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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9217
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Eternity Of The World, 49


nanfor how could it be said that he who had suffered no mutilation whatever, namely Theon, was taken off, and that Dion, who had lost a foot, was not injured? Very appropriately, he will reply, for Dion, who had had his foot cut off, falls back upon the original imperfection of Theon, and there cannot be two specific differences in the same subject, therefore it follows of necessity that Dion must remain, and that Theon must be taken off-- "So are we slain by arrows winged With our own Feathers," as the tragic poet says. For any one, copying the form of this argument and adapting it to the entire world, may prove in the clearest manner that providence itself is liable to corruption.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 25.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.27. וַיִּגְדְּלוּ הַנְּעָרִים וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו אִישׁ יֹדֵעַ צַיִד אִישׁ שָׂדֶה וְיַעֲקֹב אִישׁ תָּם יֹשֵׁב אֹהָלִים׃ 25.27. And the boys grew; and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a quiet man, dwelling in tents."
2. Demosthenes, Orations, 18.296 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.58 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.58. the nature of the world itself, which encloses and contains all things in its embrace, is styled by Zeno not merely 'craftsmanlike' but actually 'a craftsman,' whose foresight plans out the work to serve its use and purpose in every detail. And as the other natural substances are generated, reared and sustained each by its own seeds, so the world-nature experiences all those motions of the will, those impulses of conation and desire, that the Greeks call hormae, and follows these up with the appropriate actions in the same way as do we ourselves, who experience emotions and sensations. Such being the nature of the world-mind, it can therefore correctly be designated as prudence or providence (for in Greek it is termed pronoia); and this providence is chiefly directed and concentrated upon three objects, namely to secure for the world, first, the structure best fitted for survival; next, absolute completeness; but chiefly, consummate beauty and embellishment of every kind.
4. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.79 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.79. Bene reprehendis, et se isto modo res habet. credamus igitur igitur etiam K Panaetio a Platone suo dissentienti? quem enim omnibus locis divinum, quem sapientissimum, quem sanctissimum, quem Homerum philosophorum appellat, huius hanc unam sententiam de inmortalitate animorum non probat. volt enim, quod nemo negat, quicquid natum sit interire; nasci autem animos, quod declaret eorum similitudo qui procreentur, quae etiam in ingeniis, non solum in corporibus appareat. alteram autem adfert affert hic X rationem, nihil esse quod doleat, quin id aegrum esse quoque possit; quod autem in morbum cadat, id etiam interiturum; dolere dolore V 1 autem animos, ergo etiam interire.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 50-51, 76, 48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

48. Therefore Chrysippus, the most celebrated philosopher of that sect, in his treatise about Increase, utters some such prodigious assertions as these, and after he has prefaced his doctrines with the assertion that it is impossible for two makers of a species to exist in the same substance, he proceeds, "Let it be granted for the sake of argument and speculation that there is one person entire and sound, and another wanting one foot from his birth, and that the sound man is called Dion and the cripple Theon, and afterwards that Dion also loses one of his feet, then if the question were asked which had been spoiled, it would be more natural to say this of Theon;" but this is the assertion of one who delights in paradox rather than in truth
6. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Since on what other account can we imagine, that in every quarter of the habitable globe, the theatres are every day filled with incalculable myriads of spectators? For they, being wholly under the dominion of sounds and sights, and allowing their ears and their eyes to be carried away without any restraint, go in pursuit of harp-players and singers to the harp, and every description of effeminate and unmanly music; and, moreover, eagerly receiving dancers and every other kind of actors, because they place themselves and move in all kinds of effeminate positions and motions, they are continually by their applause exciting the factions of the theatre, never thinking either of the propriety of their own conduct or of that of the general body of the citizens; but, miserable as they are, upsetting all their own plan of life for the sake of their eyes and ears.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 96 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

