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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9230
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Creation Of The World, 88


nanfor the charioteers sit behind their beasts of burden, and are placed at, their backs, and yet when they have the reins in their hands, they guide them wherever they choose, and at one time they urge them on to a swift pace, and at another time they hold them back, if they are going on at a speed greater than is desirable. And pilots again, sitting in the hindmost part of the ship, that is the stern are, as one may say, the most important of all the people in the ship, inasmuch as they have the safety of the ship and of all those who are in it, in their hands. And so the Creator has made man to be as it were a charioteer and pilot over all other animals, in order that he may hold the reins and direct the course of every thing upon earth, having the superintendence of all animals and plants, as a sort of viceroy of the principal and mighty King. XXX.


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1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28, 3.15, 6.8-6.9, 18.1-18.15, 18.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 6.8. וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה זַעֲקַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה כִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד׃ 18.2. וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה׃ 18.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים׃ 18.3. וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אַל־נָא תַעֲבֹר מֵעַל עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 18.4. יֻקַּח־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשָּׁעֲנוּ תַּחַת הָעֵץ׃ 18.5. וְאֶקְחָה פַת־לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ כִּי־עַל־כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל־עַבְדְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 18.6. וַיְמַהֵר אַבְרָהָם הָאֹהֱלָה אֶל־שָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר מַהֲרִי שְׁלֹשׁ סְאִים קֶמַח סֹלֶת לוּשִׁי וַעֲשִׂי עֻגוֹת׃ 18.7. וְאֶל־הַבָּקָר רָץ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח בֶּן־בָּקָר רַךְ וָטוֹב וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הַנַּעַר וַיְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ׃ 18.8. וַיִּקַּח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב וּבֶן־הַבָּקָר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהוּא־עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 18.9. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אַיֵּה שָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה בָאֹהֶל׃ 18.11. וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים בָּאִים בַּיָּמִים חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה אֹרַח כַּנָּשִׁים׃ 18.12. וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּהּ לֵאמֹר אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה־לִּי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן׃ 18.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם לָמָּה זֶּה צָחֲקָה שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר הַאַף אֻמְנָם אֵלֵד וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי׃ 18.14. הֲיִפָּלֵא מֵיְהוָה דָּבָר לַמּוֹעֵד אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וּלְשָׂרָה בֵן׃ 18.15. וַתְּכַחֵשׁ שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר לֹא צָחַקְתִּי כִּי יָרֵאָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ׃ 18.18. וְאַבְרָהָם הָיוֹ יִהְיֶה לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וְעָצוּם וְנִבְרְכוּ בוֹ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 6.8. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD." 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 18.1. And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;" 18.2. and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth," 18.3. and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant." 18.4. Let now a little water be fetched, and wash your feet, and recline yourselves under the tree." 18.5. And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and stay ye your heart; after that ye shall pass on; forasmuch as ye are come to your servant.’ And they said: ‘So do, as thou hast said.’" 18.6. And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said: ‘Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes.’" 18.7. And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, and gave it unto the servant; and he hastened to dress it." 18.8. And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat." 18.9. And they said unto him: ‘Where is Sarah thy wife?’ And he said: ‘Behold, in the tent.’" 18.10. And He said: ‘I will certainly return unto thee when the season cometh round; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son.’ And Sarah heard in the tent door, which was behind him.—" 18.11. Now Abraham and Sarah were old, and well stricken in age; it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.—" 18.12. And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: ‘After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?’" 18.13. And the LORD said unto Abraham: ‘Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I of a surety bear a child, who am old?" 18.14. Is any thing too hard for the LORD. At the set time I will return unto thee, when the season cometh round, and Sarah shall have a son.’" 18.15. Then Sarah denied, saying: ‘I laughed not’; for she was afraid. And He said: ‘Nay; but thou didst laugh.’" 18.18. seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?"
2. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.5-8.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 43.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.4. מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ וַאֲנִי אֲהַבְתִּיךָ וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ וּלְאֻמִּים תַּחַת נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 43.4. Since thou art precious in My sight, and honourable, and I have loved thee; Therefore will I give men for thee, And peoples for thy life."
5. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246e. it partakes of the nature of the divine. But the divine is beauty, wisdom, goodness, and all such qualities; by these then the wings of the soul are nourished and grow, but by the opposite qualities, such as vileness and evil, they are wasted away and destroyed. Socrates. Now the great leader in heaven, Zeus, driving a winged chariot, goes first, arranging all things and caring for all things.
