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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9221
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 79


nanand, indeed, in the same manner as the encyclical branches of education contribute to the proper comprehension of philosophy, so also does philosophy aid in the acquisition of wisdom; for philosophy is an attentive study of wisdom, and wisdom is the knowledge of all divine and human things, and of the respective causes of them. Therefore, just as encyclical accomplishments are the handmaidens of philosophy, so also is philosophy the handmaiden of wisdom;


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28 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.19" "17.19" "17 19" \n1 16 16 16 None\n2 23.13 23.13 23 13 \n3 49.13 49.13 49 13 \n4 9.20 9.20 9 20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 4.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.8. סַלְסְלֶהָ וּתְרוֹמְמֶךָּ תְּכַבֵּדְךָ כִּי תְחַבְּקֶנָּה׃ 4.8. Extol her, and she will exalt thee; She will bring thee to honour, when thou dost embrace her."
4. Herodotus, Histories, 1.30 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.30. So for that reason, and to see the world, Solon went to visit Amasis in Egypt and then to Croesus in Sardis . When he got there, Croesus entertained him in the palace, and on the third or fourth day Croesus told his attendants to show Solon around his treasures, and they pointed out all those things that were great and blest. ,After Solon had seen everything and had thought about it, Croesus found the opportunity to say, “My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how as one who loves learning you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, so now I desire to ask you who is the most fortunate man you have seen.” ,Croesus asked this question believing that he was the most fortunate of men, but Solon, offering no flattery but keeping to the truth, said, “O King, it is Tellus the Athenian.” ,Croesus was amazed at what he had said and replied sharply, “In what way do you judge Tellus to be the most fortunate?” Solon said, “Tellus was from a prosperous city, and his children were good and noble. He saw children born to them all, and all of these survived. His life was prosperous by our standards, and his death was most glorious: ,when the Athenians were fighting their neighbors in Eleusis, he came to help, routed the enemy, and died very finely. The Athenians buried him at public expense on the spot where he fell and gave him much honor.”
5. Plato, Lysis, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

218a. neither bad nor good, but bad; and we found that bad was no friend to good. No, indeed. And consequently we may say that those who are already wise no longer love wisdom, whether they be gods or men; nor again can those be lovers of wisdom who are in such ignorance as to be bad: for we know that a bad and stupid man is no lover of wisdom. And now there remain those who, while possessing this bad thing, ignorance, are not yet made ignorant or stupid, but are still aware of not knowing the thing
6. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

278d. to derive his title from such writings, but from the serious pursuit which underlies them. Phaedrus. What titles do you grant them then? Socrates. I think, Phaedrus, that the epithet wise is too great and befits God alone; but the name philosopher, that is, lover of wisdom, or something of the sort would be more fitting and modest for such a man. Phaedrus. And quite appropriate. Socrates. On the other hand, he who has nothing more valuable than the things he has composed or written, turning his words up and down at his leisure
7. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

531d. of all these studies goes far enough to bring out their community and kinship with one another, and to infer their affinities, then to busy ourselves with them contributes to our desired end, and the labor taken is not lost; but otherwise it is vain.” “I too so surmise,” said he; “but it is a huge task of which you speak, Socrates.” “Are you talking about the prelude,” I said, “or what? Or do we not know that all this is but the preamble of the law itself, the prelude of the strain that we have to apprehend? For you surely do not suppose that experts in these matters are reasoner
8. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

204a. uch they are already; nor does anyone else that is wise ensue it. Neither do the ignorant ensue wisdom, nor desire to be made wise: in this very point is ignorance distressing, when a person who is not comely or worthy or intelligent is satisfied with himself. The man who does not feel himself defective has no desire for that whereof he feels no defect.