96. And if any one of the beasts, to be sacrificed, is found to be not perfect and entire, it is driven out of the sacred precincts, and is not allowed to be brought to the altar, even though all these corporeal imperfections are quite involuntary on its part; but though they may themselves be wounded in their souls by sensible diseases, which the invincible power of wickedness has inflicted on them, or though, I might rather say, they are mutilated and curtailed of their fairest proportions, of prudence, and courage, and justice, piety, and of all the other virtues which the human race is naturally formed to possess, and although too they have contracted all this pollution and mutilation of their own free will, they nevertheless dare to perform sacrifices, thinking that the eye of God sees external objects alone, when the sun co-operates and throws light upon them, and that it cannot discern what is invisible in preference to what is visible, using itself as its own light. 96. The fourth commandment has reference to the sacred seventh day, that it may be passed in a sacred and holy manner. Now some states keep the holy festival only once in the month, counting from the new moon, as a day sacred to God; but the nation of the Jews keep every seventh day regularly, after each interval of six days;
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

62. And Moses bears witness to this, when he says that "Jacob was a man without artifice, dwelling in a House;" so that he who is contrary to him, must necessarily be destitute of a house, the companion of invention, and of things made, and of fabulous nonsense, or rather be himself a theatre and a fable. XIII.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.84, 2.95 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.84. Therefore, being pricked with goads, and flogged, and mutilated, and suffering all the cruelties which can be inflicted in an inhuman and pitiless manner before death, all together, they are led away to execution and put to death. XIII. 2.95. And, indeed, this is the natural state of the case. For when right reason is powerful in the soul, vain opinion is put down; but when right reason is weak, vain opinion is strong. As long, therefore, as the soul has its own power still safe, and as long as it is not mutilated in any part of it, it may well have confidence to attack and aim its arrows at the pride which resists it, and it may indulge in freedom of speech, saying, "You shall not be a king, you shall not be a lord either over us, or during our lifetime over others;
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.3, 1.9, 1.47, 1.80, 2.245, 3.179 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. In consequence of which it would be most fitting for men to discard childish ridicule, and to investigate the real causes of the ordice with more prudence and dignity, considering the reasons why the custom has prevailed, and not being precipitate, so as without examination to condemn the folly of mighty nations, recollecting that it is not probable that so many myriads should be circumcised in every generation, mutilating the bodies of themselves and of their nearest relations, in a manner which is accompanied with severe pain, without adequate cause; but that there are many reasons which might encourage men to persevere and continue a custom which has been introduced by previous generations, and that these are from reasons of the greatest weight and importance. 1.9. First of all, it is a symbol of the excision of the pleasures which delude the mind; for since, of all the delights which pleasure can afford, the association of man with woman is the most exquisite, it seemed good to the lawgivers to mutilate the organ which ministers to such connections; by which rite they signified figuratively the excision of all superfluous and excessive pleasure, not, indeed, of one only, but of all others whatever, though that one which is the most imperious of all. 1.47. And though they are by nature incomprehensible in their essence, still they show a kind of impression or copy of their energy and operation; as seals among you, when any wax or similar kind of material is applied to them, make an innumerable quantity of figures and impressions, without being impaired as to any portion of themselves, but still remaining unaltered and as they were before; so also you must conceive that the powers which are around me invest those things which have no distinctive qualities with such qualities, and those which have no forms with precise forms, and that without having any portion of their own everlasting nature dismembered or weakened. 1.80. Now these are the laws which relate to the priests. It is enjoined that the priest shall be entire and unmutilated, having no blemish on his body, no part being deficient, either naturally or through mutilation; and on the other hand, nothing having been superfluous either from his birth or having grown out subsequently from disease; his skin, also, must never have changed from leprosy, or wild lichen, or scab, or any other eruption or breaking out; all which things appear to me to be designed to be symbols of the purity of his soul. 3.179. Very naturally, therefore, the law Commands{17}{#de 25:12.} that the executioner should cut off the hand of the woman which has laid hold of what it should not, speaking figuratively, and intimating not that the body shall be mutilated, being deprived of its most important part, but rather that it is proper to extirpate all the ungodly reasonings of the soul, using all things which are created as a stepping-stone; for the things which the woman is forbidden to take hold of are the symbols of procreation and generation.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. Therefore those persons who a little while before came safe and sound to the banquet, and in friendship for one another, do presently afterwards depart in hostility and mutilated in their bodies. And some of these men stand in need of advocates and judges, and others require surgeons and physicians, and the help which may be received from them.
12. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 20, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. but they, for they persisted in their ill-will, being reconciled with him only in words and in appearance, but in their actions and in their hearts they bore him incurable enmity, and though only pretending a genuine friendship towards him, like actors in a theatre, they drew him over wholly to their side; and so the governor became a subject, and the subjects became the governor, advancing the most unprofitable opinions, and immediately confirming and insisting upon them;
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 368, 204 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

