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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9246
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 135


nanAnd so excessive and impetuous was the rapidity of their zeal, that, as they had not a new chariot for four horses ready, they got a very old one out of the gymnasium, full of poison, mutilated in its ears, and in the hinder part, and in its pedestal, and in many other points, and as some say, one which had already been dedicated in honour of a woman, the eminent Cleopatra, who was the great grandmother of the last.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 18.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.20. And the LORD said: ‘Verily, the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and, verily, their sin is exceeding grievous."
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 7.8, 17.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.8. וַעֲדַת לְאֻמִּים תְּסוֹבְבֶךָּ וְעָלֶיהָ לַמָּרוֹם שׁוּבָה׃ 17.14. מִמְתִים יָדְךָ יְהוָה מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד חֶלְקָם בַּחַיִּים וצפינך [וּצְפוּנְךָ] תְּמַלֵּא בִטְנָם יִשְׂבְּעוּ בָנִים וְהִנִּיחוּ יִתְרָם לְעוֹלְלֵיהֶם׃ 7.8. And let the congregation of the peoples compass Thee about, And over them return Thou on high." 17.14. From men, by Thy hand, O LORD, From men of the world, whose portion is in this life, And whose belly Thou fillest with Thy treasure; Who have children in plenty, And leave their abundance to their babes."
3. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.31. Quickly some of Heliodorus' friends asked Onias to call upon the Most High and to grant life to one who was lying quite at his last breath.
4. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 7.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. For you should know that if we devise any evil against them or cause them any grief at all, we always shall have not man but the Ruler over every power, the Most High God, in everything and inescapably as an antagonist to avenge such acts. Farewell.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 136 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Philo of Alexandria, De Providentia, 2.64 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.127. And would you still sit down in your synagogues, collecting your ordinary assemblies, and reading your sacred volumes in security, and explaining whatever is not quite clear, and devoting all your time and leisure with long discussions to the philosophy of your ancestors?
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.171 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.171. Therefore let no woman busy herself about those things which are beyond the province of oeconomy, but let her cultivate solitude, and not be seen to be going about like a woman who walks the streets in the sight of other men, except when it is necessary for her to go to the temple, if she has any proper regard for herself; and even then let her not go at noon when the market is full, but after the greater part of the people have returned home; like a well-born woman, a real and true citizen, performing her vows and her sacrifices in tranquillity, so as to avert evils and to receive blessings.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.29-2.30, 2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.29. Ptolemy, surnamed Philadelphus, was the third in succession after Alexander, the monarch who subdued Egypt; and he was, in all virtues which can be displayed in government, the most excellent sovereign, not only of all those of his time, but of all that ever lived; so that even now, after the lapse of so many generations, his fame is still celebrated, as having left many instances and monuments of his magimity in the cities and districts of his kingdom, so that even now it is come to be a sort of proverbial expression to call excessive magnificence, and zeal, for honour and splendour in preparation, Philadelphian, from his name; 2.30. and, in a word, the whole family of the Ptolemies was exceedingly eminent and conspicuous above all other royal families, and among the Ptolemies, Philadelphus was the most illustrious; for all the rest put together scarcely did as many glorious and praiseworthy actions as this one king did by himself, being, as it were, the leader of the herd, and in a manner the head of all the kings. 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
10. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 122-124, 139, 173-174, 20, 30, 33-96, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. And when they heard of the arrest that had taken place, and that Flaccus was now within the toils, stretching up their hands to heaven, they sang a hymn, and began a song of praise to God, who presides over all the affairs of men, saying, "We are not delighted, O Master, at the punishment of our enemy, being taught by the sacred laws to submit to all the vicissitudes of human life, but we justly give thanks to thee, who hast had mercy and compassion upon us, and who hast thus relieved our continual and incessant oppressions.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 122, 132-134, 136-150, 165, 311, 346, 350, 67, 120 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

120. And the mixed and promiscuous multitude of the Alexandrians perceiving this, attacked us, looking upon it as a most favourable opportunity for doing so, and displayed all the arrogance which had been smouldering for a long period, disturbing everything, and causing universal confusion
12. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

81. Now these laws they are taught at other times, indeed, but most especially on the seventh day, for the seventh day is accounted sacred, on which they abstain from all other employments, and frequent the sacred places which are called synagogues, and there they sit according to their age in classes, the younger sitting under the elder, and listening with eager attention in becoming order.