9. Cicero, On Duties, 2.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.25. Quid enim censemus superiorem ilium Dionysium quo cruciatu timoris angi solitum, qui cultros metuens tonsorios candente carbone sibi adurebat capillum? quid Alexandrum Pheraeum quo animo vixisse arbitramur? qui, ut scriptum legimus, cum uxorem Theben admodum diligeret, tamen ad ear ex epulis in cubiculum veniens barbarum, et eum quidem, ut scriptum est, compunctum notis Thraeciis, destricto gladio iubebat anteire praemittebatque de stipatoribus suis, qui scrutarentur arculas muliebres et, ne quod in vestimentis telum occultaretur, exquirerent. O miserum, qui fideliorem et barbarum et stigmatiam putaret quam coniugem! Nec eum fefellit; ab ea est enim ipsa propter pelicatus suspicionem interfectus. Nec vero ulla vis imperii tanta est, quae premente metu possit esse diuturna. 2.25.  What, for instance, shall we think of the elder Dionysius? With what tormenting fears he used to be racked! For through fear of the barber's razor he used to have his hair singed off with a glowing coal. In what state of mind do we fancy Alexander of Pherae lived? We read in history that he dearly loved his wife Thebe; and yet, whenever he went from the banquet-hall to her in her chamber, he used to order a barbarian — one, too, tattooed like a Thracian, as the records state — to go before him with a drawn sword; and he used to send ahead some of his bodyguard to pry into the lady's caskets and to search and see whether some weapon were not concealed in her wardrobe. Unhappy man! To think a barbarian, a branded slave, more faithful than his own wife! Nor was he mistaken. For he was murdered by her own hand, because she suspected him of infidelity.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 3-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 12-14, 140-142, 144, 15-18, 71-78, 80-88, 11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. And as you must know that it is common for there to be great preludes to great propositions, and the greatest of all propositions is virtue, for it is conversant about the most important of all materials, namely, about the universal life of man; very naturally, therefore, that will not employ any short preface, but rather it will use as such, grammar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and all the other sorts of contemplation which proceed in accordance with reason; of which Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, is an emblem, as we will proceed to show.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 223 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

223. and in effect, those which he has received are countless; his birth, his life, his soul, his food, his outward senses, his imagination, his inclinations, his reason; and reason is a very short word, but a most perfect and admirable thing, a fragment of the soul of the universe, or, as it is more pious to say for those who study philosophy according to Moses, a very faithful copy of the divine image. XL.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 8, 144 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

144. And who could these have been but rational divine natures, some of them incorporeal and perceptible only by intellect, and others not destitute of bodily substance, such in fact as the stars? And he who associated with and lived among them was naturally living in a state of unmixed happiness. And being akin and nearly related to the ruler of all, inasmuch as a great deal of the divine spirit had flowed into him, he was eager both to say and to do everything which might please his father and his king, following him step by step in the paths which the virtues prepare and make plain, as those in which those souls alone are permitted to proceed who consider the attaining a likeness to God who made them as the proper end of their existence. LI.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.4. But though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 27-28, 26 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Therefore they always retain an imperishable recollection of God, so that not even in their dreams is any other object ever presented to their eyes except the beauty of the divine virtues and of the divine powers. Therefore many persons speak in their sleep, divulging and publishing the celebrated doctrines of the sacred philosophy.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.20-1.21, 1.23-1.25, 1.32, 2.211-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. Therefore the child being now thought worthy of a royal education and a royal attendance, was not, like a mere child, long delighted with toys and objects of laughter and amusement, even though those who had undertaken the care of him allowed him holidays and times for relaxation, and never behaved in any stern or morose way to him; but he himself exhibited a modest and dignified deportment in all his words and gestures, attending diligently to every lesson of every kind which could tend to the improvement of his mind. 1.21. And immediately he had all kinds of masters, one after another, some coming of their own accord from the neighbouring countries and the different districts of Egypt, and some being even procured from Greece by the temptation of large presents. But in a short time he surpassed all their knowledge, anticipating all their lessons by the excellent natural endowments of his own genius; so that everything in his case appeared to be a ecollecting rather than a learning, while he himself also, without any teacher, comprehended by his instinctive genius many difficult subjects; 1.23. Accordingly he speedily learnt arithmetic, and geometry, and the whole science of rhythm and harmony and metre, and the whole of music, by means of the use of musical instruments, and by lectures on the different arts, and by explanations of each topic; and lessons on these subjects were given him by Egyptian philosophers, who also taught him the philosophy which is contained in symbols, which they exhibit in those sacred characters of hieroglyphics, as they are called, and also that philosophy which is conversant about that respect which they pay to animals which they invest with the honours due to God. And all the other branches of the encyclical education he learnt from Greeks; and the philosophers from the adjacent countries taught him Assyrian literature and the knowledge of the heavenly bodies so much studied by the Chaldaeans. 