6. Plato, Timaeus, 42, 41 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7. Anon., Jubilees, 2.14, 6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea.
8. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.6, 14.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.6. For he saw that without the king's attention public affairs could not again reach a peaceful settlement, and that Simon would not stop his folly.' 14.9. Since you are acquainted, O king, with the details of this matter, deign to take thought for our country and our hard-pressed nation with the gracious kindness which you show to all.'
9. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1-17.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds.
10. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.23, 7.26, 17.1-17.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 17.1. Great are thy judgments and hard to describe;therefore unintructed souls have gone astray. 17.2. For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence. 17.3. For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters.
11. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.313-1.415 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 86 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

86. for it is fitting that the wise man should be adorned both with the invisible excellences existing within in the soul, and also with those external ones which are outwardly visible, and with prudence which is more valuable than gold. And whenever it departs from human studies, worshipping the living God alone, it puts on the simple unvaried robe of truth, which no mortal thing can ever touch, for it is made of linen material, a material not produced from any being whose nature it is to die. But whenever it passes over to mix in political affairs, then it lays aside the man's robe and assumes the other embroidered one of a most admirable beauty to look at; for life being a thing of great variety and of great changes, requires the diversified wisdom of the pilot who is to hold the helm;
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-135, 14-17, 171-172, 18-19, 2, 20-29, 3, 30-38, 4, 40-49, 5, 50-59, 6, 60-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-87, 89, 9, 90-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 23, 42, 22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. It is worth while also to consider the wickedness into which a man who flies from the face of God is driven, since it is called a tempest. The law-giver showing, by this expression, that he who gives way to inconsiderate impulses without any stability or firmness exposes himself to surf and violent tossing, like those of the sea, when it is agitated in the winter season by contrary winds, and has never even a single glimpse of calm or tranquillity. But as when a ship having been tossed in the sea is agitated, it is then no longer fit to take a voyage or to anchor in harbour, but being tossed about hither and thither it leans first to one side and then to the other, and struggles in vain against the waves; so the wicked man, yielding to a perverse and insane disposition, and being unable to regulate his voyage through life without disaster, is constantly tossed about in perpetual expectation of an overturning of his life.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.112 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.112. for he does not display a half-complete power, but one which is perfect in every part. Inasmuch, as even if it were to fail in his endeavour, and in any conceptions which may have been formed, or efforts which may have been made, it still can have recourse to the third species of assistance, namely, consolation. For speech is, as it were, a medicine for the wounds of the soul, and a saving remedy for its passions, which, "even before the setting of the sun," the lawgiver says one must restore: that is to say, before the all-brilliant beams of the almighty and all-glorious God are obscured, which he, out of pity for our race, sends down from heaven upon the human mind.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.16, 1.260 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. for they who see that the different seasons of the year owe their existence to the advances and retreats of the sun, in which periods also the generation of animals, and plants, and fruits, are perfected according to well-defined times, and who see also that the moon is the servant and successor of the sun, taking that care and superintendence of the world by night which the sun takes by day; and also that the other stars, in accordance with their sympathy with things on earth, labour continually and do ten thousand things which contribute to the duration of the existing state of things, have been led into an inextricable error, imagining that these bodies are the only gods. 1.260. for you will find that this exceeding accuracy of investigation into the animals, figuratively signifies the amelioration of your own disposition and conduct; for the law was not established for the sake of irrational animals, but for that of those who have intellect and reason." So that the real object taken care of is not the condition of the victims sacrificed in order that they may have no blemish, but that of the sacrificers that they may not be defiled by any unlawful passion.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 58, 57 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

57. On which account he did not trust to his own knowledge, but he supplicated and entreated God, who alone can behold the invisible soul, who sees accurately the mind of man, to choose and select the most suitable man for the supreme authority, one who would care for the people who were to be his subjects like a father. And stretching his pure, and, as one may say in a somewhat metaphorical manner, his virgin hands towards heaven, he said
