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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9230
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Creation Of The World, 72-75


nanAnd he would not err who should raise the question why Moses attributed the creation of man alone not to one creator, as he did that of other animals, but to several. For he introduces the Father of the universe using this language: "Let us make man after our image, and in our likeness." Had he then, shall I say, need of any one whatever to help him, He to whom all things are subject? Or, when he was making the heaven and the earth and the sea, was he in need of no one to co-operate with him; and yet was he unable himself by his own power to make man an animal so short-lived and so exposed to the assaults of fate without the assistance of others? It is plain that the real cause of his so acting is known to God alone, but one which to a reasonable conjecture appears probable and credible, I think I should not conceal; and it is this.


nanOf existing things, there are some which partake neither of virtue nor of vice; as for instance, plants and irrational animals; the one, because they are destitute of soul, and are regulated by a nature void of sense; and the other, because they are not endowed with mind of reason. But mind and reason may be looked upon as the abode of virtue and vice; as it is in them that they seem to dwell. Some things again partake of virtue alone, being without any participation in any kind of vice; as for instance, the stars, for they are said to be animals, and animals endowed with intelligence; or I might rather say, the mind of each of them is wholly and entirely virtuous, and unsusceptible of every kind of evil. Some things again are of a mixed nature, like man, who is capable of opposite qualities, of wisdom and folly, of temperance and dissoluteness, of courage and cowardice, of justice and injustice, in short of good and evil, of what is honourable and what is disgraceful, of virtue and vice.


nanNow it was a very appropriate task for God the Father of all to create by himself alone, those things which were wholly good, on account of their kindred with himself. And it was not inconsistent with his dignity to create those which were indifferent since they too are devoid of evil, which is hateful to him. To create the beings of a mixed nature, was partly consistent and partly inconsistent with his dignity; consistent by reason of the more excellent idea which is mingled in them; inconsistent because of the opposite and worse one.


nanIt is on this account that Moses says, at the creation of man alone that God said, "Let us make man," which expression shows an assumption of other beings to himself as assistants, in order that God, the governor of all things, might have all the blameless intentions and actions of man, when he does right attributed to him; and that his other assistants might bear the imputation of his contrary actions. For it was fitting that the Father should in the eyes of his children be free from all imputation of evil; and vice and energy in accordance with vice are evil.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.1, 24.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.1. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַיַּעַשׂוּ כֵן כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ לִפְנֵי פַרְעֹה וְלִפְנֵי עֲבָדָיו וַיְהִי לְתַנִּין׃ 7.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רְאֵה נְתַתִּיךָ אֱלֹהִים לְפַרְעֹה וְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ יִהְיֶה נְבִיאֶךָ׃ 24.2. וְנִגַּשׁ מֹשֶׁה לְבַדּוֹ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהֵם לֹא יִגָּשׁוּ וְהָעָם לֹא יַעֲלוּ עִמּוֹ׃ 7.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘See, I have set thee in God’s stead to Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet." 24.2. and Moses alone shall come near unto the LORD; but they shall not come near; neither shall the people go up with him.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28, 2.24, 3.15, 3.22, 6.1-6.4, 14.2, 14.8, 19.20-19.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 14.2. עָשׂוּ מִלְחָמָה אֶת־בֶּרַע מֶלֶךְ סְדֹם וְאֶת־בִּרְשַׁע מֶלֶךְ עֲמֹרָה שִׁנְאָב מֶלֶךְ אַדְמָה וְשֶׁמְאֵבֶר מֶלֶךְ צביים [צְבוֹיִים] וּמֶלֶךְ בֶּלַע הִיא־צֹעַר׃ 14.2. וּבָרוּךְ אֵל עֶלְיוֹן אֲשֶׁר־מִגֵּן צָרֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר מִכֹּל׃ 14.8. וַיֵּצֵא מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם וּמֶלֶךְ עֲמֹרָה וּמֶלֶךְ אַדְמָה וּמֶלֶךְ צביים [צְבוֹיִם] וּמֶלֶךְ בֶּלַע הִוא־צֹעַר וַיַּעַרְכוּ אִתָּם מִלְחָמָה בְּעֵמֶק הַשִּׂדִּים׃ 19.21. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה נָשָׂאתִי פָנֶיךָ גַּם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי הָפְכִּי אֶת־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 19.22. מַהֵר הִמָּלֵט שָׁמָּה כִּי לֹא אוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר עַד־בֹּאֲךָ שָׁמָּה עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שֵׁם־הָעִיר צוֹעַר׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 14.2. that they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela—the same is Zoar." 14.8. And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela—the same is Zoar; and they set the battle in array against them in the vale of Siddim;" 19.20. Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one; oh, let me escape thither—is it not a little one?—and my soul shall live.’" 19.21. And he said unto him: ‘See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow the city of which thou hast spoken." 19.22. Hasten thou, escape thither; for I cannot do any thing till thou be come thither.’—Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.—"
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6, 2.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כְּדַבֵּר אַחַת הַנְּבָלוֹת תְּדַבֵּרִי גַּם אֶת־הַטּוֹב נְקַבֵּל מֵאֵת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶת־הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב בִּשְׂפָתָיו׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתֹכָם לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה׃ 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 2.1. Again it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.19-3.20, 8.22, 8.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 3.20. By His knowledge the depths were broken up, And the skies drop down the dew." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him,"
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 5.5, 8.5-8.8, 104.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. כִּי לֹא אֵל־חָפֵץ רֶשַׁע אָתָּה לֹא יְגֻרְךָ רָע׃ 8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 5.5. For Thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness; Evil shall not sojourn with Thee." 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 43.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.4. מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ וַאֲנִי אֲהַבְתִּיךָ וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ וּלְאֻמִּים תַּחַת נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 43.4. Since thou art precious in My sight, and honourable, and I have loved thee; Therefore will I give men for thee, And peoples for thy life."
7. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.12. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 10.12. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding;"
8. Homer, Odyssey, 5.437 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