1.24. And this knowledge he derived also from the Egyptians, who study mathematics above all things, and he learnt with great accuracy the state of that art among both the Chaldaeans and Egyptians, making himself acquainted with the points in which they agree with and differ from each other--making himself master of all their disputes without encouraging any disputatious disposition in himself--but seeking the plain truth, since his mind was unable to admit any falsehood, as those are accustomed to do who contend violently for one particular side of a question; and who advocate any doctrine which is set before them, whatever it may be, not inquiring whether it deserves to be supported, but acting in the same manner as those lawyers who defend a cause for pay, and are wholly indifferent to the justice of their cause. 1.25. And when he had passed the boundaries of the age of infancy he began to exercise his intellect; not, as some people do, letting his youthful passions roam at large without restraint, although in him they had ten thousand incentives by reason of the abundant means for the gratification of them which royal places supply; but he behaved with temperance and fortitude, as though he had bound them with reins, and thus he restrained their onward impetuosity by force. 1.32. But Moses, having now reached the very highest point of human good fortune, and being looked upon as the grandson of this mighty king, and being almost considered in the expectations of all men as the future inheritor of his grandfather's kingdom, and being always addressed as the young prince, still felt a desire for and admiration of the education of his kinsmen and ancestors, considering all the things which were thought good among those who had adopted him as spurious, even though they might, in consequence of the present state of affairs, have a brilliant appearance; and those things which were thought good by his natural parents, even though they might be for a short time somewhat obscure, at all events akin to himself and genuine good things. 2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses. 2.212. But, giving up their time wholly to the study of philosophy, not of that sort of philosophy which wordcatchers and sophists, seek to reduce to a system, selling doctrines and reasonings as they would any other vendible thing in the market. Men who (O you earth and sun! 2.213. Now some one disregarding this injunction, even while he yet had the sacred words of God respecting the holy seventh day still ringing in his ears, which God had uttered without the intervention of the prophet, and, what is the most wonderful thing of all, by a visible voice which affected the eyes of those who were present even more than their ears, went forth through the middle of the camp to pick up sticks, well knowing that all the people in the camp were perfectly quiet and doing nothing, and even while he was committing the iniquity was seen and detected, all disguise being impossible; 2.214. for some persons, having gone forth out of the gates to some quiet spot, that they might pray in some retired and peaceful place, seeing a most unholy spectacle, namely this man carrying a faggot of sticks, and being very indigt, were about to put him to death; but reasoning with themselves they restrained the violence of their wrath, that they might not appear, as they were only private persons, to chastise any one rather than the magistrates, and that too uncondemned; though indeed in other respects the transgression was manifest and undeniable, wishing also that no pollution arising from an execution, even though most righteously inflicted, should defile the sacred day. But they apprehended him, and led him away to the magistrate, with whom the priests were sitting as assessors; and the whole multitude collected together to hear the trial; 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
18. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.65, 3.39, 3.42-3.43, 3.83-3.84, 3.86-3.87, 3.140-3.141, 3.217-3.219, 3.244-3.245 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.65. Let us examine the expressions of the writer: "A river," says he, "goes forth out of Eden, to water the Paradise." This river is generic goodness; and this issues forth out of the Eden of the wisdom of God, and that is the word of God. For it is according to the word of God, that generic virtue was created. And generic virtue waters the Paradise: that is to say, it waters the particular virtues. But it does not derive its beginnings from any principle of locality, but from a principle of preeminence. For each of the virtues is really and truly a ruler and a queen. And the expression, "is separated," is equivalent to "is marked off by fixed boundaries;" since wisdom appoints them settled limits with reference to what is to be done. Courage with respect to what is to be endured; temperance with reference to what is to be chosen; and justice in respect of what is to be distributed. XX.
19. Mishnah, Kiddushin, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

20. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.2, 7.36-7.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.2. But, because of sexualimmoralities, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman haveher own husband. 7.36. But if any man thinks that he is behavinginappropriately toward his virgin, if she is past the flower of herage, and if need so requires, let him do what he desires. He doesn'tsin. Let them marry. 7.37. But he who stands steadfast in his heart,having no necessity, but has power over his own heart, to keep his ownvirgin, does well. 7.38. So then both he who gives his own virgin inmarriage does well, and he who doesn't give her in marriage doesbetter.
21. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.5.28-1.5.32, 5.140.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 9.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

23. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. בבוציני,ביום השביעי כטוב לב המלך ביין אטו עד השתא לא טב לביה בחמרא אמר רבא יום השביעי שבת היה שישראל אוכלין ושותין מתחילין בד"ת ובדברי תשבחות אבל עובדי כוכבים שאוכלין ושותין אין מתחילין אלא בדברי תיפלות,וכן בסעודתו של אותו רשע הללו אומרים מדיות נאות והללו אומרים פרסיות נאות אמר להם אחשורוש כלי שאני משתמש בו אינו לא מדיי ולא פרסי אלא כשדיי רצונכם לראותה אמרו לו אין ובלבד שתהא ערומה,שבמדה שאדם מודד בה מודדין לו מלמד שהיתה ושתי הרשעה מביאה בנות ישראל ומפשיטן ערומות ועושה בהן מלאכה בשבת היינו דכתיב אחר הדברים האלה כשוך חמת המלך אחשורוש זכר את ושתי ואת אשר עשתה ואת אשר נגזר עליה כשם שעשתה כך נגזר עליה,ותמאן המלכה ושתי מכדי פריצתא הואי דאמר מר שניהן לדבר עבירה נתכוונו מ"ט לא אתאי א"ר יוסי בר חנינא מלמד שפרחה בה צרעת במתניתא תנא [בא גבריאל ועשה לה זנב],ויקצף המלך מאד אמאי דלקה ביה כולי האי אמר רבא שלחה ליה בר אהורייריה דאבא אבא לקבל אלפא חמרא שתי ולא רוי וההוא גברא אשתטי בחמריה מיד וחמתו בערה בו,ויאמר המלך לחכמים מאן חכמים רבנן יודעי העתים שיודעין לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים אמר להו דיינוה לי אמרו היכי נעביד נימא ליה קטלה למחר פסיק ליה חמריה ובעי לה מינן נימא ליה שבקה קא מזלזלה במלכותא אמרו לו מיום שחרב בית המקדש וגלינו מארצנו ניטלה עצה ממנו ואין אנו יודעין לדון דיני נפשות זיל לגבי עמון ומואב דיתבי בדוכתייהו כחמרא דיתיב על דורדייה,וטעמא אמרו ליה דכתיב (ירמיהו מח, יא) שאנן מואב מנעוריו ושוקט הוא אל שמריו ולא הורק מכלי אל כלי ובגולה לא הלך על כן עמד טעמו בו וריחו לא נמר מיד והקרוב אליו כרשנא שתר אדמתא תרשיש,א"ר לוי כל פסוק זה על שום קרבנות נאמר,כרשנא אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע כלום הקריבו לפניך כרים בני שנה כדרך שהקריבו ישראל לפניך שתר כלום הקריבו לפניך שתי תורין אדמתא כלום בנו לפניך מזבח אדמה תרשיש כלום שימשו לפניך בבגדי כהונה דכתיב בהו (שמות כח, כ) תרשיש ושהם וישפה מרס כלום מירסו בדם לפניך מרסנא כלום מירסו במנחות לפניך ממוכן כלום הכינו שלחן לפניך,ויאמר ממוכן תנא ממוכן זה המן ולמה נקרא שמו ממוכן שמוכן לפורענות אמר רב כהנא מכאן שההדיוט קופץ בראש,להיות כל איש שורר בביתו אמר רבא אלמלא אגרות הראשונות לא נשתייר משונאיהן של ישראל שריד ופליט,אמרי מאי האי דשדיר לן להיות כל איש שורר בביתו פשיטא אפילו קרחה בביתיה פרדשכא ליהוי,ויפקד המלך פקידים א"ר מאי דכתיב (משלי יג, טז) כל ערום יעשה בדעת וכסיל יפרוש אולת,כל ערום יעשה בדעת זה דוד דכתיב (מלכים א א, ב) ויאמרו לו עבדיו יבקשו לאדני המלך נערה בתולה כל מאן דהוה ליה ברתא אייתה ניהליה וכסיל יפרוש אולת זה אחשורוש דכתיב ויפקד המלך פקידים כל מאן דהוה ליה ברתא איטמרה מיניה,איש יהודי היה בשושן הבירה וגו' איש ימיני מאי קאמר אי ליחוסא קאתי ליחסיה ואזיל עד בנימין אלא מאי שנא הני,תנא כולן על שמו נקראו בן יאיר בן שהאיר עיניהם של ישראל בתפלתו בן שמעי בן ששמע אל תפלתו בן קיש שהקיש על שערי רחמים ונפתחו לו,קרי ליה יהודי אלמא מיהודה קאתי וקרי ליה ימיני אלמא מבנימין קאתי אמר רב נחמן מרדכי מוכתר בנימוסו היה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אביו מבנימין ואמו מיהודה ורבנן אמרי משפחות מתגרות זו בזו משפחת יהודה אומרת אנא גרים דמתיליד מרדכי דלא קטליה דוד לשמעי בן גרא ומשפחת בנימין אמרה מינאי קאתי,רבא אמר כנסת ישראל אמרה לאידך גיסא ראו מה עשה לי יהודי ומה שילם לי ימיני מה עשה לי יהודי 12b. bwith zucchinis,indicating that often a man and his wife engage in similar actions.,The verse states: b“On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine”(Esther 1:10). The Gemara asks: bIs that to saythat buntil now his heart was not merry with wine?Did it take seven days for him to achieve merriment? bRava said: The seventh day was Shabbat,when the difference between the Jewish people and the gentiles is most apparent. On Shabbat, bwhen the Jewish people eat and drink, they beginby occupying themselves bwith words of Torah and words of praisefor God. bBut the nations of the world, when they eat and drink, they begin only with words of licentiousness. /b,The Gemara continues to detail what occurred at the feast. bSo too, at the feast of that wicked man,Ahasuerus, when the men began to converse, bsome said: The Median women arethe most bbeautiful, while others said: The Persian women arethe most bbeautiful. Ahasuerus said to them: The vessel that I use,i.e., my wife, bis neither Median nor Persian, butrather bChaldean. Do you wish to see her? They said to him: Yes, provided that she be naked,for we wish to see her without any additional adornments.,The Gemara comments: Vashti was punished in this humiliating way bfor it is with the measure that a man measuresto others bthat hehimself bis measured.In other words, God punishes individuals in line with their transgressions, measure for measure. bThis teaches that the wicked Vashti would take the daughters of Israel, and strip them naked, and make them work on Shabbat.Therefore, it was decreed that she be brought before the king naked, on Shabbat. This is bas it is written: “After these things, when the wrath of King Ahasuerus was appeased, he remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed against her”(Esther 2:1). That is to say, bjust as she had donewith the young Jewish women, bso it was decreed upon her. /b,The verse states: b“But the queen Vashti refusedto come” (Esther 1:12). The Gemara asks: bSince she was immodest, as the Master saidabove: bThe two of them had sinful intentions, what is the reasonthat bshe did not come? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: This teaches that she broke out in leprosy,and therefore she was embarrassed to expose herself publicly. An alternative reason for her embarrassment bwas taught in a ibaraita /i:The angel bGabriel came and fashioned her a tail. /b,The verse continues: b“Therefore the king was very wrathful,and his anger burned in him” (Esther 1:12). The Gemara asks: bWhy didhis anger bburn in him so greatlymerely because she did not wish to come? bRava said:Vashti not only refused to come, but she also bsent hima message by way of a messenger: You, bson of my father’s stableman [ iahuriyyarei /i].Belshazzar, bmy father, drank wine against a thousandmen band did not become inebriated,as the verse in Daniel (5:1) testifies about him: “Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine before the thousand”; band that man,referring euphemistically to Ahasuerus himself, bhas become senseless from his wine.Due to her audacity, bimmediately “his anger burned in him”(Esther 1:12).,The following verse states: b“Then the king said to the wise men,who knew the times” (Esther 1:13). The Gemara asks: bWho are these wise men?These wise men are bthe Sagesof the Jewish people, who are referred to as those b“who knew the times,” for they know how to intercalate years and fix the monthsof the Jewish calendar. Ahasuerus bsaid to them: Judge her for me.The Sages bsaidin their hearts: bWhat should we do?If bwe say to him: Kill her, tomorrow he will become sober andthen come and bdemand her from us.If bwe say to him: Let her be, she has scorned royalty,and that cannot be tolerated. Consequently, they decided not to judge the matter, and bthey said to himas follows: bFrom the day that the Temple was destroyed and we have been exiled from our land, counseland insight bhave been removed from us, and we do not know how to judge capital cases,as they are exceptionally difficult. bGo tothe people of bAmmon and Moab, who have remainedpermanently bsettled in their places like wine that is settled on its lees,and so their minds are settled as well., bAndthey provided a good breasonwhen bthey spoke to him,as they proved that one who is settled retains his reasoning: bFor it is written: “Moab has been at ease from his youth, and he has settled on his lees, and has not been emptied from vessel to vessel, neither has he gone into exile; therefore his taste has remained in him, and his scent is not changed”(Jeremiah 48:11). Ahasuerus bimmediatelyacted on their advice and asked his advisors, as it is written: b“And next to him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish,Meres, Marsena, and Memucan” (Esther 1:14)., bRabbi Levi said: This entire verselisting the names of the king’s advisors bis stated on account of offerings.Each name alludes to an aspect of the sacrificial service that was unique to the Jewish people, which the ministering angels mentioned as merit for the Jewish people., b“Carshena”; the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, didthe gentiles bever offer before You lambs [ ikarim /i] of the first year [ ishana /i], as the Jewish people have offered before You? “Shethar”; have they ever offered before You two turtledoves [ ishetei torim /i]? “Admatha”; have they ever built before You an altar of earth [ iadama /i]? “Tarshish”; have they ever ministered before You in the priestly vestments, as it is writtenthat on the fourth of the four rows of precious stones contained on the breastplate were: b“A beryl [ itarshish /i], an onyx, and a jasper”(Exodus 28:20). b“Meres”; have they ever stirred [ imeirsu /i] the blood of the offerings before You? “Marsena”; have they ever stirred [ imeirsu /i] the meal-offering before You? “Memucan”; have they ever prepared [ ihekhinu /i]the btable before You,on which the shewbread was placed?,The verse states: b“And Memucan said”(Esther 1:16). A Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bMemucan is Haman. And why isHaman breferred to as Memucan? Because he was prepared [ imukhan /i] tobring bcalamityupon the Jewish people. bRav Kahana said: From herewe see bthat the common man jumps to the frontand speaks first, for Memucan was mentioned last of the king’s seven advisors, and nevertheless he expressed his opinion first.,The king sent out letters to the people of all his provinces, in which it was written: b“That every man shall wield authority in his own houseand speak according to the language of his people” (Esther 1:22). bRava said: Were it not for the first letterssent by Ahasuerus, which everybody discounted, bthere would not have been left among the enemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, ba remt or a refugee.Since these first letters were the subject of ridicule, people didn’t take the king seriously and did not immediately act upon the directive of the later letters, calling for the Jewish people’s destruction.,The Gemara continues. The reason that the first letters were not taken seriously is that btheywho received them would bsay: What is this that he has sent us: “That every man shall wield authority in his own house”?This is bobvious; evena lowly bweaver is commander [ iparedashekha /i] in his house.If so, why then did the king find it necessary to make such a proclamation?,The verse describes Ahasuerus’s search for a new wife by stating: b“And let the king appoint officersin all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the castle” (Esther 2:3). bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “In everything a prudent man acts with knowledge, but a fool unfolds his folly”(Proverbs 13:16)? The verse highlights the difference between two kings’ approaches to finding a wife., b“In everything a prudent man acts with knowledge”; thisstatement is referring to bDavid,who also sought a wife for himself, bas it is written: “And his servants said to him, Let there be sought for my lord the king a young virgin”(I Kings 1:2). Since he sought one maiden, bwhoever had a daughter brought her to him,for everyone wanted his daughter to be the king’s wife. With regard to the continuation of the verse: b“But a fool unfolds his folly”(Proverbs 13:16), bthisstatement bisreferring to bAhasuerus, as it is written: “And let the king