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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Philo Of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 26-27

nanFor since our soul is composed of two parts, and since the one contains the rational faculties, and the other the irrational ones, it follows that each part must have its own peculiar virtue, Leah being the virtue of the rational part, and Rachel of the irrational.

nanFor the one trains us, by means of the external senses and the parts of speech, to look contemptuously upon all things which it is proper to disregard, such as glory, and wealth, and pleasure, which the principal and general multitude of common men look upon as things to be admired and striven for, their sense of hearing being corrupted, and the tribunal of all the other external senses being corrupted likewise.

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.20, 6.5, 7.9, 10.12, 30.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 7.9. וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר׃ 10.12. וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֹׁאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם־לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וּלְאַהֲבָה אֹתוֹ וְלַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 30.6. וּמָל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְאֶת־לְבַב זַרְעֶךָ לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ לְמַעַן חַיֶּיךָ׃ 5.20. And it came to pass, when ye heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain did burn with fire, that ye came near unto me, even all the heads of your tribes, and your elders;" 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 7.9. Know therefore that the LORD thy God, He is God; the faithful God, who keepeth covet and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations;" 10.12. And now, Israel, what doth the LORD thy God require of thee, but to fear the LORD thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve the LORD thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul;" 30.6. And the LORD thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "29.31" "29.31" "29 31"\n1 "35.18" "35.18" "35 18"\n2 16.1 16.1 16 1 \n3 29.27 29.27 29 27 \n4 29.28 29.28 29 28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 27.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.6. בְּצִדְקָתִי הֶחֱזַקְתִּי וְלֹא אַרְפֶּהָ לֹא־יֶחֱרַף לְבָבִי מִיָּמָי׃ 27.6. My righteousness I hold fast, and will not let it go; My heart shall not reproach me so long as I live."
5. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 3.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.2. שֹׂנְאֵי טוֹב וְאֹהֲבֵי רעה [רָע] גֹּזְלֵי עוֹרָם מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וּשְׁאֵרָם מֵעַל עַצְמוֹתָם׃ 3.2. Who hate the good, and love the evil; who rob their skin from off them, and their flesh from off their bones;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 4.6, 8.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.6. אַל־תַּעַזְבֶהָ וְתִשְׁמְרֶךָּ אֱהָבֶהָ וְתִצְּרֶךָּ׃ 8.13. יִרְאַת יְהוָה שְׂנֹאת רָע גֵּאָה וְגָאוֹן וְדֶרֶךְ רָע וּפִי תַהְפֻּכוֹת שָׂנֵאתִי׃ 4.6. Forsake her not, and she will preserve thee; Love her, and she will keep thee." 8.13. The fear of the LORD is to hate evil; Pride, and arrogancy, and the evil way, And the froward mouth, do I hate."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 45.7, 52.3, 116.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

45.7. כִּסְאֲךָ אֱלֹהִים עוֹלָם וָעֶד שֵׁבֶט מִישֹׁר שֵׁבֶט מַלְכוּתֶךָ׃ 52.3. מַה־תִּתְהַלֵּל בְּרָעָה הַגִּבּוֹר חֶסֶד אֵל כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 116.1. הֶאֱמַנְתִּי כִּי אֲדַבֵּר אֲנִי עָנִיתִי מְאֹד׃ 116.1. אָהַבְתִּי כִּי־יִשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קוֹלִי תַּחֲנוּנָי׃ 45.7. Thy throne given of God is for ever and ever; A sceptre of equity is the sceptre of thy kingdom." 52.3. Why boastest thou thyself of evil, O mighty man? The mercy of God endureth continually." 116.1. I love that the LORD should hear my voice and my supplications."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 56.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

56.6. וּבְנֵי הַנֵּכָר הַנִּלְוִים עַל־יְהוָה לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְאַהֲבָה אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לַעֲבָדִים כָּל־שֹׁמֵר שַׁבָּת מֵחַלְּלוֹ וּמַחֲזִיקִים בִּבְרִיתִי׃ 56.6. Also the aliens, that join themselves to the LORD, to minister unto Him, And to love the name of the LORD, To be His servants, Every one that keepeth the sabbath from profaning it, And holdeth fast by My covet:"
9. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 1.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.5. וָאֹמַר אָנָּא יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וָחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָיו׃ 1.5. and said: ‘I beseech Thee, O LORD, the God of heaven, the great and awful God, that keepeth covet and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments;"
10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.3-91.4, 94.1, 94.3, 94.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