9. Septuagint, Isaiah, 44.24 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

10. Plato, Timaeus, 42, 41 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Anon., Jubilees, 2.14, 6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea.
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.23, 42.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob. 42.21. He has ordained the splendors of his wisdom,and he is from everlasting and to everlasting. Nothing can be added or taken away,and he needs no one to be his counselor. 42.21. He consumes the mountains and burns up the wilderness,and withers the tender grass like fire.
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 58, 204 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

204. nevertheless, though it belongs to me, I have no objection to those who deserve it enjoying a share of it. But who can be deserving to do so, save he who obeys me and my will? for to this man it shall be given to feel as little grief as possible and as little fear as possible, proceeding along that road which is inaccessible to passions and vices, but which is frequented by excellence of soul and virtue.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 27-28, 44, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. This, then, is the meaning of coming in front of one's judge, when brought up for judgment. But the case of coming in front of any one which has a bearing upon connection or familiarity, may be illustrated by the example of the allwise Abraham. "For," says Moses, "he was still standing in front of God." And a proof of his familiarity is contained in the expression that "he came near to God, and spoke." For it is fitting for one who has no connection with another to stand at a distance, and to be separated from him, but he who is connected with him should stand near to him. 18. These are the causes which may be advanced by probable conjecture, to explain the question which is raised on this point; for the true causes God alone knows. But having said what is fitting concerning these matters, I shall now proceed in regular order to discuss the laws themselves with accuracy and precision: first of all of necessity, mentioning this point, that of his laws God himself, without having need of any one else, thought fit to promulgate some by himself alone, and some he promulgated by the agency of his prophet Moses, whom he selected, by reason of his pre-eminent excellence, out of all men, as the most suitable man to be the interpreter of his will.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 170-177, 179-181, 31, 169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

169. for there, too, Moses records that "the Lord God said, Come, let us now make man in our image; man in our Similitude. The expression, "Let us make," implying a number of creators. And, in another place, we are told that God said, "Behold, the man, Adam, has become as one of us, in respect of his knowing good and Evil;" for the expression, "as one of us," is not applicable to one person, but to many.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 173 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

173. And what is said immediately afterwards is an evidence of this: "He fed thee with manna." Is it, then, proper to call that food which, without any exertion or hardship on his part, and without any trouble of his is given to man, not out of the earth as is usual, but from heaven, a marvellous work, afforded for the benefit of those who are to be permitted to avail themselves of it, the cause of hunger and affliction, and not rather, on the contrary, the cause of prosperity and happiness, of freedom from fear, and of a happy state of orderly living?
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 32, 51, 64, 105 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 74, 81, 42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

42. Dost thou now know, O impious man, the power of the Ruler of the universe? but before this thou didst not know it. For was there anything which thou hast ever fallen in with of more antiquity or power than God? And are not the virtues of their parents known to the children before anything else in the world? And was not the Ruler of the universe the creator and the father of it? So that if you now say that you know it, you do not know it now, because you did not know it from the beginning of the creation.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 137, 197, 66, 68-70, 109 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

109. For Moses says that he cannot be defiled neither in respect of his father, that is, the mind, nor his mother, that is, the external sense; because, I imagine, he has received imperishable and wholly pure parents, God being his father, who is also the father of all things, and wisdom being his mother, by means of whom the universe arrived at creation;
21. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 48-49, 47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 59 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

