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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9228
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Migration Of Abraham, 130


nanAt all events, God is represented in another passage as saying, "Abraham has kept all my Law." And law is nothing else but the word of God, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is not right, as he bears witness, where he says, "He received the law from his Words." If, then, the divine word is the law, and if the righteous man does the law, then by all means he also performs the word of God. So that, as I said before, the words of God are the actions of the wise man.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 33.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.3. אַף חֹבֵב עַמִּים כָּל־קְדֹשָׁיו בְּיָדֶךָ וְהֵם תֻּכּוּ לְרַגְלֶךָ יִשָּׂא מִדַּבְּרֹתֶיךָ׃ 33.3. Yea, He loveth the peoples, All His holy ones—they are in Thy hand; And they sit down at Thy feet, Receiving of Thy words."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.27. וְאִם־מָאֵן אַתָּה לְשַׁלֵּחַ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי נֹגֵף אֶת־כָּל־גְּבוּלְךָ בַּצְפַרְדְּעִים׃ 7.27. And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.1-12.3, 22.16, 26.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 12.2. וַיְצַו עָלָיו פַּרְעֹה אֲנָשִׁים וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 12.2. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה׃ 12.3. וַאֲבָרֲכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ כֹּל מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה׃ 22.16. וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידֶךָ׃ 26.5. עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֺתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי׃ 12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee." 12.2. And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing." 12.3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’" 22.16. and said: ‘By Myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son," 26.5. because that Abraham hearkened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws.’"
4. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44.19-44.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

44.19. Abraham was the great father of a multitude of nations,and no one has been found like him in glory;
5. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 15.4-15.19, 16.4-16.14, 16.17-16.18, 16.20-16.21, 16.24, 19.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15.4. For neither has the evil intent of human art misled us,nor the fruitless toil of painters,a figure stained with varied colors 15.5. whose appearance arouses yearning in fools,so that they desire the lifeless form of a dead image. 15.6. Lovers of evil things and fit for such objects of hope are those who either make or desire or worship them. 15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.13. For this man, more than all others, knows that he sins when he makes from earthy matter fragile vessels and graven images. 15.14. But most foolish, and more miserable than an infant,are all the enemies who oppressed thy people. 15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking. 15.16. For a man made them,and one whose spirit is borrowed formed them;for no man can form a god which is like himself. 15.17. He is mortal, and what he makes with lawless hands is dead,for he is better than the objects he worships,since he has life, but they never have. 15.18. The enemies of thy people worship even the most hateful animals,which are worse than all others, when judged by their lack of intelligence; 15.19. and even as animals they are not so beautiful in appearance that one would desire them,but they have escaped both the praise of God and his blessing. 16.4. For it was necessary that upon those oppressors inexorable want should come,while to these it was merely shown how their enemies were being tormented. 16.5. For when the terrible rage of wild beasts came upon thy people and they were being destroyed by the bites of writhing serpents,thy wrath did not continue to the end; 16.6. they were troubled for a little while as a warning,and received a token of deliverance to remind them of thy laws command. 16.7. For he who turned toward it was saved, not by what he saw,but by thee, the Savior of all. 16.8. And by this also thou didst convince our enemies that it is thou who deliverest from every evil. 16.9. For they were killed by the bites of locusts and flies,and no healing was found for them,because they deserved to be punished by such things; 16.10. but thy sons were not conquered even by the teeth of venomous serpents,for thy mercy came to their help and healed them. 16.11. To remind them of thy oracles they were bitten,and then were quickly delivered,lest they should fall into deep forgetfulness and become unresponsive to thy kindness. 