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.36, 2.59-2.65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.36. The men, therefore, who had left their homes and come into Egypt, as if they were to dwell in that land as in a second country in perfect security, the king of the country reduced to slavery, and, as if he had taken them prisoners by the laws of war, or had bought them from masters in whose house they had been bred, he oppressed them and treated them as slaves, though they were not only free men, but also strangers, and suppliants, and sojourners, having no respect for nor any awe of God, who presides over the rights of free men, and of strangers, and of suppliants, and of hospitality, and who beholds all such actions as his. 2.59. But in the great deluge I may almost say that the whole of the human race was destroyed, while the history tells us that the house of Noah alone was preserved free from all evil, inasmuch as the father and governor of the house was a man who had never committed any intentional or voluntary wickedness. And it is worth while to relate the manner of his preservation as the sacred scriptures deliver it to us, both on account of the extraordinary character of it, and also that it may lead to an improvement in our own dispositions and lives. 2.60. For he, being considered a fit man, not only to be exempted from the common calamity which was to overwhelm the world, but also to be himself the beginning of a second generation of men, in obedience to the divine commands which were conveyed to him by the word of God, built a most enormous fabric of wood, three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in width, and thirty in height, and having prepared a number of connected chambers within it, both on the ground floor and in the upper story, the whole building consisting of three, and in some parts of four stories, and having prepared food, brought into it some of every description of animals, beasts and also birds, both male and female, in order to preserve a means of propagating the different species in the times that should come hereafter; 2.61. for he knew that the nature of God was merciful, and that even if the subordinate species were destroyed, still there would be a germ in the entire genus which should be safe from destruction, for the sake of preserving a similitude to those animals which had hitherto existed, and of preventing anything that had been deliberately called into existence from being utterly destroyed. 2.62. and after they had all entered into the ark, if any one had beheld the entire collection, he would not have been wrong if he had said that it was a representation of the whole earth, containing, as it did, every kind of animal, of which the whole earth had previously produced innumerable species, and will hereafter produce such again. 2.63. And what was expected happened at no long period after; for the evil abated, and the destruction caused by the deluge was diminished every day, the rain being checked, and the water which had been spread over the whole earth, being partly dried up by the flame of the sun, and partly returning into the chasms and rivers, and other channels and receptacles in the earth; for, as if God had issued a command to that effect, every nature received back, as a necessary repayment of a loan, what it had lent, that is, every sea, and fountain, and river, received back their waters; and every stream returned into its appropriate channel. 2.64. But after the purification, in this way, of all the things beneath the moon, the earth being thus washed and appearing new again, and such as it appeared to be when it was at first created, along with the entire universe, Noah came forth out of his wooden edifice, himself and his wife, and his sons and their wives, and with his family there came forth likewise, in one company, all the races of animals which had gone in with them, in order to the generation and propagation of similar creatures in future. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 156 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

156. Therefore, he knew that they had synagogues, and that they were in the habit of visiting them, and most especially on the sacred sabbath days, when they publicly cultivate their national philosophy. He knew also that they were in the habit of contributing sacred sums of money from their first fruits and sending them to Jerusalem by the hands of those who were to conduct the sacrifices.
20. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.78, 3.223-3.224 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.96 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 28 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Having therefore gone through all the larger plants in the universe, let us see in what manner the all-wise God made the trees which exist in the smaller world, that is to say, in man. In the first place, then, taking our body as if it were a field of deep soil, he created the external senses to be in it as so many channels.
23. Anon., 2 Baruch, 14.17-14.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.197 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.197. to which, when they agreed, he ordered cakes of meal to be made presently; and when he had slain a calf, he roasted it, and brought it to them, as they sat under the oak. Now they made a show of eating; and besides, they asked him about his wife Sarah, where she was; and when he said she was within, they said they would come again hereafter, and find her become a mother.
25. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly.
26. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.