13. Strabo, Geography, 17.1.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.1.10. Next after the Heptastadium is the harbour of Eunostus, and above this the artificial harbour, called Cibotus (or the Ark), which also has docks. At the bottom of this harbour is a navigable canal, extending to the lake Mareotis. Beyond the canal there still remains a small part of the city. Then follows the suburb Necropolis, in which are numerous gardens, burial-places, and buildings for carrying on the process of embalming the dead.On this side the canal is the Sarapium and other ancient sacred places, which are now abandoned on account of the erection of the temples at Nicopolis; for [there are situated] an amphitheatre and a stadium, and there are celebrated quinquennial games; but the ancient rites and customs are neglected.In short, the city of Alexandreia abounds with public and sacred buildings. The most beautiful of the former is the Gymnasium, with porticos exceeding a stadium in extent. In the middle of it are the court of justice and groves. Here also is a Paneium, an artificial mound of the shape of a fir-cone, resembling a pile of rock, to the top of which there is an ascent by a spiral path. From the summit may be seen the whole city lying all around and beneath it.The wide street extends in length along the Gymnasium from the Necropolis to the Canobic gate. Next is the Hippodromos (or race-course), as it is called, and other buildings near it, and reaching to the Canobic canal. After passing through the Hippodromos is the Nicopolis, which contains buildings fronting the sea not less numerous than a city. It is 30 stadia distant from Alexandreia. Augustus Caesar distinguished this place, because it was here that he defeated Antony and his party of adherents. He took the city at the first onset, and compelled Antony to put himself to death, but Cleopatra to surrender herself alive. A short time afterwards, however, she also put an end to her life secretly, in prison, by the bite of an asp, or (for there are two accounts) by the application of a poisonous ointment. Thus the empire of the Lagidae, which had subsisted many years, was dissolved.
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.65-13.67, 13.74-13.76, 19.292-19.296, 19.300-19.311 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.65. “Having done many and great things for you in the affairs of the war, by the assistance of God, and that in Celesyria and Phoenicia, I came at length with the Jews to Leontopolis, and to other places of your nation 13.66. where I found that the greatest part of your people had temples in an improper manner, and that on this account they bare ill-will one against another, which happens to the Egyptians by reason of the multitude of their temples, and the difference of opinions about divine worship. Now I found a very fit place in a castle that hath its name from the country Diana; this place is full of materials of several sorts, and replenished with sacred animals; 13.67. I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages; 13.74. 4. Now it came to pass that the Alexandrian Jews, and those Samaritans who paid their worship to the temple that was built in the days of Alexander at Mount Gerizzim, did now make a sedition one against another, and disputed about their temples before Ptolemy himself; the Jews saying that, according to the laws of Moses, the temple was to be built at Jerusalem; and the Samaritans saying that it was to be built at Gerizzim. 13.75. They desired therefore the king to sit with his friends, and hear the debates about these matters, and punish those with death who were baffled. Now Sabbeus and Theodosius managed the argument for the Samaritans, and Andronicus, the son of Messalamus, for the people of Jerusalem; 13.76. and they took an oath by God and the king to make their demonstrations according to the law; and they desired of Ptolemy, that whomsoever he should find that transgressed what they had sworn to, he would put him to death. Accordingly, the king took several of his friends into the council, and sat down, in order to hear what the pleaders said. 19.292. 1. Now Claudius Caesar, by these decrees of his which were sent to Alexandria, and to all the habitable earth, made known what opinion he had of the Jews. So he soon sent Agrippa away to take his kingdom, now he was advanced to a more illustrious dignity than before, and sent letters to the presidents and procurators of the provinces that they should treat him very kindly. 19.293. Accordingly, he returned in haste, as was likely he would, now he returned in much greater prosperity than he had before. He also came to Jerusalem, and offered all the sacrifices that belonged to him, and omitted nothing which the law required; 19.294. on which account he ordained that many of the Nazarites should have their heads shorn. And for the golden chain which had been given him by Caius, of equal weight with that iron chain wherewith his royal hands had been bound, he hung it up within the limits of the temple, over the treasury, that it might be a memorial of the severe fate he had lain under, and a testimony of his change for the better; that it might be a demonstration how the greatest prosperity may have a fall, and that God sometimes raises up what is fallen down: 19.295. for this chain thus dedicated afforded a document to all men, that king Agrippa had been once bound in a chain for a small cause, but recovered his former dignity again; and a little while afterward got out of his bonds, and was advanced to be a more illustrious king than he was before. 19.296. Whence men may understand that all that partake of human nature, how great soever they are, may fall; and that those that fall may gain their former illustrious dignity again. 19.301. This procedure of theirs greatly provoked Agrippa; for it plainly tended to the dissolution of the laws of his country. So he came without delay to Publius Petronius, who was then president of Syria, and accused the people of Doris. 