16.12. For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men. 16.13. For thou hast power over life and death;thou dost lead men down to the gates of Hades and back again. 16.14. A man in his wickedness kills another,but he cannot bring back the departed spirit,nor set free the imprisoned soul. 16.17. For -- most incredible of all -- in the water,which quenches all things,the fire had still greater effect,for the universe defends the righteous. 16.18. At one time the flame was restrained,so that it might not consume the creatures sent against the ungodly,but that seeing this they might know that they were being pursued by the judgment of God; 16.20. Instead of these things thou didst give thy people food of angels,and without their toil thou didst supply them from heaven with bread ready to eat,providing every pleasure and suited to every taste. 16.21. For thy sustece manifested thy sweetness toward thy children;and the bread, ministering to the desire of the one who took it,was changed to suit every ones liking. 16.24. For creation, serving thee who hast made it,exerts itself to punish the unrighteous,and in kindness relaxes on behalf of those who trust in thee. 19.22. For in everything, O Lord, thou hast exalted and glorified thy people;and thou hast not neglected to help them at all times and in all places.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 276 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

276. Such is the life of the first author and founder of our nation; a man according to the law, as some persons think, but, as my argument has shown, one who is himself the unwritten law and justice of God.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 131-134, 137, 14, 140-144, 146-149, 15, 150-151, 154-156, 159, 16, 164-167, 169, 17, 175-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-199, 2, 20, 200-209, 21, 210-211, 216-219, 22, 220-225, 23-29, 3, 30-39, 4, 40-49, 5, 50-59, 6, 60-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-89, 9, 90-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And the Lord said to Abraham, "Depart from thy land, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house to a land which I will show thee; and I will make thee into a great nation. And I will bless thee, and I will magnify thy name, and thou shalt be blessed. And I will bless them that bless thee, and I will curse them that curse thee; and in thy name shall all the nations of the earth be Blessed.
9. Philo of Alexandria, De Providentia, 2.15 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.203-3.208 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.184 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. And he mentions the ministrations and services by which Abraham displayed his love to his master in the last sentence of the divine oracle given to his son, "I will give to thee and to thy seed all this land, and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because Abraham thy father obeyed my voice, and kept all my precepts, and all my commandments, and my laws, and my Judgments.
13. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.3.7-1.3.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 20.100 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 64.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

64.4. עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי (בראשית כו, ה), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, תַּרְוֵיהוֹן אָמְרֵי בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנָה שָׁנָה הִכִּיר אַבְרָהָם אֶת בּוֹרְאוֹ. רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר בֶּן שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים הִכִּיר אַבְרָהָם אֶת בּוֹרְאוֹ, מִנְיַן עֵקֶ"ב שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקוֹל בּוֹרְאוֹ. (בראשית כו, ה): וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֹתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי, רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ הִלְכוֹת עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת הָיָה אַבְרָהָם יוֹדֵעַ. תּוֹרֹתָי, שְׁתֵּי תוֹרוֹת, שֶׁקִּיֵּם אֲפִלּוּ מִצְוָה קַלָּה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה. רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ שֵׁם חָדָשׁ שֶׁעָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִקְרוֹא לִירוּשָׁלַיִם הָיָה אַבְרָהָם יוֹדֵעַ, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית כב, יד): וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם ה' יִרְאֶה, וּכְתִיב (יחזקאל מח, לה): וְשֵׁם הָעִיר מִיּוֹם ה' שָׁמָּה, וּכְתִיב (ירמיה