28. New Testament, Romans, 8.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.
29. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 48.11, 48.14 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

48.11. וְאֶקְחָה פַת לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ (בראשית יח, ה), אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּתּוֹרָה וּבַנְּבִיאִים וּבַכְּתוּבִים מָצִינוּ דַּהֲדָא פִּתָּא מְזוֹנִיתָא דְלִבָּא. בַּתּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, וְאֶקְחָה פַת לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם. בַּנְּבִיאִים (שופטים יט, ה): סְעָד לִבְּךָ פַּת לֶחֶם. בַּכְּתוּבִים (תהלים קד, טו): וְלֶחֶם לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד. אָמַר רַב אַחָא וְסַעֲדוּ לְבַבְכֶם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם, הֲדָא אָמְרָת אֵין יֵצֶר הָרָע שׁוֹלֵט בַּמַּלְאָכִים, הוּא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא (תהלים מח, יד): שִׁיתוּ לְבַבְכֶם לְחֵילָה אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא לִבְּכֶם, הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁאֵין יֵצֶר הָרָע שׁוֹלֵט לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא. כִּי עַל כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל עַבְדְּכֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִיּוֹם שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ הֱיִיתֶם מְזֻמָּנִים לָבוֹא אֶצְלִי, כִּי עַל כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות י, י): יְהִי כֵן ה' עִמָּכֶם. וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ, אָמְרוּ אָנוּ אֵין לְפָנֵינוּ אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, אֲבָל אַתָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְפָנֶיךָ אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְעַצְמְךָ, כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ, יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁתִּזְכֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹת עוֹד סְעוּדָה אַחֶרֶת לְבַר דְּכַר דְּיִתְיְלֵיד לָךְ. 48.14. וַיִּקַּח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב (בראשית יח, ח), אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא הַמְעֻלֶּה אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים בֶּחָלָב, וְהַבֵּינוֹנִי אֶחָד מֵאַרְבָּעִים, וְהַקִּבָּר אֶחָד מֵעֶשְׂרִים. רַבִּי יוֹנָה אָמַר הַמְעֻלָּה אֶחָד מִמֵּאָה, בֵּינוֹנִי אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים, וְהַקִּבָּר אֶחָד מֵעֶשְׂרִים. וּפַת הֵיכָן הִיא, אֶפְרַיִם מַקְשָׁאָה תַּלְמִידוֹ דְּרַבִּי מֵאִיר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר פִּירְסָה נִדָּה וְנִטְמֵאת הָעִסָּה. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אֲפִלּוּ פַּת הֵבִיא לִפְנֵיהֶם, מָה אִם דְּבָרִים שֶׁלֹא אָמַר הֵבִיא לִפְנֵיהֶם, דְּבָרִים שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. (בראשית יח, ח): וְהוּא עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם, הָכָא אַתְּ אָמַר וְהוּא עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם, וּלְהַלָּן אָמַר (בראשית יח, ב): נִצָּבִים עָלָיו, אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁלֹא יָצָא יְדֵיהֶם נִצָּבִים עָלָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא יְדֵיהֶם וְהוּא עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם, אֵימָתוֹ מֻטֶּלֶת עֲלֵיהֶם, מִיכָאֵל מִרְתַּת, גַּבְרִיאֵל מִרְתַּת. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי אָבוּן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, מַתְלָא אֲמַר, עֲלַת לְקַרְתָּא הֲלֵךְ בְּנִימוּסָהּ, לְמַעְלָה שֶׁאֵין אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, עָלָה משֶׁה לַמָּרוֹם וְלֹא אָכַל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ט, ט): וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתִיתִי, אֲבָל לְמַטָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, וְהוּא עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ, וְכִי אוֹכְלִין הָיוּ, אֶלָּא נִרְאִין כְּאוֹכְלִין, רִאשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן מִסְתַּלֵּק.
30. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86b. ריבה להן ומעשה נמי בר' יוחנן בן מתיא שאמר לבנו צא שכור לנו פועלים הלך ופסק להן מזונות וכשבא אצל אביו אמר לו בני אפילו אתה עושה להן כסעודת שלמה בשעתו לא יצאת ידי חובתך עמהן שהן בני אברהם יצחק ויעקב,למימרא דסעודתא דאברהם אבינו עדיפא מדשלמה והכתיב (מלכים א ה, ב) ויהי לחם שלמה ליום אחד שלשים כור סולת וששים כור קמח עשרה בקר בריאים ועשרה בקר רעי ומאה צאן לבד מאיל וצבי ויחמור וברבורים אבוסים ואמר גוריון בן אסטיון משמיה דרב הללו לעמילן של טבחים ור' יצחק אמר הללו לציקי קדירה,ואמר ר' יצחק אלף נשים היו לשלמה כל אחת ואחת עשתה לו בביתה כך מאי טעמא זו סבורה שמא אצלי סועד היום וזו סבורה [שמא] אצלי סועד היום ואילו גבי אברהם כתיב (בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם ויקח בן בקר רך וטוב ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בן בקר אחד רך שנים וטוב שלשה,התם תלתא תורי לתלתא גברי הכא לכל ישראל ויהודה שנאמר (מלכים א ד, כ) יהודה וישראל רבים כחול אשר על (שפת) הים,מאי ברבורים אבוסים אמר רב שאובסים אותן בעל כרחן ושמואל אמר שאבוסים ועומדים מאליהם ורבי יוחנן אמר מביאין תור ממרעיתו בדלא אניס ותרנגולת מאשפתה בדלא אניסא,אמר רבי יוחנן מובחר שבבהמות שור מובחר שבעופות תרנגולת אמר אמימר זגתא אוכמתא בי בטניתא דמשתכחא ביני עצרי דלא מציא פסיא קניא,(בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בן בקר אחד רך שנים וטוב שלשה ואימא חד כדאמרי אינשי רכיך וטב,א"כ לכתוב רך טוב מאי וטוב ש"מ לדרשה אימא תרי מדטוב לדרשה רך נמי לדרשה,מתיב רבה בר עולא ואיתימא רב הושעיא ואיתימא רב נתן ברבי הושעיא (בראשית יח, ז) ויתן אל הנער וימהר לעשות אותו כל חד וחד יהביה לנער חד (בראשית יח, ח) ויקח חמאה וחלב ובן הבקר אשר עשה ויתן לפניהם דקמא קמא דמטיא אייתי לקמייהו,ולמה לי תלתא תסגי בחד אמר רב חנן בר רבא כדי להאכילן שלש לשונות בחרדל אמר רבי תנחום בר חנילאי לעולם אל ישנה אדם מן המנהג שהרי משה עלה למרום ולא אכל לחם מלאכי השרת ירדו למטה ואכלו לחם ואכלו סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נראו כמי שאכלו ושתו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שעשה