19.302. Nor did he less resent what was done than did Agrippa; for he judged it a piece of impiety to transgress the laws that regulate the actions of men. So he wrote the following letter to the people of Doris in an angry strain: 19.303. “Publius Petronius, the president under Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, to the magistrates of Doris, ordains as follows: 19.304. Since some of you have had the boldness, or madness rather, after the edict of Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was published, for permitting the Jews to observe the laws of their country, not to obey the same 19.305. but have acted in entire opposition thereto, as forbidding the Jews to assemble together in the synagogue, by removing Caesar’s statue, and setting it up therein, and thereby have offended not only the Jews, but the emperor himself, whose statue is more commodiously placed in his own temple than in a foreign one, where is the place of assembling together; while it is but a part of natural justice, that every one should have the power over the place belonging peculiarly to themselves, according to the determination of Caesar,— 19.306. to say nothing of my own determination, which it would be ridiculous to mention after the emperor’s edict, which gives the Jews leave to make use of their own customs, as also gives order that they enjoy equally the rights of citizens with the Greeks themselves,— 19.307. I therefore ordain that Proculus Vitellius, the centurion, bring those men to me, who, contrary to Augustus’s edict, have been so insolent as to do this thing, at which those very men, who appear to be of principal reputation among them, have an indignation also, and allege for themselves, that it was not done with their consent, but by the violence of the multitude, that they may give an account of what hath been done. 19.308. I also exhort the principal magistrates among them, unless they have a mind to have this action esteemed to be done with their consent, to inform the centurion of those that were guilty of it, and take care that no handle be hence taken for raising a sedition or quarrel among them; which those seem to me to hunt after who encourage such doings; 19.309. while both I myself, and king Agrippa, for whom I have the highest honor, have nothing more under our care, than that the nation of the Jews may have no occasion given them of getting together, under the pretense of avenging themselves, and become tumultuous. 19.311. I therefore charge you, that you do not, for the time to come, seek for any occasion of sedition or disturbance, but that every one be allowed to follow their own religious customs.”
15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.9-1.12, 4.659, 5.184-5.237, 7.148-7.150 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. 4. However, I will not go to the other extreme, out of opposition to those men who extol the Romans, nor will I determine to raise the actions of my countrymen too high; but I will prosecute the actions of both parties with accuracy. Yet shall I suit my language to the passions I am under, as to the affairs I describe, and must be allowed to indulge some lamentations upon the miseries undergone by my own country. 1.9. 4. However, when he fought with Obodas, king of the Arabians, who had laid an ambush for him near Golan, and a plot against him, he lost his entire army, which was crowded together in a deep valley, and broken to pieces by the multitude of camels. And when he had made his escape to Jerusalem, he provoked the multitude, which hated him before, to make an insurrection against him, and this on account of the greatness of the calamity that he was under. 1.11. But if anyone makes an unjust accusation against us, when we speak so passionately about the tyrants, or the robbers, or sorely bewail the misfortunes of our country, let him indulge my affections herein, though it be contrary to the rules for writing history; because it had so come to pass, that our city Jerusalem had arrived at a higher degree of felicity than any other city under the Roman government, and yet at last fell into the sorest of calamities again. 1.11. 2. And now the Pharisees joined themselves to her, to assist her in the government. These are a certain sect of the Jews that appear more religious than others, and seem to interpret the laws more accurately. 1.12. Accordingly, it appears to me that the misfortunes of all men, from the beginning of the world, if they be compared to these of the Jews, are not so considerable as they were; while the authors of them were not foreigners neither. This makes it impossible for me to contain my lamentations. But, if anyone be inflexible in his censures of me, let him attribute the facts themselves to the historical part, and the lamentations to the writer himself only. 1.12. 1. Now Hyrcanus was heir to the kingdom, and to him did his mother commit it before she died; but Aristobulus was superior to him in power and magimity; and when there was a battle between them, to decide the dispute about the kingdom, near Jericho, the greatest part deserted Hyrcanus, and went over to Aristobulus; 4.659. So Titus marched on foot as far as Nicopolis, which is distant twenty furlongs from Alexandria; there he put his army on board some long ships, and sailed upon the river along the Mendesian Nomus, as far as the city Thmuis; 5.184. 1. Now this temple, as I have already said, was built upon a strong hill. At first the plain at the top was hardly sufficient for the holy house and the altar, for the ground about it was very uneven, and like a precipice; 5.185. but when king Solomon, who was the person that built the temple, had built a wall to it on its east side, there was then added one cloister founded on a bank cast up for it, and on the other parts the holy house stood naked. But in future ages the people added new banks, and the hill became a larger plain. 5.186. They then broke down the wall on the north side, and took in as much as sufficed afterward for the compass of the entire temple. 5.187. And when they had built walls onthree sides of the temple round about, from the bottom of the hill, and had performed a work that was greater than could be hoped for (in which work long ages were spent by them, as well as all their sacred treasures were exhausted, which were still replenished by those tributes which were sent to God from the whole habitable earth), they then encompassed their upper courts with cloisters, as well as they [afterward] did the lowest [court of the] temple. 5.188. The lowest part of this was erected to the height of three hundred cubits, and in some places more; yet did not the entire depth of the foundations appear, for they brought earth, and filled up the valleys, as being desirous to make them on a level with the narrow streets of the city; 5.189. wherein they made use of stones of forty cubits in magnitude; for the great plenty of money they then had, and the liberality of the people, made this attempt of theirs to succeed to an incredible degree; and what could not be so much as hoped for as ever to be accomplished, was, by perseverance and length of time, brought to perfection. 