ג, יז): בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִקְרְאוּ לִיְרוּשָׁלָיִם כִּסֵּא ה'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אֵין כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם שֶׁאֵין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְחַדֵּשׁ הֲלָכָה בְּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל מַעְלָה, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (איוב לז, ב): שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ בְּרֹגֶז קֹלוֹ וְהֶגֶה מִפִּיו יֵצֵא, וְאֵין הֶגֶה אֶלָּא תוֹרָה, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע א, ח): וְהָגִיתָ בוֹ יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה. 64.4. “Because Avraham hearkened to My voice…” (Bereshit 26:5) R’ Yocha and R’ Chanina both said - Avraham came to consciousness of his Creator at age forty-eight. Resh Lakish said - Avraham came to consciousness of his Creator at age three. From where did they learn this? ‘Because (ekev, also meaning heel) Abraham hearkened to the voice of his Creator, “and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My instructions.\" (Bereshit 26:5) R’ Yonatan said in the name of R’ Yocha – even the laws of mixing courtyards were known to Avraham, ‘My instructions (torati)’, Avraham kept two torahs, even the simple commandments of the oral law. R’ Simon said – even the new name which the Holy One would call Jerusalem in the future was known to Avraham, as it is written “And Avraham named that place, The Lord will see…” (Bereshit 22:14), and it is written “…and the name of the city from that day will be ‘The Lord is There.’” (Yechezkiel 48:35), and it is written “At that time, they will call Jerusalem ‘The Throne of the Lord’…” (Yermiyahu 3:17) R’ Berachia said in the name of R’ Yehudah: there is no day on which the Holy One does not innovate law in the heavenly court. What is his proof? “Hear attentively the noise of His voice and the sound (hegeh) that emanates from His mouth.” (Iyov 37:2) Hegeh only refers to Torah, as it says “…you shall meditate (hegita) therein day and night..” (Yehoshua 1:8)"
17. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 1.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא ר' ישמעאל אומר ברק ברקאי ר"ע אומר עלה ברקאי נחומא בן אפקשיון אומר אף ברקאי בחברון מתיא בן שמואל (אומר) הממונה על הפייסות אומר האיר פני כל המזרח עד שבחברון רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר האיר פני כל המזרח עד בחברון ויצאו כל העם איש איש למלאכתו,אי הכי נגה ליה טובא לשכור פועלים קאמרינן,אמר רב ספרא צלותיה דאברהם מכי משחרי כותלי,אמר רב יוסף אנן מאברהם ניקום וניגמר אמר רבא תנא גמר מאברהם ואנן לא גמרינן מיניה דתניא (ויקרא יב, ג) וביום השמיני ימול בשר ערלתו מלמד שכל היום כשר למילה אלא שהזריזין מקדימין למצות שנאמר (בראשית כב, ג) וישכם אברהם בבקר ויחבוש וגו',אלא אמר רבא רב יוסף הא קא קשיא ליה דתנן חל ערבי פסחים להיות בע"ש נשחט בשש ומחצה וקרב בשבע ומחצה ונשחטיה מכי משחרי כותלי,מאי קושיא ודילמא כותלי דבית המקדש בשש ומחצה משחרי משום דלא מכווני טובא א"נ שאני אברהם דאיצטגנינות גדולה היתה בלבו א"נ משום דזקן ויושב בישיבה הוה דא"ר חמא בר' חנינא מימיהן של אבותינו לא פרשה ישיבה מהם,היו במצרים ישיבה עמהם שנאמר (שמות ג, טז) לך ואספת את זקני ישראל היו במדבר ישיבה עמהם שנאמר (במדבר יא, טז) אספה לי שבעים איש מזקני ישראל אברהם אבינו זקן ויושב בישיבה היה שנאמר (בראשית כד, א) ואברהם זקן בא בימים יצחק אבינו זקן ויושב בישיבה היה שנאמר (בראשית כז, א) ויהי כי זקן יצחק יעקב אבינו זקן ויושב בישיבה היה שנאמר (בראשית מח, י) ועיני ישראל כבדו מזוקן,אליעזר עבד אברהם זקן ויושב בישיבה היה שנאמר (בראשית כד, ב) ויאמר אברהם אל עבדו זקן ביתו המושל בכל אשר לו אר"א שמושל בתורת רבו (בראשית טו, ב) הוא דמשק אליעזר א"ר אלעזר שדולה ומשקה מתורתו של רבו לאחרים,אמר רב קיים אברהם אבינו כל התורה כולה שנאמר (בראשית כו, ה) עקב אשר שמע אברהם בקולי וגו' א"ל רב שימי בר חייא לרב ואימא שבע מצות הא איכא נמי מילה ואימא שבע מצות ומילה א"ל א"כ מצותי ותורותי למה לי,אמר (רב) ואיתימא רב אשי קיים אברהם אבינו אפילו עירובי תבשילין שנאמר תורותי אחת תורה שבכתב ואחת תורה שבעל פה,מתיא בן שמואל אמר וכו' והוא אומר הן מאן אמר הן אילימא הך דקאי אאיגרא הוא חלים והוא מפשר אלא הך דקאי אארעא מנא ידע,איבעית אימא הך דקאי אארעא ואיבעית אימא הך דקאי אאיגרא איבעית אימא הך דקאי אאיגרא אמר איהו האיר פני כל המזרח וא"ל הך דקאי אארעא עד שבחברון וא"ל איהו הן,ואיבעית אימא הך דקאי אארעא אמר איהו האיר פני כל המזרח וא"ל עד שבחברון וא"ל הן,ולמה הוצרכו לכך וכו' ומי מיחליף והתניא רבי אומר אינו דומה תימור של לבנה לתימור של חמה תימור של לבנה מתמר ועולה כמקל תימור של חמה מפציע לכאן ולכאן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל יום המעונן היה ומפציע לכאן ולכאן אמר רב פפא שמע מינה יומא דעיבא כוליה שמשא,למאי נפקא מינה לשטוחי עורות אי נמי לכדדרש רבא אשה לא תלוש לא בחמה ולא בחמי חמה,אמר רב נחמן זוהמא דשימשא קשי משימשא וסימניך דנא דחלא שברירי דשימשא קשו משימשא וסימניך דילפא 28b. strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages disputed the precise expression that was employed in the Temple. bRabbi Yishmael saysthat the formula is: bThe light flashed; Rabbi Akiva says: The light has risen,which is brighter than a mere flash. bNaḥuma ben Apakshiyon says:There is beven light in Hebron. Matya ben Shmuel saysthat bthe appointedpriest in charge of bthe lotteries says: The entire eastern sky is illuminatedall the way bto Hebron. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira saysthat this is what the appointed priest said: bThe entire eastern sky is illuminatedall the way bto Hebron and the entire nation has gone out, each and every person toengage in bhis labor. /b,The Gemara questions Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira’s version of the formula: bIfit is bsothat the people have gone to work, it has bgrown considerably lighter.People go to work after it is light. Apparently, Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira is referring to a time after sunrise, not a time adjacent to dawn. The Gemara answers: It is that people have gone out bto hire workersthat bwe are saying.Owners of fields rose early, adjacent to dawn, to hire workers so that they could begin working when it is light.,§ bRav Safra said:The time for the afternoon bprayer of Abrahambegins bfrom when the wallsbegin to bblackenfrom shade. When the sun begins to descend from the middle of the sky, producing shadows on the walls, that marks the beginning of the setting of the sun and then the afternoon prayer may be recited., bRav Yosef said:And will bwe arise and derivea ihalakha bfrom Abraham?Didn’t Abraham live before the Torah was given to the Jewish people, and therefore ihalakhotcannot be derived from his conduct? bRava said:The itannaderiveda ihalakha bfrom Abraham’sconduct, band we do not derivea ihalakha bfrom hisconduct? bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“And on the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised”(Leviticus 12:3), this verse bteaches that the entire day is suitable forperformance of the mitzva of bcircumcision. However, the vigilant are earlyin their performance of bmitzvotand circumcise in the morning, bas it is statedwith regard to the binding of Isaac: b“And Abraham arose early in the morning and saddledhis donkey” (Genesis 22:3). He awakened early to fulfill the mitzva without delay. Apparently, ihalakhais derived from the conduct of Abraham., bRather, Rava said:With regard to bRav Yosef,it was not the matter of deriving ihalakhafrom the conduct of Abraham that is difficult. Rather, bthis is difficult for him, as we learnedin a mishna: When bPassover eves occur on Shabbat eves,the daily afternoon offering is slaughtered bat six and a half hoursof the day band sacrificedon the altar bat seven and a half hours.The afternoon offering was slaughtered as early as possible to enable all the Paschal lambs, which were slaughtered after the daily afternoon offering was sacrificed, to be slaughtered and roasted before sunset, so that no labor would be performed on Shabbat. Now, if indeed this ihalakhais derived from the conduct of Abraham, blet us slaughterthe offering even earlier, bfrom when the wallsbegin to bblacken,just after the end of the sixth hour of the day. Apparently, ihalakhais not derived from the conduct of Abraham.,The Gemara rejects this: bWhat is the difficulty? br bPerhaps the walls of the Templebegin to bblackenonly bat six and a halfhours of the day bbecause they are not perfectly aligned.The Temple walls were broad at the bottom and gradually narrowed as they reached the top; therefore, the upper part of the wall did not cast a shadow on the wall opposite it until six and a half hours of the day. br bOr, alternatively,it is bdifferentwith regard to bAbrahambecause bthere was greatknowledge of bastronomy [ iitztagninut /i] in his heart.He was able to precisely calculate the movements of the heavenly bodies and was therefore able to discern immediately after noon that the sun had begun its descent. Others require a half hour to be certain that the descent of the sun has begun. br bOr, alternativelyAbraham was different bbecause he was an Elder and satand studied Torah bin a yeshiva,where the Divine Presence rests. There he developed the expertise to determine the precise hour. bAs Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: From the days of our ancestors, yeshiva never left them.Our ancestors were leaders of their generations, who taught Torah to students who came to them.,When bthey were in Egyptthere was ba yeshiva with them, as it is stated: “Go and gather the Elders of Israel”(Exodus 3:16), indicating that there were Sages among them who studied Torah. And similarly, when bthey were in the desert,there was ba yeshiva with