אברהם למלאכי השרת בעצמו עשה הקב"ה לבניו בעצמו וכל [מה] שעשה אברהם ע"י שליח עשה הקב"ה לבניו ע"י שליח,(בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם (במדבר יא, לא) ורוח נסע מאת ה' ויקח חמאה וחלב (שמות טז, ד) הנני ממטיר לכם לחם מן השמים,(בראשית יח, ח) והוא עומד עליהם תחת העץ (שמות יז, ו) הנני עומד לפניך שם על הצור [וגו'] (בראשית יח, טז) ואברהם הולך עמם לשלחם (שמות יג, כא) וה' הולך לפניהם יומם,(בראשית יח, ד) יוקח נא מעט מים (שמות יז, ו) והכית בצור ויצאו ממנו מים ושתה העם,ופליגא דר' חמא בר' חנינא דאמר ר' חמא בר' חנינא וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בשכר שלשה זכו לשלשה בשכר חמאה וחלב זכו למן בשכר והוא עומד עליהם זכו לעמוד הענן בשכר יוקח נא מעט מים זכו לבארה של מרים,יוקח נא מעט מים ורחצו רגליכם אמר רבי ינאי ברבי ישמעאל אמרו לו וכי בערביים חשדתנו שהם משתחוים לאבק רגליהם כבר יצא ממנו ישמעאל,(בראשית יח, א) וירא אליו ה' באלוני ממרא והוא יושב פתח האוהל כחום היום מאי כחום היום אמר רבי חמא בר' חנינא אותו היום יום שלישי של מילה של אברהם היה ובא הקב"ה לשאול באברהם הוציא הקב"ה חמה מנרתיקה כדי שלא יטריח אותו צדיק באורחים,שדריה לאליעזר למיפק לברא נפק ולא אשכח אמר לא מהימנא לך היינו דאמרי תמן לית הימנותא בעבדי נפק איהו חזייה להקדוש ברוך הוא דקאי אבבא היינו דכתיב (בראשית יח, ג) אל נא תעבור מעל עבדך,כיון דחזא דקא אסר ושרי אמר לאו אורח ארעא למיקם הכא היינו דכתיב (בראשית יח, ב) וישא עיניו וירא והנה שלשה אנשים נצבים עליו וירא וירץ לקראתם מעיקרא אתו קמו עליה כי חזיוהו דהוה ליה צערא אמרו לאו אורח ארעא למיקם הכא,מאן נינהו שלשה אנשים מיכאל וגבריאל ורפאל מיכאל שבא לבשר את שרה רפאל שבא לרפא את אברהם גבריאל אזל למהפכיה לסדום והא כתיב (בראשית יט, א) ויבאו שני המלאכים סדומה בערב דאזל מיכאל בהדיה לשזביה ללוט דיקא נמי [דכתיב] (בראשית יט, כה) ויהפוך את הערים האל ולא כתיב ויהפכו שמע מינה,מאי שנא לגבי אברהם דכתיב (בראשית יח, ה) כן תעשה כאשר דברת ומאי שנא לגבי לוט דכתיב 86b. bhe has increasedhis obligation to bthem,since if he had meant to give them no more than the accepted amount, he would not have made any stipulation at all. The mishna then continues: bAndthere is balsoa supporting bincident involving Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya, who said to his son: Go outand bhire laborers for us.His son bwent,hired them, band pledgedto provide bsustece for themas a term of their employment, without specifying the details. bAnd when he cameback bto his fatherand reported what he had done, Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya bsaid to him: My son, even if you were to prepare a feast for them like that ofKing bSolomon in his time, you would not have fulfilled your obligation to them, as they are the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. /b,The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that the feast of Abraham, our forefather, was superior to that ofKing bSolomon? But isn’t it written: “And Solomon’s provision for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and sixty measures of meal; ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, beside harts, and gazelles, and roebucks, and fatted fowl”(I Kings 5:2–3). bAnd Guryon ben Asteyon says in the name of Rav: Thesemeasures of flour mentioned in the verse bwereused merely bfor the bakers’ well-worked dough [ ila’amilan /i]that was placed in the pot to absorb the steam. bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Thesemeasures of flour were used bformeat bpudding,a mixture of wine, flour, and leftover meat, bin a pot. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥakfurther bsays:King bSolomon had one thousand wives, each one of whom would prepare for him at her homea feast of bsuchproportions. bWhat is the reasonthat they did this? bThiswife breasoned: Perhaps he will feast with me today, and thatwife breasoned: Perhaps he will feast with me today. But with regard to Abraham, it is written: “And Abraham ran to the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good”(Genesis 18:7), band Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says,in explanation of the verse: b“A calf”indicates bone;the word b“tender”means an additional one, i.e., btwo; “and good”indicates yet another one. This makes a total of bthreecalves, a considerably smaller feast than that of Solomon.,The Gemara answers: bThere,with regard to Abraham, he prepared bthree oxen for three people,whereas bhere,in the case of Solomon, his wives would prepare a feast bfor the entirerealms of bIsrael and Judah, as it is stated: “Judah and Israel were many, as the sand which is by the seain multitude, eating and drinking and making merry” (I Kings 4:20). Abraham’s feast was proportionately greater than that of Solomon.,With regard to the verse cited in relation to King Solomon, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the term b“fatted fowl [ iavusim /i]”? Rav says:It means bthat they are fed [ iovsim /i] by force. Shmuel says:It means bthat they were fattened [ iavusim /i] and maintained on their own accord,i.e., they were naturally fat. bRabbi Yoḥa says:Solomon’s feasts were of fine quality because bthey would bring from his herd an ox that had never been forcedto work, bandthey would also bring ba hen from its coop that had never been forcedto lay eggs, and use those for the cuisine.,The Gemara cites a related statement of Rabbi Yoḥa. bRabbi Yoḥa says: The choicest of cattleis the box. The choicest of fowlis the bhen.With regard to the type of hen to which this is referring, bAmeimar says:It is ba fattened, black hen [ izagta /i] that is found amongthe wine bvats, whichconsumes so many grape seeds that it bcannot take a stepthe length of ba reed,due to its corpulence.,The Gemara returns to discuss the verse in Genesis: b“And Abraham ran to the herd,and fetched a calf tender and good” (Genesis 18:7). bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: “A calf”is bone; “tender”indicates an additional one, i.e., btwo; “and good”indicates another one, for a total of