5.191. and the roofs were adorned with cedar, curiously graven. The natural magnificence, and excellent polish, and the harmony of the joints in these cloisters, afforded a prospect that was very remarkable; nor was it on the outside adorned with any work of the painter or engraver. 5.192. The cloisters [of the outmost court] were in breadth thirty cubits, while the entire compass of it was by measure six furlongs, including the tower of Antonia; those entire courts that were exposed to the air were laid with stones of all sorts. 5.193. When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] temple, there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits: its construction was very elegant; 5.194. upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that “no foreigner should go within that sanctuary;” for that second [court of the] temple was called “the Sanctuary;” 5.195. and was ascended to by fourteen steps from the first court. This court was foursquare, and had a wall about it peculiar to itself; 5.196. the height of its buildings, although it were on the outside forty cubits, was hidden by the steps, and on the inside that height was but twenty-five cubits; for it being built over against a higher part of the hill with steps, it was no further to be entirely discerned within, being covered by the hill itself. 5.197. Beyond these fourteen steps there was the distance of ten cubits; this was all plain; 5.198. whence there were other steps, each of five cubits a piece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south sides were eight, on each of those sides four, and of necessity two on the east. For since there was a partition built for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a necessity for a second gate for them: this gate was cut out of its wall, over against the first gate. 5.199. There was also on the other sides one southern and one northern gate, through which was a passage into the court of the women; for as to the other gates, the women were not allowed to pass through them; nor when they went through their own gate could they go beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own country, and of other countries, provided they were of the same nation, and that equally. 5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.202. Each gate had two doors, whose height was severally thirty cubits, and their breadth fifteen. 5.203. However, they had large spaces within of thirty cubits, and had on each side rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. 5.204. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itself, was much larger; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.206. Now there were fifteen steps, which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gate; whereas those that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter. 5.207. 4. As to the holy house itself, which was placed in the midst [of the inmost court], that most sacred part of the temple, it was ascended to by twelve steps; and in front its height and its breadth were equal, and each a hundred cubits, though it was behind forty cubits narrower; for on its front it had what may be styled shoulders on each side, that passed twenty cubits further. 5.208. Its first gate was seventy cubits high, and twenty-five cubits broad; but this gate had no doors; for it represented the universal visibility of heaven, and that it cannot be excluded from any place. Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the house, that was more inward, did all of it appear; which, as it was very large, so did all the parts about the more inward gate appear to shine to those that saw them; 5.209. but then, as the entire house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our view. Its height extended all along to ninety cubits in height, and its length was fifty cubits, and its breadth twenty. 5.211. But then this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of the outer, and had golden doors of fifty-five cubits altitude, and sixteen in breadth; 5.212. but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colors without its mystical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe; 5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 5.214. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the [twelve] signs, representing living creatures. 5.215. 5. When any persons entered into the temple, its floor received them. This part of the temple therefore was in height sixty cubits, and its length the same; whereas its breadth was but twenty cubits: 5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.217. Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year; 5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use. 5.219. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also separated from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and inviolable, and not to be seen by any; and was called the Holy of Holies. 5.221. But the superior part of the temple had no such little houses any further, because the temple was there narrower, and forty cubits higher, and of a smaller body than the lower parts of it. Thus we collect that the whole height, including the sixty cubits from the floor, amounted to a hundred cubits. 5.222. 6. Now the outward face of the temple in its front wanted nothing that was likely to surprise either men’s minds or their eyes; for it was covered all over with plates of gold of great weight, and, at the first rising of the sun, reflected back a very fiery splendor, and made those who forced themselves to look upon it to turn their eyes away, just as they would have done at the sun’s own rays. 5.223. But this temple appeared to strangers, when they were coming to it at a distance, like a mountain covered with snow; for as to those parts of it that were not gilt, they were exceeding white. 5.224. On its top it had spikes with sharp points, to prevent any pollution of it by birds sitting upon it. of its stones, some of them were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth. 5.225. Before this temple stood the altar, fifteen cubits high, and equal both in length and breadth; each of which dimensions was fifty cubits. The figure it was built in was a square, and it had corners like horns; and the passage up to it was by an insensible acclivity. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any such iron tool so much as touch it at any time. 5.226. There was also a wall of partition, about a cubit in height, made of fine stones, and so as to be grateful to the sight; this encompassed the holy house and the altar, and kept the people that were on the outside off from the priests. 