91.3. And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said: 91.4. Love uprightness and walk therein. And draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, And associate not with those of a double heart,But walk in righteousness, my sons. And it shall guide you on good paths, And righteousness shall be your companion. 94.1. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish. 94.1. Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction. 94.3. And now I say unto you the righteous: Walk not in the paths of wickedness, nor in the paths of death, And draw not nigh to them, lest ye be destroyed. 94.5. And hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts, And suffer them not to be effaced from your hearts;For I know that sinners will tempt men to evilly-entreat wisdom, So that no place may be found for her, And no manner of temptation may minish.
11. Anon., Testament of Levi, 3.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.9. When, therefore, the Lord looketh upon us, all of us are shaken; yea, the heavens, and the earth, and the abysses are shaken at the presence of His majesty.
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 40.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.1, 6.12, 6.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. Love righteousness, you rulers of the earth,think of the Lord with uprightness,and seek him with sincerity of heart; 6.12. Wisdom is radiant and unfading,and she is easily discerned by those who love her,and is found by those who seek her. 6.17. The beginning of wisdom is the most sincere desire for instruction,and concern for instruction is love of her
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 3-4, 40-41, 5, 51, 6-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 10-12, 125, 13-18, 180, 19, 2, 20-25, 27, 3, 31-39, 4, 40-44, 48-49, 5, 50-51, 53, 56-58, 6, 61, 63, 65, 7-9, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. But Sarah the wife of Abraham had not borne him any child. And she had an Egyptian handmaiden, who name was Hagar. And Sarah said unto Abraham, Behold, the Lord has closed me up, so that I should not bear children; go in unto my handmaiden that thou mayest have children by Her.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 49 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

49. And, on this account, the lovers of virtue and excellence do not approach the doors of the older philosophy before they have become familiar with these younger parts of it, grammar, and geometry, and the whole range of encyclical learning; for these subordinate branches do always attend upon those, who with sincerity and purity of purpose court wisdom.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 56 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

56. but Moses, when he had arrived at that number of years, departed from mortal life to another. How, then, can it be natural for men who are guilty to live an equal length of time with the all-wise prophet? for the present, it will be sufficient to say this, that things which bear the same name are not in all cases alike, but very often they are distinct in their whole genus; and also that which is bad may have equal numbers and times with what is good, since they are represented as twofold, but still they have their respective powers, distinct from one another, and as remote and different as possible.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 61-62, 77-80, 130 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