appoint officers”to seek out many maidens. Since it became clear that the king would have relations with all of them, but in the end he would choose only one as his bride, bwhoever had a daughter hid her from him. /b,The verse that initially describes Mordecai states: b“There was a certain Jew in Shushan the castle,whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish, a bBenjamite”(Esther 2:5). The Gemara asks: bWhat is itconveying in the verse by bsayingthe names of Mordecai’s ancestors? bIfthe verse in fact bcomes totrace his bancestry, it should continue tracinghis lineage bbackall the way bto Benjamin,the founder of his tribe. bRather, what is differentabout these names that they deserve special mention?,The Gemara answers: A Sage btaughtthe following ibaraita /i: bAll of them are names by whichMordecai bwas called.He was called b“the son of Jair”because he was bthe son who enlightened [ iheir /i] the eyes ofall of bthe Jewish people with his prayers; “the son of Shimei”because he was bthe son whom God heard [ ishama /i] his prayers; “the son of Kish” because he knocked [ ihikish /i] on the gates of mercy and they were opened to him. /b,The Gemara points out a contradiction: Mordecai bis referred to as a “Jew [ iYehudi /i],” apparentlyindicating that bhe came fromthe tribe of bJudah,but in the continuation of the verse bhe is called “Benjamite” [ iYemini /i], which indicates that he came fromthe tribe of bBenjamin. Rav Naḥman said: Mordecai was crowned withhonorary bnames. iYehudiis one such honorary epithet, due to its allusion to the royal tribe of Judah, but it is not referring to Mordecai’s tribal affiliation., bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidan alternative explanation: Mordecai’s bfather was fromthe tribe of bBenjamin, and his mother was fromthe tribe of bJudah.Therefore, he was both a iYemini /i, a Benjamite, and a iYehudi /i, from the tribe of Judah. bAnd the Rabbis saythat the dual lineage is due to a dispute: bThe families competedwith beach otherover which tribe could take credit for Mordecai. bThe family of Judahwould bsay: I caused the birth of Mordecai,as only bbecause David did not kill Shimei, the son of Gera,when he cursed him (see II Samuel 16) was it possible for Mordecai to be born later from his descendants. bAnd the family of Benjamin saidin response: In the end bhe came from me,as he in fact was from Benjamin’s tribe., bRava said: The Congregation of Israelat the time bsaidthis bfrom the opposite perspective,not as a boast, but as a complaint, remarking: bSee what a Judean has done to me and how a Benjamite has repaid me. What a Judean has done to meis referring to
24. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2a. מתני׳ big strongהאשה /strong /big נקנית בשלוש דרכים וקונה את עצמה בשתי דרכים נקנית בכסף בשטר ובביאה בכסף בית שמאי אומרים בדינר ובשווה דינר ובית הלל אומרים בפרוטה ובשווה פרוטה וכמה היא פרוטה אחד משמונה באיסר האיטלקי,וקונה את עצמה בגט ובמיתת הבעל היבמה נקנית בביאה וקונה את עצמה בחליצה ובמיתת היבם, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big האשה נקנית מאי שנא הכא דתני האשה נקנית ומ"ש התם דתני האיש מקדש משום דקא בעי למתני כסף,וכסף מנא לן גמר קיחה קיחה משדה עפרון כתיב הכא (דברים כב,יג) כי יקח איש אשה וכתיב התם (בראשית כג,יג) נתתי כסף השדה קח ממני,וקיחה איקרי קניין דכתיב השדה אשר קנה אברהם 2a. strongMISHNA: /strong bA woman is acquiredby, i.e., becomes betrothed to, a man to be his wife bin three ways, and she acquires herself,i.e., she terminates her marriage, bin two ways.The mishna elaborates: bShe is acquired through money, through a document, and through sexual intercourse.With regard to a betrothal bthrough money,there is a dispute between itanna’im /i: bBeit Shammai saythat she can be acquired bwith one dinar or withanything that is bworth one dinar. And Beit Hillel say:She can be acquired bwith one iperuta /i,a small copper coin, bor withanything that is bworth one iperuta /i.The mishna further clarifies: bAnd how much isthe value of bone iperuta /i,by the fixed value of silver? The mishna explains that it is bone-eighth of the Italian iissar /i,which is a small silver coin., bAnda woman bacquires herself through a bill of divorce or through the death of the husband. A woman whose husband, who had a brother, died childless [ iyevama/b], can be bacquiredby the deceased husband’s brother, the iyavam /i, only bthrough intercourse. And she acquires herself,i.e., she is released from her levirate bond, bthrough iḥalitzaor through the death of the iyavam /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that ba womancan be bacquiredin three ways. The Gemara asks: bWhat is different here thatthis mishna bteaches: A woman is acquired,using the language of acquisition, band what is different there,in the beginning of the next chapter (42a), bwhich teaches: A man betroths,using the language of betrothal? The Gemara explains: In this mishna the itannautilized the language of acquisition bbecause he wanted to teachabout betrothal through bmoney,which is the standard means of exchange in an act of acquisition.,The Gemara continues its explanation: bAnd from where do wederive that betrothal is accomplished by means of giving bmoney?It is bderivedby means of a verbal analogy between the term expressing btakingstated with regard to betrothal and bfromthe term expressing btakingwith regard to bthe field of Ephron.How so? bIt is written here,with regard to marriage: b“When a man takes a woman”(Deuteronomy 24:1), band it is written there,concerning Abraham’s purchase of the field of the Cave of Machpelah from Ephron the Hittite: b“I will give money for the field; take it from me”(Genesis 23:13). This verbal analogy teaches that just as Ephron’s field was acquired with money, so too, a woman can be acquired with money.,The Gemara continues: bAndthe btakingof Ephron’s field bis called an acquisitionin the Torah, bas it is writtenwith regard to the same issue: b“The field which Abraham acquired”(Genesis 25:10).
25. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22b. נעוריך אמר לו כגון מאן אמר לו כגון אמך,איני והא מקרי ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה (קהלת ז, כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה אשר היא מצודים וחרמים ואמר לו כגון מאן וא"ל כגון אמך מיתקף תקיפא עיבורי מעברא במלה,אמר רב שמואל בר אוניא משמיה דרב אשה גולם היא ואינה כורתת ברית אלא למי שעשאה כלי שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, ה) כי בועליך עושיך ה' צבאות שמו,תנא אין איש מת אלא לאשתו ואין אשה מתה אלא לבעלה אין איש מת אלא לאשתו שנאמר (רות א, ג) וימת אלימלך איש נעמי ואין אשה מתה אלא לבעלה שנאמר (בראשית מח, ז) ואני בבאי מפדן מתה עלי רחל:,אין רואין אותו כו': ת"ר מלך מסתפר בכל יום כהן גדול מערב שבת לערב שבת כהן הדיוט אחד לשלשים יום,מלך מסתפר בכל יום שנאמר (ישעיהו לג, יז) מלך ביפיו תחזינה עיניך: כהן גדול מע"ש: אמר רב שמואל בר נחמן א"ר יוחנן הואיל ומשמרות מתחדשות,כהן הדיוט אחד לשלשים יום דכתיב (יחזקאל מד, כ) וראשם לא יגלחו ופרע לא ישלחו כסום יכסמו את ראשיהם ויליף פרע פרע מנזיר כתיב הכא פרע לא ישלחו וכתיב התם (במדבר ו, ה) גדל פרע שער ראשו מה להלן שלשים אף כאן שלשים ותנן נמי סתם נזירות שלשים יום,והתם מנא לן אמר רב מתנה דאמר קרא קדש יהיה בגימטריא תלתין הוו,אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי אימא לא לירבו כלל אמר ליה אי כתיב לא ישלחו פרע כדקאמרת השתא דכתיב ופרע פרע ליהוי שלוחי לא לישלחו,אי הכי האידנא נמי דומיא דיין מה יין בזמן ביאה הוא דאסור שלא בזמן ביאה שרי אף פרועי ראש בזמן ביאה אסור שלא בזמן ביאה שרי,ויין שלא בזמן ביאה שרי והתניא רבי אומר אומר אני כהנים אסורין לשתות יין לעולם אבל מה אעשה שתקנתו קלקלתו ואמר אביי כמאן שתי כהני חמרא האידנא כרבי מכלל דרבנן אסרי,התם היינו טעמא מהרה יבנה בית המקדש ובעינן כהן הראוי לעבודה וליכא ה"נ בעינא כהן הראוי לעבודה וליכא,הכא אפשר דמספר ועייל התם נמי אפשר דניים פורתא ועייל דאמר רב אחא דרך מיל ושינה כל שהוא מפיגין את היין ולאו איתמר עלה אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא שנו אלא ששתה כדי רביעית אבל יותר מכדי רביעית כ"ש דדרך טורדתו ושינה משכרתו,רב אשי אמר שתויי יין דמחלי עבודה גזרו בהו רבנן פרועי ראש דלא מחלי עבודה לא גזרו בהו רבנן,מיתיבי ואלו שבמיתה פרועי ראש ושתויי יין,בשלמא שתויי יין דכתיב (ויקרא י, ט) יין ושכר אל תשת אתה ובניך ולא תמותו אלא פרועי ראש מנא לן,דאיתקש שתויי יין לפרועי ראש כתיב וראשם לא יגלחו ופרע לא ישלחו (וכתיב) ויין לא ישתו וגו' מה שתויי יין במיתה אף פרועי ראש במיתה,ומינה מה שתויי יין דמחלי עבודה אף פרועי ראש דמחלי עבודה קשיא,אמר ליה רבינא לרב אשי האי עד דלא אתא יחזקאל מאן אמרה וליטעמיך הא דאמר רב חסדא דבר זה מתורת משה רבינו לא למדנו עד שבא יחזקאל ולימדנו (יחזקאל מד, ט) כל בן נכר ערל לב וערל בשר לא יבא אל מקדשי לשרתני עד דלא בא יחזקאל מאן אמרה אלא גמרא גמירי לה ואתא יחזקאל ואסמכה אקרא ה"נ גמרא גמירי לה ואתא יחזקאל ואסמכה אקרא,(וכי גמרי הלכה למיתה לאחולי עבודה לא גמירי),מאי כסום יכסמו את ראשיהם תנא כמין תספורת לוליינית מאי תספורת לוליינית אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל תספורתא יחידאה ה"ד אמר רב אשי ראשו של זה בצד עיקרו של זה,שאלו את רבי איזהו תספורת של כ"ג אמר להן צאו וראו מתספורת של בן אלעשה תניא רבי אומר לא על חנם פיזר בן אלעשה את מעותיו אלא כדי להראות בו תספורת של כהן גדול:, br br big strongהדרן עלך כהן גדול /strong /big br br
26. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.127-7.128 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.127. It is a tenet of theirs that between virtue and vice there is nothing intermediate, whereas according to the Peripatetics there is, namely, the state of moral improvement. For, say the Stoics, just as a stick must be either straight or crooked, so a man must be either just or unjust. Nor again are there degrees of justice and injustice; and the same rule applies to the other virtues. Further, while Chrysippus holds that virtue can be lost, Cleanthes maintains that it cannot. According to the former it may be lost in consequence of drunkenness or melancholy; the latter takes it to be inalienable owing to the certainty of our mental apprehension. And virtue in itself they hold to be worthy of choice for its own sake. At all events we are ashamed of bad conduct as if we knew that nothing is really good but the morally beautiful. Moreover, they hold that it is in itself sufficient to ensure well-being: thus Zeno, and Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Virtues, and Hecato in the second book of his treatise On Goods: 7.128. For if magimity by itself alone can raise us far above everything, and if magimity is but a part of virtue, then too virtue as a whole will be sufficient in itself for well-being – despising all things that seem troublesome. Panaetius, however, and Posidonius deny that virtue is self-sufficing: on the contrary, health is necessary, and some means of living and strength.Another tenet of theirs is the perpetual exercise of virtue, as held by Cleanthes and his followers. For virtue can never be lost, and the good man is always exercising his mind, which is perfect. Again, they say that justice, as well as law and right reason, exists by nature and not by convention: so Chrysippus in his work On the Morally Beautiful.
27. Origen, Against Celsus, 3.72 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.72. In the next place, speaking as in the person of a teacher of our doctrine, he expresses himself as follows: Wise men reject what we say, being led into error, and ensnared by their wisdom. In reply to which we say that, since wisdom is the knowledge of divine and human things and of their causes, or, as it is defined by the word of God, the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty; and the brightness of the everlasting light, and the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of His goodness, Wisdom 7:25-26 no one who was really wise would reject what is said by a Christian acquainted with the principles of Christianity, or would be led into error, or ensnared by it. For true wisdom does not mislead, but ignorance does, while of existing things knowledge alone is permanent, and the truth which is derived from wisdom. But if, contrary to the definition of wisdom, you call any one whatever who dogmatizes with sophistical opinions wise, we answer that in conformity with what you call wisdom, such an one rejects the words of God, being misled and ensnared by plausible sophisms. And since, according to our doctrine, wisdom is not the knowledge of evil, but the knowledge of evil, so to speak, is in those who hold false opinions and who are deceived by them, I would therefore in such persons term it ignorance rather than wisdom.
28. Origen, On First Principles, 4.2.7 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
abram/abraham, analogue to odysseus Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
abram/abraham, migration Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 400