204. and in fact all those who go on the stage selling themselves to the spectators, and to the theatres, are not lovers of temperance and modesty, but rather of the most extreme shamelessness and indecency. "On this account Apelles was taken into the rank of a fellow counsellor of the emperor, that Gaius might have an adviser with whom he might indulge in mocking jests, and with whom he might sing, passing over all considerations of the general welfare of the state, as if everything in every quarter of the globe was enjoying profound peace and tranquillity under the laws.
14. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 66 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

66. For what man is his senses would say to a patient under his care, "My good man, you shall have the knife applied to you, and cautery, and your limbs shall be amputated," even if such things were absolutely necessary to be endured? No man on earth would say so. For if he did, his patient would sink in his heart before the operations could be performed, and so receiving another disease in his soul, more grievous than that already existing in his body, he would resolutely renounce the cure; but if, on the other hand, through the deceit of the physician he is led to form a contrary expectation, he will submit to everything with a patient spirit, even though the means of his salvation may be most painful.
15. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 101-104, 141, 19, 99-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. Again, do not you see this same virtuous man himself, that even when he is sold he does not appear to be a servant, but he strikes all who behold him with awe, as not being merely free, but as even being about to prove the master of him who has purchased him?
16. Strabo, Geography, 17.1.27 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.1.27. There also are the city Bubastus and the Bubastite Nome, and above it the Heliopolite Nome. There too is Heliopolis, situated upon a large mound. It contains a temple of the sun, and the ox Mneyis, which is kept in a sanctuary, and is regarded by the inhabitants as a god, as Apis is regarded by the people of Memphis. In front of the mound are lakes, into which the neighbouring canal discharges itself. At present the city is entirely deserted. It has an ancient temple constructed after the Egyptian manner, bearing many proofs of the madness and sacrilegious acts of Cambyses, who did very great injury to the temples, partly by fire, partly by violence, mutilating [in some] cases, and applying fire [in others]. In this manner he injured the obelisks, two of which, that were not entirely spoilt, were transported to Rome. There are others both here and at Thebes, the present Diospolis, some of which are standing, much corroded by fire, and others lying on the ground.
17. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.13.4-3.13.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 9.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.157 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.157. Zeno of Citium and Antipater, in their treatises De anima, and Posidonius define the soul as a warm breath; for by this we become animate and this enables us to move. Cleanthes indeed holds that all souls continue to exist until the general conflagration; but Chrysippus says that only the souls of the wise do so.They count eight parts of the soul: the five senses, the generative power in us, our power of speech, and that of reasoning. They hold that we see when the light between the visual organ and the object stretches in the form of a cone: so Chrysippus in the second book of his Physics and Apollodorus. The apex of the cone in the air is at the eye, the base at the object seen. Thus the thing seen is reported to us by the medium of the air stretching out towards it, as if by a stick.
20. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 15.20.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

21. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, 7.13 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7.13. About this same time it happened that the Jewish inhabitants were driven out of Alexandria by Cyril the bishop on the following account. The Alexandrian public is more delighted with tumult than any other people: and if at any time it should find a pretext, breaks forth into the most intolerable excesses; for it never ceases from its turbulence without bloodshed. It happened on the present occasion that a disturbance arose among the populace, not from a cause of any serious importance, but out of an evil that has become very popular in almost all cities, viz. a fondness for dancing exhibitions. In consequence of the Jews being disengaged from business on the Sabbath, and spending their time, not in hearing the Law, but in theatrical amusements, dancers usually collect great crowds on that day, and disorder is almost invariably produced. And although this was in some degree controlled by the governor of Alexandria, nevertheless the Jews continued opposing these measures. And although they are always hostile toward the Christians they were roused to still greater opposition against them on account of the dancers. When therefore Orestes the prefect was publishing an edict - for so they are accustomed to call public notices - in the theatre for the regulation of the shows, some of the bishop Cyril's party were present to learn the nature of the orders about to be issued. There was among them a certain Hierax, a teacher of the rudimental branches of literature, and one who was a very enthusiastic listener of the bishop Cyril's sermons, and made himself conspicuous by his forwardness in applauding. When the Jews observed this person in the theatre, they immediately cried out that he had come there for no other purpose than to excite sedition among the people. Now Orestes had long regarded with jealousy the growing power of the bishops, because they encroached on the jurisdiction of the authorities appointed by the emperor, especially as Cyril wished to set spies over his proceedings; he therefore ordered Hierax to be seized, and publicly subjected him to the torture in the theatre. Cyril, on being informed of this, sent for the principal Jews, and threatened them with the utmost severities unless they desisted from their molestation of the Christians. The Jewish populace on hearing these menaces, instead of suppressing their violence, only became more furious, and were led to form conspiracies for the destruction of the Christians; one of these was of so desperate a character as to cause their entire expulsion from Alexandria; this I shall now describe. Having agreed that each one of them should wear a ring on his finger made of the bark of a palm branch, for the sake of mutual recognition, they determined to make a nightly attack on the Christians. They therefore sent persons into the streets to raise an outcry that the church named after Alexander was on fire. Thus many Christians on hearing this ran out, some from one direction and some from another, in great anxiety to save their church. The Jews immediately fell upon and slew them; readily distinguishing each other by their rings. At daybreak the authors of this atrocity could not be concealed: and Cyril, accompanied by an immense crowd of people, going to their synagogues- for so they call their house of prayer- took them away from them, and drove the Jews out of the city, permitting the multitude to plunder their goods. Thus the Jews who had inhabited the city from the time of Alexander the Macedonian were expelled from it, stripped of all they possessed, and dispersed some in one direction and some in another. One of them, a physician named Adamantius, fled to Atticus bishop of Constantinople, and professing Christianity, some time afterwards returned to Alexandria and fixed his residence there. But Orestes the governor of Alexandria was filled with great indignation at these transactions, and was excessively grieved that a city of such magnitude should have been suddenly bereft of so large a portion of its population; he therefore at once communicated the whole affair to the emperor. Cyril also wrote to him, describing the outrageous conduct of the Jews; and in the meanwhile sent persons to Orestes who should mediate concerning a reconciliation: for this the people had urged him to do. And when Orestes refused to listen to friendly advances, Cyril extended toward him the book of gospels, believing that respect for religion would induce him to lay aside his resentment. When, however, even this had no pacific effect on the prefect, but he persisted in implacable hostility against the bishop, the following event afterwards occurred.
22. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 2.809



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aether Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
alexandria, anti-jewish riot Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
alexandria Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
athenaeus (author), formulae of expression Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
athenaeus (author), motion, verbs of Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
athenaeus (author), primacy claimed in Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
athenaeus (author) Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
bodies, body Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
castration Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
causation, cause Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
christians Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
chrysippus Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270; Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
cleanthes Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
clement of alexandria Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
conflagration Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
cosmic conflagration Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
cosmology, biological model of Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
death, outcome of Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
depilation/shaving Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
epictetus Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
esau Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
eunuchs Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
flaccus Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
galen (medicus) Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
god Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
hellenistic drama Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
identity, in stoicism Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
identity Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
jacob Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
lydians Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
matter Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
medes Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
mutilation Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
myth, jewish critique of Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
nature, of things Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
panaetius Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
paradox Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
providence Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
reason Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
scythians Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
sedley, david Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
self-sufficency Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
seneca Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
soul-body relationship, temporary survival after death Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
soul Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
souls, destruction at death Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
stoicism, stoics Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
tarentines Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
theater, jewish Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 187
virtue Long, Immortality in Ancient Philosophy (2019) 153
women Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 237
world formation, world-soul' Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270
zeus Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 270