bthreecalves. The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsaythat the verse is referring to only bonecalf, bas people saywhen describing a single item that it is btender and good? /b,The Gemara answers: bIf so, letthe verse bwrite: Tender, good. Whatis the significance of the term b“and good,”which indicates an addition? bConclude from thisthat the verse is stated bforthe purpose of ban expositionand is referring to more than one calf. The Gemara challenges: But one can still bsaythere were only btwocalves. The Gemara answers: bFromthe fact that the word b“good”is written bfor an exposition,to include an additional calf, it may be inferred that the term b“tender”is balsowritten bfor an expositionand indicates yet another calf., bRabba bar Ulla raises an objection, and some sayit is bRav Hoshaya, and some sayit is bRav Natan, son of Rabbi Hoshaya,who raises the objection: The verse states: b“And he gave it to the servant; and he hastened to prepare it”(Genesis 18:7). The singular term “it” indicates that there was only one calf. The Gemara answers: Abraham bgave each and everycalf bto one servant,i.e., he gave the three calves to three different servants. The Gemara raises a question from the verse: b“And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them”(Genesis 18:8), which again indicates that there was only one calf. The Gemara responds: The verse means bthat as each calf arrivedprepared, bhe brought it before them,and he did not serve all three calves at once.,The Gemara asks: bAnd why do Ineed bthreecalves? bOnecalf bshould be sufficientfor three guests. bRav Ḥa bar Rava said:Abraham prepared three calves bin order to feedthe guests bthree tongues with mustard,a particular delicacy. With regard to this incident, bRabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai says: A person should never deviate from thelocal bcustom, as Moses ascended toheaven bon high and did not eat breadwhile he was there, whereas bthe ministering angels descended downto this world, as guests visiting Abraham, band they ate bread.You say: bAnd they atebread? Can it benter your mindthat they actually ate food? bRather, saythat btheymerely bappeared as though they ate and drank. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Every action that Abraham performed himself for the ministering angels, the Holy One, Blessed be He, performed Himself forAbraham’s bdescendants. And every action that Abraham performed through a messenger, the Holy One, Blessed be He,likewise bperformed for his descendants through a messenger. /b,The Gemara elaborates: With regard to Abraham, the verse states: b“And Abraham ran to the herd”(Genesis 18:7), bringing the meat himself, and in reference to God’s actions for Abraham’s descendants the verse states: b“And there went forth a wind from the Lord,and brought across quails from the sea” (Numbers 11:31), that God brought meat to them. In reference to Abraham, the verse states: b“And he took curd and milk”(Genesis 18:8), and God says to the Jewish people: b“Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you”(Exodus 16:4), which shows that God gave food to the Jewish people.,With regard to Abraham, the verse states: b“And he stood by them under the tree,and they ate” (Genesis 18:8), and in reference to God, the verse states: b“Behold, I will stand before you there upon the rockin Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and there shall come water out of it” (Exodus 17:6). In the case of Abraham it is written: b“And Abraham went with them to bring them on the way”(Genesis 18:16), and the verse states: b“And the Lord went before them by day”(Exodus 13:21).,By contrast, Abraham performed certain actions through an agent. He said: b“Let now a little water be fetched”(Genesis 18:4), and correspondingly the verse states in reference to Moses, God’s messenger: b“And you shall strike the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink”(Exodus 17:6).,The Gemara notes: bAndin stating this, Rav bdisagreeswith bthatstatement bof Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina. As Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says, and likewise the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: In reward for threeacts of hospitality that Abraham performed for the angels, his descendants bmerited threerewards. The Gemara elaborates: bIn reward forproviding them with bcurd and milk,the Jewish people bmerited the manna; in reward for: “And he stood [ iomed /i] by them,”the Jews bmerited the pillar [ iamud /i] of cloud; in reward forAbraham saying: b“Let now a little water be fetched,”they bmerited the well of Miriam.This statement does not distinguish between actions performed by Abraham himself and those performed by means of a messenger.,The Gemara continues its analysis of the verse: b“Let now a little water be fetched and wash your feet”(Genesis 18:4). bRabbi Yannai, son of Rabbi Yishmael, saidthat the guests bsaid toAbraham: bAre you suspicious that we are Arabs who bow to the dust of their feet? Yishmael has already issued from him,i.e., your own son acts in this manner.,§ The Gemara expounds another verse involving Abraham: b“And the Lord appeared to him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day”(Genesis 18:1). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“the heat of the day”? Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: That day was the third day after Abraham’s circumcision, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, came to inquireabout the well-being bof Abraham. The Holy One, Blessed be He, removed the sun from its sheath in order not to bother that righteous one with guests,i.e., God made it extremely hot that day to allow Abraham to recover from his circumcision, as he would not be troubled by passing travelers whom he would invite into his tent.,Despite the intense heat, Abraham wanted to invite guests. bHe sent Eliezerhis slave bto go outsideto see if there were any passersby. Eliezer bwent out but did not findanyone. Abraham bsaid to him: I do not believe you.The Gemara comments: bThisdemonstrates the popular adage bthatpeople bthere,i.e., in Eretz Yisrael, bsay: Slaves do not have any credibility.The Gemara continues: Abraham bhimself went out and saw the Holy One, Blessed be He, standing at the entranceto his tent. bThis is as it is written:“My Lord, if now I have found favor in your eyes, bdo not leave Your servant”(Genesis 18:3), i.e., God’s presence was there, and Abraham asked Him for permission to attend to the travelers., bOnceGod bsawAbraham btying and untyingthe bandage on his circumcision, God bsaid:It is bnot proper conduct to stand here,i.e., it is not respectful to Abraham even for God to stand there. bThis is as it is written: “And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, three men stood over him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them”(Genesis 18:2). The verse first states that they stood over him, and then it says that he ran to meet them. The Gemara reconciles this apparent contradiction: bInitially, they came and stood over him. Upon seeing that he was in pain, they said:It is bnot proper conduct to stand here. /b,The Gemara continues: bWho are these three men?They are the angels bMichael, Gabriel, and Raphael: Michael, who came to announceto bSarahthat she was to give birth to a son; bRaphael, who came to heal Abrahamafter his circumcision; and bGabriel,who bwent to overturn Sodom.The Gemara asks: bBut it is written: “And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening”(Genesis 19:1). The Gemara answers bthat Michael went along withGabriel to Sodom bto save Lot.The Gemara notes: The language bis also precise, as it is written: “And he overturned those cities”(Genesis 19:25), band it is not written: They overturnedthose cities. bConclude from itthat only one angel overturned Sodom.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is different with regard tothe incident involving bAbraham,where the angels acquiesced immediately to his request to remain with him, bas it is written: “So do, as you have said”(Genesis 18:5), band what is different with regard to Lot,where they first displayed reluctance, bas it is written: /b
31. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 2.140 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.140. All of these facts are mentioned by Lycophron in his satiric drama entitled Menedemus, which was composed as a tribute to him. Here is a specimen of it:And after a temperate feast the modest cup was passed round with discretion, and their dessert was temperate discourse for such as cared to listen.At first he was despised, being called a cynic and a humbug by the Eretrians. But afterwards he was greatly admired, so much so that they entrusted him with the government of the state. He was sent as envoy to Ptolemy and to Lysimachus, being honoured wherever he went. He was, moreover, envoy to Demetrius, and he caused the yearly tribute of two hundred talents which the city used to pay Demetrius to be reduced by fifty talents. And when he was accused to Demetrius of intriguing to hand over the city to Ptolemy, he defended himself in a letter which commences thus:
32. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.49-6.59, 8.44-8.45

6.53. On the sixth day thou didst command the earth to bring forth before thee cattle, beasts, and creeping things; 6.54. and over these thou didst place Adam, as ruler over all the works which thou hadst made; and from him we have all come, the people whom thou hast chosen. 6.55. All this I have spoken before thee, O Lord, because thou hast said that it was for us that thou didst create this world. 6.56. As for the other nations which have descended from Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, and that they are like spittle, and thou hast compared their abundance to a drop from a bucket. 6.57. And now, O Lord, behold, these nations, which are reputed as nothing, domineer over us and devour us. 6.58. But we thy people, whom thou hast called thy first-born, only begotten, zealous for thee, and most dear, have been given into their hands. 6.59. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
alexander the great Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
alexandria Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
angels, and not eating Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
angels, incorporeal nature of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
angels, predictions made by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
animals, punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
animals Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 301
aristarchus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
astrology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
body Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
chaldeans, abraham contrasted with, charioteer, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
chariot, myth of the Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 301
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
creation, creator caring for Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
creation Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
creation of man Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
creation of the world Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
creeping things Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
de abrahamo, inconsistencies in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
demetrius, son of seleucus iv philopater Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
demiurge Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
destruction Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