them, as it is stated: “Gather for me seventy men from the Elders of Israel”(Numbers 11:16). bAbraham our Patriarchwas himself ban Elder and would sit in yeshiva, as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, advanced in years”(Genesis 24:1). From the apparent redundancy of the terms old and advanced in years, it is derived that old means that he was a wise Elder and prominent in Torah, and advanced in years means that he was elderly. Similarly, bIsaac our Patriarch was an Elder and sat in yeshiva, as it is stated: “And it came to pass when Isaac was oldand his eyes were dim” (Genesis 27:1). Similarly, bJacob our Patriarch was an Elder and sat in yeshiva, as it is stated: “And Israel’s eyes were heavy with age”(Genesis 48:10)., bEliezer, servant of Abraham, was an Elder and sat in yeshiva, as it is stated: “And Abraham said to his servant, the elder of his household, who ruled over all he had”(Genesis 24:2). bRabbi Elazar said:The verse means that bhe had mastery over the Torah of his master,having gained proficiency in all of the Torah of Abraham. That is the meaning of the verse: b“He is Damascus [ iDammesek /i] Eliezer”(Genesis 15:2). bRabbi Elazar said:The word iDammesekis a contraction of he bwho draws [ idoleh /i] and gives drink [ imashke /i] to others from his master’s Torah. /b,Apropos the previous statement, the Gemara cites that bRav said: Abraham our Patriarch fulfilled the entire Torahbefore it was given, bas it is stated: “Because [ iekev /i] Abraham hearkened to My voice and keptMy charge, My mitzvot, My statutes and My Torahs” (Genesis 26:5). bRav Shimi bar Ḥiyya said to Rav: And saythat the verse means that he fulfilled only the bsevenNoahide bmitzvotand not the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t there also circumcisionthat Abraham clearly observed, which is not one of the Noahide laws? Apparently, Abraham fulfilled more than just those seven. The Gemara asks: bAnd saythat he fulfilled only bthe seven mitzvot and circumcision.Rav bsaid to him: If so, why do Ineed the continuation of the verse, that Abraham kept: bMy mitzvot and My Torah?That is a clear indication that he fulfilled mitzvot beyond the seven Noahide mitzvot, and apparently fulfilled the entire Torah., bRav said, and some say Rav Ashisaid: bAbraham our Patriarch fulfilledthe entire Torah, beventhe mitzva of bthe joining of cooked foods,a rabbinic ordice instituted later, bas it is stated: My Torahs.Since the term is in the plural, it indicates that Abraham kept two Torahs; bone, the Written Torah, and one, the Oral Torah.In the course of fulfilling the Oral Torah, he fulfilled all the details and parameters included therein.,§ It was taught in the mishna that bMatya ben Shmuel saysthat the appointed priest asks: bIs the entire eastern sky illuminated even to Hebron? And he says: Yes.The Gemara asks: bWho said yes? If we sayit is bthatperson bwho is standing on the roof,does bhe dream andalso binterprethis dream? Is it reasonable that the one asking the question answers it? bRather,say that it was bthatperson bwho is standing on the groundwho said yes. bFrom where does he knowthat the sky is illuminated such that he is able to answer yes?,The Gemara suggests two possible solutions: bIf you wish, sayit was bthatperson bwho is standing on the groundwho answered yes, band if you wish, sayit was bthatperson bwho is standing on the roofwho answered. bIf you wish, say thatthe person bwho is standing on the roof said: The entire eastern sky is illuminated. And thatperson bwho is standing on the ground said to him:Has it illuminated beven to Hebron? And hewho is standing on the roof bsaid to him: Yes. /b, bAnd if you wish, sayinstead bthatthe person bwho is standing on the ground said: Is the entire eastern sky illuminated? And hewho is standing on the roof bsaid to him:Do you mean that it is illuminated even bto Hebron? And hewho is standing on the ground bsaid to him: Yes,that is what I mean.,§ The mishna asks: bAnd why did they need toascertain bthis?The mishna answered that there was an incident where they confused the light of the moon with the light of the rising sun and slaughtered the daily morning offering too early. The Gemara asks: bAnd aresunlight and moonlight bmistakenfor one another? bWasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: A column ofthe light of the bmoon is not similar to a column ofthe light of the bsun; a column ofthe light of the bmoon rises like a staffin one column while ba column ofthe light of the bsun diffuses to here and to there?The Gemara answers that bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:It bwas a cloudy day, andthen even the moonlight bdiffuses to here and to there,which caused them to err and believe that it was the rising sun. bRav