5.227. Moreover, those that had the gonorrhea and the leprosy were excluded out of the city entirely; women also, when their courses were upon them, were shut out of the temple; nor when they were free from that impurity, were they allowed to go beyond the limit before-mentioned; men also, that were not thoroughly pure, were prohibited to come into the inner [court of the] temple; nay, the priests themselves that were not pure were prohibited to come into it also. 5.228. 7. Now all those of the stock of the priests that could not minister by reason of some defect in their bodies, came within the partition, together with those that had no such imperfection, and had their share with them by reason of their stock, but still made use of none except their own private garments; for nobody but he that officiated had on his sacred garments; 5.229. but then those priests that were without any blemish upon them went up to the altar clothed in fine linen. They abstained chiefly from wine, out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration. 5.231. When he officiated, he had on a pair of breeches that reached beneath his privy parts to his thighs, and had on an inner garment of linen, together with a blue garment, round, without seam, with fringework, and reaching to the feet. There were also golden bells that hung upon the fringes, and pomegranates intermixed among them. The bells signified thunder, and the pomegranates lightning. 5.232. But that girdle that tied the garment to the breast was embroidered with five rows of various colors, of gold, and purple, and scarlet, as also of fine linen and blue, with which colors we told you before the veils of the temple were embroidered also. 5.233. The like embroidery was upon the ephod; but the quantity of gold therein was greater. Its figure was that of a stomacher for the breast. There were upon it two golden buttons like small shields, which buttoned the ephod to the garment; in these buttons were enclosed two very large and very excellent sardonyxes, having the names of the tribes of that nation engraved upon them: 5.234. on the other part there hung twelve stones, three in a row one way, and four in the other; a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire; an agate, an amethyst, and a ligure; an onyx, a beryl, and a chrysolite; upon every one of which was again engraved one of the forementioned names of the tribes. 5.235. A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head, which was tied by a blue ribbon, about which there was another golden crown, in which was engraven the sacred name [of God]: it consists of four vowels. 5.236. However, the high priest did not wear these garments at other times, but a more plain habit; he only did it when he went into the most sacred part of the temple, which he did but once in a year, on that day when our custom is for all of us to keep a fast to God. 5.237. And thus much concerning the city and the temple; but for the customs and laws hereto relating, we shall speak more accurately another time; for there remain a great many things thereto relating which have not been here touched upon. 7.148. and for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. But for those that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure of them all; that is, the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its construction were now changed from that which we made use of; 7.149. for its middle shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had every one a socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in number seven, and represented the dignity of the number seven among the Jews;
16. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.38-1.40, 2.102-2.109, 2.119, 2.193 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.38. For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another [as the Greeks have], but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; 1.39. and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; 2.102. But I leave this matter; for the proper way of confuting fools is not to use bare words, but to appeal to the things themselves that make against them. Now then, all such as ever saw the construction of our temple, of what nature it was, know well enough how the purity of it was never to be profaned; 2.103. for it had four several courts, encompassed with cloisters round about, every one of which had by our law a peculiar degree of separation from the rest. Into the first court every body was allowed to go, even foreigners; and none but women, during their courses, were prohibited to pass through it; 2.104. all the Jews went into the second court, as well as their wives, when they were free from all uncleanness; into the third went the Jewish men when they were clean and purified; into the fourth went the priests, having on their sacerdotal garments; 2.105. but for the most sacred place, none went in but the high priests, clothed in their peculiar garments. Now there is so great caution used about these offices of religion, that the priests are appointed to go into the temple but at certain hours: for, in the morning, at the opening of the inner temple, those that are to officiate receive the sacrifices, as they do again at noon, till the doors are shut. 2.106. Lastly, it is not so much as lawful to carry any vessel into the holy house; nor is there any thing therein, but the altar [of incense], the table [of show-bread], the censer, and the candlestick, which are all written in the law: 2.107. for there is nothing farther there, nor are there any mysteries performed that may not be spoken of; nor is there any feasting within the place. For what I have now said is publicly known, and supported by the testimony of the whole people, and their operations are very manifest; 2.108. for although there be four courses of the priests, and every one of them have above five thousand men in them, yet do they officiate on certain days only; and when those days are over, other priests succeed in the performance of their sacrifices, and assemble together at mid-day, and receive the keys of the temple, and the vessels by tale, without any thing relating to food or drink being carried into the temple; 2.109. nay, we are not allowed to offer such things at the altar, excepting what is prepared for the sacrifices. /p9. What then can we say of Apion, but that he examined nothing that concerned these things, while still he uttered incredible words about them! But it is a great shame for a grammarian not to be able to write true history. 2.119. Now the doors of the holy house were seventy cubits high, and twenty cubits broad, they were all plated over with gold, and almost of solid gold itself, and there were no fewer than twenty men required to shut them every day; nor was it lawful ever to leave them open 2.193. 24. There ought also to be but one temple for one God; for likeness is the constant foundation of agreement. This temple ought to be common to all men, because he is the common God of all men. His priests are to be continually about his worship, over whom he that is the first by his birth is to be their ruler perpetually.
17. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
18. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. bwith flaming torchesthat they would juggle bin their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praiseto God. bAnd the Leviteswould play bon lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countlessother bmusical instruments.The musicians would stand bon the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteenSongs of the bAscents in Psalms,i.e., chapters 120–134, and bupon whichthe bLevites stand with musical instruments and recitetheir bsong. /b, bAndthis was the ceremony of the Water Libation: bTwo priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands.When bthe rooster crowedat dawn, bthey sounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i.When btheywho would draw the water breached the tenth stairthe trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i,to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When bthey reached theWomen’s bCourtyardwith the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. /b,When bthey reached the groundof the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. They continued soundingthe trumpets buntil they reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east,from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When bthey reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east, they turned fromfacing beast tofacing bwest,toward the Holy of Holies, band said: Our ancestors who were in this placeduring the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b“with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east”(Ezekiel 8:16), band we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthey would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bnever saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructedstate, bnever saw a magnificent structure.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe Temple building to which the Sages refer? bAbaye said, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho said: bThisis referring to the magnificent bbuilding of Herod,who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: bWith whatmaterials bdid he construct it? Rava said:It was bwith stones ofgreen-gray bmarble and white marble [ imarmara /i]. Some say:It was bwith stones of blue marble and white marble.The rows of stones were set with bone rowslightly bprotruded and one rowslightly bindented, so that the plaster would takebetter. bHe thought to platethe Temple bwith gold,but bthe Sages said to him: Leave itas is, and do not plate it, bas it is better this way, aswith the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, bit has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ ideyofloston /i] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They saidthat its structure bwas like a large basilica [ ibasileki /i],with ba colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousandmen bandanother bsix hundred thousandmen bin it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ ikatedraot /i], corresponding to the seventy-onemembers bof the Great Sanhedrin, each of whichconsisted of bno less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. Andthere was ba wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagoguewould bstand on it, with the scarves in his hand. Andbecause the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, bwhenthe prayer leader breachedthe conclusion of a blessing requiring the people bto answer amen,the sexton bwaved the scarf and all the peoplewould banswer amen. /b, bAndthe members of the various crafts bwould not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmithswould sit bamong themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poorstranger bentered there, he would recognize peoplewho plied bhis craft, and he would turn tojoin them bthere. And from therehe would secure bhis livelihoodas well as bthe livelihoodof the bmembers of his household,as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that bAbaye said: All ofthe people who congregated in that synagogue bwere killed by Alexanderthe Great bof Macedonia.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bthey were punishedand killed? It is bdue tothe fact bthat they violatedthe prohibition with regard to Egypt in bthis verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way”(Deuteronomy 17:16), band they returned.Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., bWhenAlexander barrived, he found them,and saw bthat they were readingthe verse bin theTorah bscroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far,from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). bHe said,referring to himself: bNow, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days,and ba wind carried it and the ship arrived inonly bfive days,apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, bhe set upon them and slaughtered them. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAt the conclusion ofthe first bFestivalday, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: bWhatis this bsignificant repair? Rabbi Elazar saidthat bit is like that which we learned:The walls of the Women’s Courtyard bwere smooth,without protrusions, binitially.Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and bsurroundedthe courtyard bwith a balcony [ igezuztra /i]. And they instituted thatthe bwomen should sit above andthe bmen below. /b, bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bInitially, women wouldstand bon the insideof the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, band the menwere bon the outsidein the courtyard and on the rampart. bAnd they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevityin each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages binstituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevity.Therefore, bthey institutedin the interest of complete separation bthat the women would sit above and the men below. /b,The Gemara asks: bHow could one do so,i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the Temple: b“All thisI give you bin writing,as bthe Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me,even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, bRav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homileticallyand acted accordingly:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