130. Having now discussed at sufficient length the subject of change and alteration of names, we will turn to the matters which come next in order in our proposed examination. Immediately after the events which we have just mentioned, came the birth of Isaac; for after God had given to his mother the name of Sarrah instead of Sarah, he said to Abraham, "I will give unto thee a Son." We must consider each of the things here indicated particularly.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.73, 1.75, 1.79-1.80, 1.88-1.89, 1.93-1.94, 1.102-1.103, 1.109, 1.112, 1.114, 1.118-1.119, 2.40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.73. And do not wonder if, according to the rules of allegorical description, the sun is likened to the Father and Governor of the universe; for in reality nothing is like unto God; but those things which by the vain opinion of men are thought to be so, are only two things, one invisible and the other visible; the soul being the invisible thing, and the sun the visible one. 1.75. And it is easy otherwise by means of argument to perceive this, since God is the first light, "For the Lord is my light and my Saviour," is the language of the Psalms; and not only the light, but he is also the archetypal pattern of every other light, or rather he is more ancient and more sublime than even the archetypal model, though he is spoken of as the model; for the real model was his own most perfect word, the light, and he himself is like to no created thing. 1.79. And, using symbolical language, he calls the outward sense a second sun, inasmuch as it shows all the objects of which it is able to form a judgment to the intellect, concerning which he speaks thus, "The sun rose upon him when he passed by the appearance of God." For in real truth, when we are no longer able to endure to pass all our time with the most sacred appearances, and as it were with incorporeal images, but when we turn aside in another direction, and forsake them, we use another light, that, namely, in accordance with the external sense, which is real truth, is in no respect different from darkness 1.80. which, after it has arisen, arouses as if from sleep the senses of seeing, and of hearing, and also of taste, and of touch, and of smell, and sends to sleep the intellectual qualities of prudence, and justice, and knowledge, and wisdom, which were all awake. 1.88. In reference to which faculty of his it is that he drags those persons who are living dissolutely as regards their souls, and who are in a debauched and intemperate manner, cohabiting with the daughters of the mind the outward senses, as prostitutes and harlots, to the light of the sun, in order to display their true characters; 1.89. for the scripture says, "And the people abode in Shittim;" now the meaning of the name Shittim is, "the thorns of passion;" which sting and wound the soul. "And the people was polluted, and began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab," and those who are called daughters are the outward senses, for the name Moab is interpreted, "of a father;" and the scripture adds, "Take all the chiefs of the people, and make an example of them unto the Lord in the face of the sun, and the anger of the Lord shall be turned from Israel. 1.93. Is it not natural that those who fancy that the lawgiver displays such earnestness about a garment should, if they do not reproach him, at least make a suggestion, saying, "What are ye saying, my good men? Do ye affirm that the Creator and ruler of the world calls himself merciful with respect to so trivial a matter, as that of a garment not being restored to the borrower by the lender? 1.102. These things then, and other things of the same kind, may be urged in reply to those assertors of the literal sense of a passage; and who superciliously reject all other explanations. We will now, in accordance with the usual laws of allegorical speaking, say what is becoming with respect to these subjects. We say, therefore, that a garment here is spoken of symbolically, to signify speech; for clothes keep off the injuries which are wont to visit the body, from cold and heat, and they also conceal the unmentionable parts of nature, and moreover, a cloak is a fitting garment for the body. 1.103. In much the same manner, speech has been given to man by God, as the most excellent of gifts; for in the first place, it is a defensive weapon against those who would attack him with innovations. For as nature has fortified all other animals with their own appropriate and peculiar means of defence, by which they are able to repel those who attempt to injure them, so also has it bestowed upon man that greatest defence and most impregnable protection of speech, with which, as with a panoply, every one who is completely clothed, will have a domestic and most appropriate bodyguard; and employing it as a champion, will be able to ward off all the injuries which can be brought against him by his enemies. 1.109. On which account the scripture adds, "This is the only covering of his nakedness;" for what can so becomingly overshadow and conceal the reproaches and disgraces of life, as speech? For ignorance is a disgrace akin to irrational nature, but education is the brother of speech, and an ornament properly belonging to man. 1.112. for he does not display a half-complete power, but one which is perfect in every part. Inasmuch, as even if it were to fail in his endeavour, and in any conceptions which may have been formed, or efforts which may have been made, it still can have recourse to the third species of assistance, namely, consolation. For speech is, as it were, a medicine for the wounds of the soul, and a saving remedy for its passions, which, "even before the setting of the sun," the lawgiver says one must restore: that is to say, before the all-brilliant beams of the almighty and all-glorious God are obscured, which he, out of pity for our race, sends down from heaven upon the human mind. 1.114. Moreover, while God pours upon you the light of his beams, do you hasten in the light of day to restore his pledge to the Lord; for when the sun has set, then you, like the whole land of Egypt, will have an everlasting darkness which may be felt, and being stricken with blindness and ignorance, you will be deprived of all those things of which you thought that you had certain possession, by that sharp-sighted Israel, whose pledges you hold, having made one who was by nature exempt from slavery a slave to necessity. XIX. 1.118. But some persons--supposing that what is meant here by the figurative expression of the sun is the external sense and the mind, which are looked upon as the things which have the power of judging; and that which is meant by place is the divine word--understand the allegory in this manner: the practiser of virtue met with the divine word, after the mortal and human light had set; 1.119. for as long as the mind thinks that it attains to a firm comprehension of the objects of the intellect, and the outward sense conceives that it has a similar understanding of its appropriate objects, and that it dwells amid sublime objects, the divine word stands aloof at a distance; but when each of these comes to confess its own weakness, and sets in a manner while availing itself of concealment, then immediately the right reason of a soul well-practised in virtue comes in a welcome manner to their assistance, when they have begun to despair of their own strength, and await the aid which is invisibly coming to them from without. XX. 2.40. he who, in something of a piratical fashion, lays ambuscades against those who counterplot against him, takes up deceit, cajolery, trickery, sophistry, pretence, and hypocrisy, which being in their own nature blamable, are nevertheless praised when employed against the enemy; he who studies to be rich in the riches of nature takes up temperance and frugality; he who loves peace takes up obedience to law, a good reputation, freedom from pride, and equality. VI.
20. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.105, 1.107, 3.244 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.105. Accordingly God says, "In the day in which ye eat of it ye shall die the death." And yet, though they have eaten of it, they not only do not die, but they even beget children, and are the causes of life to other beings besides themselves. What, then, are we to say? Surely that death is of two kinds; the one being the death of the man, the other the peculiar death of the soul--now the death of the man is the separation of his soul from his body, but the death of the soul is the destruction of virtue and the admission of vice; 1.107. When, therefore, God says, "to die the death," you must remark that he is speaking of that death which is inflicted as punishment, and not of that which exists by the original ordice of nature. The natural death is that one by which the soul is separated from the body. But the one which is inflicted as a punishment, is when the soul dies according to the life of virtue, and lives only according to the life of vice.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 232 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

232. But by nature our mind is indivisible; for the Creator, having divided the irrational part of the soul into six portions, has made six divisions of it, namely, sight, taste, hearing, smelling, touch, and voice; but the rational part, which is called the mind he has left undivided, according to the likeness of the entire heaven.
22. New Testament, Romans, 12.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.9. Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor that which is evil. Cling to that which is good.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151, 166
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 555
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305, 555
allegory/allegoresis Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
allegory Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151
arithmology, five Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
arithmology, ten Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
benjamin Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
etymology, greek Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 555
etymology, hebrew Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 555
eve Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 166
hagar Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151, 166
hearts, double hearted Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
hearts, sincerity of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
instruction/teaching Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 555; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 166
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 555
jacob Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 166
job Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
joseph Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
laban Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 166
leah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305, 555; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 166
love, of evil Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
love, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
love, of good Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
love, of righteousness/uprightness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
love, of wisdom Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
paideia Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 166
rachel Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 166
rhetoric Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 555
salvation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 555; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151, 166
septuagint Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 166
shema Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
soul, death of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
soul, rational and irrational Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 555
time Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
truth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
two spirits treatise Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
virginity Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305, 555
ways/paths, of righteousness/truth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
ways/paths, of wrongdoing/iniquity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
wisdom' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 166
wisdom Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151, 166