alan mendelson Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32
alexandria Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 400; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 1
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8, 570
allegory/allegoresis, homeric parallels Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
allegory/allegoresis, platonist parallels Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
allegory Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 33
apologetics Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32
aristotle Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
arithmology, seven Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 400
assimilation Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 93
aëtius Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
ben sira Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
brehier, emile Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 1
chrysippus, on philosophy Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
contemplation Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 93
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
dillon, john Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 106
diogenes laertius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
education Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
egypt, egyptians Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 33
encyclical culture Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
enkyklios paideia Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32, 33
feldman, louis h. Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 1
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
hagar Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32, 33; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8, 400, 570; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
heraclitus Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
herodotus Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
hieroglyphs Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 33
homer Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 570; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
josephus Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 58
justice Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
mind Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 93
moderation Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
moses, as philosopher Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32, 33
moses, his education Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32, 33
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8, 400; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 93
muses Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
odysseus Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
origen, origen, biblical exegesis of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 106
origen, scripture and the philosophical classroom Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 106
origen, wisdom, as subject matter of scripture Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 106
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
patriarchy, patriarchal Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
penelope Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 33; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
perfection Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
philo, education of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
philo Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 58
philosophia, meaning of Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 58
philosophy, scripture in the philosophical classroom Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 106
philosophy Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32, 33
philosophy (philosophia), chrysippus on Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
philosophy (philosophia), platos new meaning of Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
philosophy (philosophia), stoics on Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
philosophy (philosophia), traditional meaning of Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
piety Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
plato, new meaning of philosophy Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
plato Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
platonism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8, 400
plutarch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
practical wisdom Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
preliminary studies Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 570
promises, divine Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 570
rhetoric Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8, 570
sandmel, samuel Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 1
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8, 400; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
sarai Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 32
seneca, on philosophy as love and pursuit of wisdom Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 106
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
sextus empiricus, on philosophy as cultivation of wisdom Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 106
sextus empiricus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
sexual relations, (mis)behaviour Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
soul Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
stoics and stoicism, wisdom, on Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 106
teaching Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
technique, rhetorical Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8
telos Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 93
terian, abraham Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 1
virtue, cardinal Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 99
virtue, specific/generic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 400
winston, david Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 1
wisdom Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 8, 400
wisdom (books, tradition) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
wisdom (sophia), as fitting expertise' Brouwer, The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates (2013) 42
wolfson, h. a. Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 1
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 333
worship Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 93