agrippa i, mocking of Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 253
agrippa i Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
alexandria, gymnasium Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216
alexandria, philos perspective on Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216, 217
alexandria, proseuchai Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216
alexandria Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 138; Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67, 91; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216, 217
aqedah (binding of isaac) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
archisynagogue, hazzan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 91
archisynagogue, nakoros Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
archisynagogue, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 91
associations, jewish Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
augustus/octavian Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
augustus (octavian) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216
basilica, alexandrian synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 91
burial, societies Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
caligula Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
citizenship, jews Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
city of alexandria, bouleuterion Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
city of alexandria, canopic road Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
city of alexandria, gymnasium/gymnasia Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
city of alexandria, hippodrome Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
city of alexandria, necropoleis and cemeteries Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
city of alexandria, theater Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19, 253
claudius, emperor Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
cleopatra vii Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
decorations (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
destruction of Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
diaspora Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 138
ephebate Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
eucheion Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
flaccus Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 253
gaius caligula Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216, 217
herod agrippa i Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
idolatry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
isidorus Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
jerusalem Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 138
jews in alexandria, anti-jewish polemic Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 253
jews in alexandria, synagogues Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 253
judaean/jewish Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
lampo Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
leadership, synagogue, leadership, town, communal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
leontopolis, temples Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
mark antony Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
memory, cultural Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216, 217
moses, as lawgiver Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 217
moses, in philos life of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 217
nakoros Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
onias iv Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
pagan, pagans, and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67, 85
pagan, pagans, deities Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
pagan, pagans, relationship with jewish community Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
papyrological evidence, proseuche/eucheion Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
performance violence Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
persecution, of jews in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216
petronius Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
philo Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85, 91
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216, 217
philos perspective Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216, 217
philosophy Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 138
pogrom Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
prayer, diaspora Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
proseuchai (prayer-houses, synagogues) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, egypt Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85, 91
proseuche (prayer house) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
ptolemy ii philadelphus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 216, 217
ptolemy vi philometor Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
r. judah b. ilai Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 91
reading, and sermon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
riots Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
samaria, samaria-sebaste, agrippa i Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
sanctity, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85, 91
sanctity of, colonnades Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 91
septuagint, theos hypsistos Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 217
sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
statues Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
stoa Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 91
stobi synagogue, inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
stobi synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
strabo, description of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 19
synagoge Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85, 91
synagogue Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 138
synagogues Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 54
syria, roman Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
theos hypsistos Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 85
torah (pentateuch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 217
zodiac, significance Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67
zodiac, synagogue mosaic floors' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 67