59. This is the definition of great, to be near to God, or at least to be near to that thing which God is near; forsooth the world and the wise citizen of the world are both full of manyand great good things, but all the rest of the multitude of men is involved in numerous evils, and in but few good things; for the good is rare in the agitated and confused life of man.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-139, 14, 140-146, 15-19, 2, 20-29, 3, 30-38, 4, 40-49, 5, 50-59, 6, 60-69, 7, 70-71, 73-79, 8, 80-89, 9, 90-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 169, 43, 167 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 44-46, 43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

43. The race of these men is difficult to trace, since they show a life of plotting, and cunning, and wickedness, and dissoluteness, full of passion and wickednesses, as such a life must be. For all those whom God, since they pleased him well, has caused to quit their original abode, and has transformed from the race of perishable beings to that of immortals, are no longer found among the common multitude. XIII.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 57, 8-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. In reference to which it is said of Moses, "That no one is said to know of his Tomb;" for who could be competent to perceive the migration of a perfect soul to the living God? Nor do I even believe that the soul itself while awaiting this event was conscious of its own improvement, inasmuch as it was at that time becoming gradually divine; for God, in the case of those persons whom he is about to benefit, does not take him who is to receive the advantage into his counsels, but is accustomed rather to pour his benefits ungrudgingly upon him without his having any previous anticipation of them. This is something like the meaning of God's adding the creation of what is good to the perfect mind. But the good is holiness, the name of which is Abel. IV.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.73, 1.162-1.163 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.73. And do not wonder if, according to the rules of allegorical description, the sun is likened to the Father and Governor of the universe; for in reality nothing is like unto God; but those things which by the vain opinion of men are thought to be so, are only two things, one invisible and the other visible; the soul being the invisible thing, and the sun the visible one. 1.162. Now this disposition stands in need of two powers to take care of it, the power that is of authority, and that of conferring benefits, in order that in accordance with the authority of the governor, it may obey the admonitions which it receives, and also that it may be greatly benefited by his beneficence. But the other disposition stands in need of the power of beneficence only; for it has not derived any improvement from the authority which admonishes it, inasmuch as it naturally claims virtue as its own, but by reason of the bounty which is showered upon it from above, it was good and perfect from the beginning; 1.163. therefore God is the name of the beneficent power, and Lord is the title of the royal power. What then can any one call a more ancient and important good, than to be thought worthy to meet with unmixed and unalloyed beneficence? And what can be less valuable than to receive a mixture of authority and liberality? And it appears to me that it was because the practiser of virtue saw that he uttered that most admirable prayer that, "the Lord might be to him as God;" for he desired no longer to stand in awe of him as a governor, but to honour and love him as a benefactor.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.14, 1.22, 1.32, 1.34, 1.307 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. and the subjects being all the natures beneath the moon, hovering in the air and adjacent to the earth. But that the rulers aforesaid are not independent and absolute, but are the viceroys of one supreme Being, the Father of all, in imitation of whom they administer with propriety and success the charge committed to their care, as he also presides over all created things in strict accordance with justice and with law. Others, on the contrary, who have not discovered the supreme Governor, who thus rules everything, have attributed the causes of the different things which exist in the world to the subordinate powers, as if they had brought them to pass by their own independent act. 1.22. To whom the Father of the universe thus speaks, saying: "You shall not make to yourselves gods of silver and Gold;"{4}{#ex 20:20.} all but teaching them in express words, "You shall not make to yourselves any gods whatever of this or of any other material, nor shall you worship anything made with hands," being forbidden expressly with respect to the two most excellent materials; for silver and gold are esteemed the most honourable of all materials. 1.32. But the Father and Ruler of the universe is a being whose character it is difficult to arrive at by conjecture and hard to comprehend; but still we must not on that account shrink from an investigation of it. Now, in the investigations which are made into the nature of God, there are two things of the greatest importance, about which the intellect of the man who devotes himself to philosophy in a genuine spirit is perplexed. One is, whether there is any Deity at all? this question arises from the atheism (which is the greatest of all vice 1.34. He, therefore, who comes into that which is truly the greatest of cities, namely, this world, and who beholds all the land, both the mountain and the champaign district full of animals, and plants, and the streams of rivers, both overflowing and depending on the wintry floods, and the steady flow of the sea, and the admirable temperature of the air, and the varieties and regular revolutions of the seasons of the year; and then too the sun and moon, the rulers of day and night, and the revolutions and regular motions of all the other planets and fixed stars, and of the whole heaven; would he not naturally, or I should rather say, of necessity, conceive a notion of the Father, and creator, and governor of all this system; 1.307. Do you not see that the most important and greatest of all the powers of the living God are his beneficent and his punishing power? And his beneficent power is called God, since it is by means of this that he made and arranged the universe. And the other, or punishing power, is called Lord, on which his sovereignty over the universe depends. And God is God, not only of men, but also of gods; and he is mighty, being truly strong and truly Powerful.