deucalion Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
dust Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
enoch, transference of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
enos, hope and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
ethics Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
eve Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
fish Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
forgiveness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god, as charioteer of the cosmos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
god, as director Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
god, care of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
god, goodness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god, likeness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
goddess, younger gods Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
gods, philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410, 411
harran Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
hope, enos representing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
human, primal Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
humanity, dominant position of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
humanity Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 301
image (εἰκών) Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410, 411
immortality Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
jerusalem Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
judaism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
life, likeness Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
literary analysis Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
logos, lord god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
macrocosm and microcosm Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
menedemus of eretria Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
migrations of abraham, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
mind Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
myth Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
nature Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 301
nautical metaphors Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
noah, perfection of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
noah, reward of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
noah, the flood and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
oxen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
perception of god, by abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
perfection, vs. half-completed Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
philo of alexandria, and hellenistic judaism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
philo of alexandria, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
philo of alexandria Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
philos colleagues Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
predestination (προόρισις), in the septuagint Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
predestination (προόρισις), providence (πρόνοια, providentia) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
providence Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 301
punishment, of animals Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
question and answer, homeric Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
question and answer, tradition Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
question and answer Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
reason, senses controlled by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
rule/ruler Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
scholars, literal Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
seeds, serpent, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
seleucus iv philopater Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
septuagint Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 71
seth, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
sheep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
socrates Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
soul, individual Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
soul, irrational, vegetative Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
soul, types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
speeches, inserted or expanded Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
spirit, barbelo Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
stoicism Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
telos Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
temple Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
text criticism' Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 180
the cosmos, god directing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 218
the three visitors, abraham as kinsman of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
the three visitors, incorporeal nature of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
the three visitors, literal and ethical interpretations of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
the three visitors Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 258
threshing Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 301
tongue Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
transference Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
triads, first Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
virtue, noah, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
wisdom Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
τρόποι ψυχῆς Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185
τέλειος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 185