי על עון גדי שכרמתי לי מאי משמע דהאי כרמי לישנא דמכניש הוא אמר מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן כדתנן כסא של כובס שכורמים עליו את הכלים:,וא"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יג) לחייו כערוגת הבושם כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה נתמלא כל העולם כולו בשמים וכיון שמדיבור ראשון נתמלא דיבור שני להיכן הלך הוציא הקב"ה הרוח מאוצרותיו והיה מעביר ראשון ראשון שנאמר (שיר השירים ה, יג) שפתותיו שושנים נוטפות מור עובר אל תקרי שושנים אלא ששונים:,ואריב"ל כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה יצתה נשמתן של ישראל שנאמר (שיר השירים ה, ו) נפשי יצאה בדברו ומאחר שמדיבור ראשון יצתה נשמתן דיבור שני היאך קיבלו הוריד טל שעתיד להחיות בו מתים והחיה אותם שנאמר (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כל דיבור ודיבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה חזרו ישראל לאחוריהן י"ב מיל והיו מלאכי השרת מדדין אותן שנאמר (תהלים סח, יג) מלאכי צבאות ידודון ידודון אל תיקרי ידודון אלא ידדון:,ואריב"ל בשעה שעלה משה למרום אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מה לילוד אשה בינינו אמר להן לקבל תורה בא אמרו לפניו חמודה גנוזה שגנוזה לך תשע מאות ושבעים וארבעה דורות קודם שנברא העולם אתה מבקש ליתנה לבשר ודם (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו ה' אדונינו מה אדיר שמך בכל הארץ אשר תנה הודך על השמים,אמר לו הקב"ה למשה החזיר להן תשובה אמר לפניו רבש"ע מתיירא אני שמא ישרפוני בהבל שבפיהם אמר לו אחוז בכסא כבודי וחזור להן תשובה שנאמר (איוב כו, ט) מאחז פני כסא פרשז עליו עננו ואמר ר' נחום מלמד שפירש שדי מזיו שכינתו ועננו עליו אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם תורה שאתה נותן לי מה כתיב בה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך אשר הוצאתיך מארץ מצרים אמר להן למצרים ירדתם לפרעה השתעבדתם תורה למה תהא לכם שוב מה כתיב בה לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים בין עמים אתם שרויין שעובדין 88b. bwho proceed wholeheartedlyand with integrity, bit is written: “The integrity of the upright will guide them”(Proverbs 11:3), whereas babout those people who walk in deceit, it is writtenat the end of the same verse: b“And the perverseness of the faithless will destroy them.” /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥamani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; you have ravished my heart with one of your eyes,with one bead of your necklace” (Song of Songs 4:9)? bAt firstwhen you, the Jewish people, merely accepted the Torah upon yourselves it was bwith one of your eyes;however, bwhen youactually bperformthe mitzvot it will be bwith both of your eyes. Ulla saidwith regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: bInsolent is the bride who is promiscuous under her wedding canopy. Rav Mari, son of the daughter of Shmuel, said: What versealludes to this? b“While the king was still at his table my spikenardgave off its fragrance” (Song of Songs 1:12). Its pleasant odor dissipated, leaving only an offensive odor. bRav said:Nevertheless, it is apparent from the verse that bthe affectionof the Holy One, Blessed be He, bis still upon us, as it is writteneuphemistically as “ bgave offits fragrance,” bandthe verse bdid not write, it reeked.And bthe Sages taught: Aboutthose who bare insulted and do not insult, who hear their shame and do not respond, who act out of love and are joyful in suffering, the verse says: “And they that love Him are as the sun going forth in its might”(Judges 5:31).,With regard to the revelation at Sinai, bRabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The Lord gives the word; the women that proclaim the tidings are a great host”(Psalms 68:12)? It means that beach and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Almighty divided into seventy languages,a great host. And, similarly, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtwith regard to the verse: “Behold, is My word not like fire, declares the Lord, band like a hammer that shatters a rock?”(Jeremiah 23:29). bJust as this hammer breaksa stone binto several fragments, so too, each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, divided into seventy languages.The Gemara continues in praise of the Torah. bRav Ḥael bar Pappa said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Listen, for I will speak royal things,and my lips will open with upright statements” (Proverbs 8:6)? bWhy are matters of Torah likened to a king? To teach youthat bjust as this king hasthe power bto kill and to grant life, so too, matters of Torah havethe power bto kill and to grant life. /b,And bthat iswhat bRava said: To those who are right-handed intheir approach to Torah, and engage in its study with strength, good will, and sanctity, Torah is ba drug of life,and bto those who are left-handed intheir approach to Torah, it is ba drug of death. Alternatively,why are matters of Torah referred to as broyal?Because bto each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, two crowns are tied. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “My beloved is to me like a bundle of myrrh that lies between my breasts”(Song of Songs 1:13)? bThe Congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, even though my beloved,God, bcauses me suffering and bitterness, Hestill blies between my breasts.And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi interpreted the verse: b“My beloved is to me like a cluster [ ieshkol /i] of henna [ ihakofer /i] in the vineyards of [ ikarmei /i] Ein Gedi”(Song of Songs 1:14). bHe, Whom everything [ ishehakol /i] is His, forgives [ imekhapper /i] me for the sin of the kid [ igedi /i],i.e., the calf, bthat I collected [ ishekaramti /i] for myself.The Gemara explains: bFrom whereis it binferred thatthe word in bthisverse, ikarmei /i, is a term of gathering? Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, saidthat it is bas we learnedin a mishna: bA launderer’s chair upon which one gathers [ ikoremim /i] the garments. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “His cheeks are as a bed of spices,as banks of sweet herbs, his lips are lilies dripping with flowing myrrh” (Song of Songs 5:13)? It is interpreted homiletically: From beach and every utterance that emerged fromHis cheeks, i.e., bthe mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the entire world was filled with fragrant spices. And sincethe world bwasalready bfilled by the first utterance, wherewas there room for the spices of bthe second utteranceto bgo? The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought forth wind from His treasuries and made thespices bpass one at a time,leaving room for the consequences of the next utterance. bAs it is stated: “His lips are lilies [ ishoshanim /i] dripping with flowing myrrh.”Each and every utterance resulted in flowing myrrh. bDo not readthe word in the verse as ishoshanim /i; rather,read it as isheshonim /i,meaning repeat. Each repeat utterance produced its own fragrance., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:From beach and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the souls of the Jewish people lefttheir bodies, bas it is stated: “My soul departed when he spoke”(Song of Songs 5:6). bAnd since their souls lefttheir bodies bfrom the first utterance, how did they receive the second utterance?Rather, God brained the dewupon them bthat, in the future, will revive the dead, and He revived them, as it is stated: “You, God, poured down a bountiful rain; when Your inheritance was weary You sustained it”(Psalms 68:10). bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:With beach and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the Jewish people retreatedin fear btwelve imil /i, and the ministering angels walked themback toward the mountain, bas it is stated: “The hosts of angels will scatter [ iyidodun /i]”(Psalms 68:13). bDo not readthe word as iyidodun /i,meaning scattered; brather,read it as iyedadun /i,they walked them., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: When Moses ascended on Highto receive the Torah, bthe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, what is one born of a womandoing here bamong us?The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to them: He came to receive the Torah.The angels bsaid before Him:The Torah is a bhidden treasure that was concealed by you 974 generations before the creation of the world,and byou seek to give it to flesh and blood?As it is stated: “The word which He commanded to a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8). Since the Torah, the word of God, was given to the twenty-sixth generation after Adam, the first man, the remaining 974 generations must have preceded the creation of the world. b“What is man that You are mindful of him and the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5). Rather, b“God our Lord, how glorious is Your name in all the earth that Your majesty is placed above the heavens”(Psalms 8:2). The rightful place of God’s majesty, the Torah, is in the heavens., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Provide themwith ban answeras to why the Torah should be given to the people. Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I am afraid lest they burn me with the breath of their mouths.God bsaid to him: Grasp My throne of gloryfor strength and protection, band provide themwith ban answer.And from where is this derived? bAs it is stated: “He causes him to grasp the front of the throne, and spreads His cloud over it”(Job 26:9), band Rabbi Naḥum said:This verse bteaches that God spread the radiance of His presence and His cloud overMoses. Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the Torah that You are giving me, what is written in it?God said to him: b“I am the Lord your God Who brought you out of Egyptfrom the house of bondage” (Exodus 20:2). Moses bsaid tothe angels: bDid you descend to Egypt? Were you enslaved to Pharaoh? Why should the Torah be yours? AgainMoses asked: bWhatelse bis written in it?God said to him: b“You shall have no other godsbefore Me” (Exodus 20:3). Moses said to the angels: bDo you dwell among the nations who worship /b
29. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.17.3-9.17.4, 9.18.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

30. Artapanus, Apud Eusebius, 9.18.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
abraham, vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
altar Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
animals Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
astrology Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
blood Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
cain Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
chaldeans, abraham contrasted with, charioteer, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
chaldeans, abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
encyclical studies, hagar representing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
eve, excellence, patriarchs as types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
external goods, the eye of the soul Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199, 217
fire Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
fruit Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
god, as charioteer of the cosmos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
hagar, as encyclical studies Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
hagar Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
hebrew (language) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
hebrew bible Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
isaac, nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
jacob, practice and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
law Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
learning and teaching, abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
migrations of abraham, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
migrations of abraham, as spiritual Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199, 217
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
myth Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
nature, isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
offerings Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
perception of god, by abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
philo of alexandria Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
powers of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
practice, jacob and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
rabbi akiba Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
sacrifice Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
septuagint/lxx' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
shekhina, auditory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
shekhina, visual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 258
soul, the eyes of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199, 217
stars Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
the cosmos, contemplation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
the cosmos, god directing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 512
triads, second Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
τὸ τῆς ψυχῆς ὄμμα Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199