Pappa said: Learn from thisstatement of Rabbi Yishmael that ba cloudy day issimilar to ba completely sunnyday because the sunlight is further diffused by the clouds.,The Gemara asks: bWhat are thepractical bramificationsof the statement that a cloudy day is similar to a completely sunny day? The Gemara explains: The ramifications are with regard bto spreading hidesto dry them. On a cloudy day, wherever the hides are placed they will be exposed to sunlight. bAlternatively,the ramifications are according btothat bwhich Rava taughtwith regard to imatza /i: bA womanmay bneither kneaddough for imatzafor Passover binthe light of bthe sun normay she prepare the dough bwith hot waterheated bin the sun.On a cloudy day, one may not knead the dough anywhere outside since the light of the sun is diffused everywhere.,Apropos a cloudy day, the Gemara cites that bRav Naḥman said: The hazylight bof the sunthrough the clouds bis more damaging than thelight of the bsunitself. bAnd your mnemonicis bthecover of ba jar of vinegar:As long as the jar is tightly closed, the odor of the vinegar does not spread and it intensifies. Even the slightest opening in the lid releases an odor more powerful than the odor generated by vinegar that was not sealed in a jar. The same is true with regard to the rays of the sun. With regard to sunlight that is obscured behind clouds, when it escapes through breaks in the clouds it is more powerful than direct sunlight. bDazzling sunlight,which shines through cracks in the clouds, bis more harmfulto the eyes bthandirect bsunlight. And your mnemonic is a drip;water that drips on a person is more bothersome than water in which one completely immerses his body.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, encomia on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406, 409
abraham, lot contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406
abraham, obedience of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406, 409
abraham, praise of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406, 409
abraham Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
age and youth Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406
alexandria Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
antithesis Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
concord Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
dio chrysostom Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
egypt Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
encomia, on abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406, 409
epictetus Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
figurative and literal Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
god, oath of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 409
heortius Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
idolatry Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
jews and jewish tradition, rebelliousness toward Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406
law of nature, and the patriarchs Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108
law of nature, in philo Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108
libanius Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
lot, abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406
lot Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
marcus aurelius Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
mosaic law, for ordinary people Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108
moses Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
oath of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 409
pater familias Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
patria potestas Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
patriarchs Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108
paul Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
penalties Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108
philo Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
prayer (see also lords prayer) Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
red sea Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
schools Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
stoicism Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 152
thesmos, in philo, and nomos Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108
tiberius julius alexander Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406
tombs of desire Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
unity of law, in philo Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
written law, and higher laws' Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 108
νεώτερος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 406