{45}{#de 10:17.}LVII.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.158, 2.4, 2.24, 2.30, 2.59-2.65, 2.99, 2.209, 2.238, 2.288 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.158. What more shall I say? Has he not also enjoyed an even greater communion with the Father and Creator of the universe, being thought unworthy of being called by the same appellation? For he also was called the god and king of the whole nation, and he is said to have entered into the darkness where God was; that is to say, into the invisible, and shapeless, and incorporeal world, the essence, which is the model of all existing things, where he beheld things invisible to mortal nature; for, having brought himself and his own life into the middle, as an excellently wrought picture, he established himself as a most beautiful and Godlike work, to be a model for all those who were inclined to imitate him. 2.4. It becomes a king to command what ought to be done, and to forbid what ought not to be done; but the commanding what ought to be done, and the prohibition of what ought not to be done, belongs especially to the law, so that the king is at once a living law, and the law is a just king. 2.24. But on this fast it is not lawful to take any food or any drink, in order that no bodily passion may at all disturb or hinder the pure operations of the mind; but these passions are wont to be generated by fulness and satiety, so that at this time men feast, propitiating the Father of the universe with holy prayers, by which they are accustomed to solicit pardon for their former sins, and the acquisition and enjoyment of new blessings. 2.30. and, in a word, the whole family of the Ptolemies was exceedingly eminent and conspicuous above all other royal families, and among the Ptolemies, Philadelphus was the most illustrious; for all the rest put together scarcely did as many glorious and praiseworthy actions as this one king did by himself, being, as it were, the leader of the herd, and in a manner the head of all the kings. 2.59. But in the great deluge I may almost say that the whole of the human race was destroyed, while the history tells us that the house of Noah alone was preserved free from all evil, inasmuch as the father and governor of the house was a man who had never committed any intentional or voluntary wickedness. And it is worth while to relate the manner of his preservation as the sacred scriptures deliver it to us, both on account of the extraordinary character of it, and also that it may lead to an improvement in our own dispositions and lives. 2.60. For he, being considered a fit man, not only to be exempted from the common calamity which was to overwhelm the world, but also to be himself the beginning of a second generation of men, in obedience to the divine commands which were conveyed to him by the word of God, built a most enormous fabric of wood, three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in width, and thirty in height, and having prepared a number of connected chambers within it, both on the ground floor and in the upper story, the whole building consisting of three, and in some parts of four stories, and having prepared food, brought into it some of every description of animals, beasts and also birds, both male and female, in order to preserve a means of propagating the different species in the times that should come hereafter; 2.61. for he knew that the nature of God was merciful, and that even if the subordinate species were destroyed, still there would be a germ in the entire genus which should be safe from destruction, for the sake of preserving a similitude to those animals which had hitherto existed, and of preventing anything that had been deliberately called into existence from being utterly destroyed. 2.62. and after they had all entered into the ark, if any one had beheld the entire collection, he would not have been wrong if he had said that it was a representation of the whole earth, containing, as it did, every kind of animal, of which the whole earth had previously produced innumerable species, and will hereafter produce such again. 2.63. And what was expected happened at no long period after; for the evil abated, and the destruction caused by the deluge was diminished every day, the rain being checked, and the water which had been spread over the whole earth, being partly dried up by the flame of the sun, and partly returning into the chasms and rivers, and other channels and receptacles in the earth; for, as if God had issued a command to that effect, every nature received back, as a necessary repayment of a loan, what it had lent, that is, every sea, and fountain, and river, received back their waters; and every stream returned into its appropriate channel. 2.64. But after the purification, in this way, of all the things beneath the moon, the earth being thus washed and appearing new again, and such as it appeared to be when it was at first created, along with the entire universe, Noah came forth out of his wooden edifice, himself and his wife, and his sons and their wives, and with his family there came forth likewise, in one company, all the races of animals which had gone in with them, in order to the generation and propagation of similar creatures in future. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb 2.99. But I myself should say, that what is here represented under a figure are the two most ancient and supreme powers of the divine God, namely, his creative and his kingly power; and his creative power is called God; according to which he arranged, and created, and adorned this universe, and his kingly power is called Lord, by which he rules over the beings whom he has created, and governs them with justice and firmness; 2.209. Moreover, in accordance with the honour due to the Creator of the universe, the prophet hallowed the sacred seventh day, beholding with eyes of more acute sight than those of mortals its pre-eminent beauty, which had already been deeply impressed on the heaven and the whole universal world, and had been borne about as an image by nature itself in her own bosom; 2.238. But the Creator of the universe, the Father of the world, who holds together earth and heaven, and the water and the air, and everything which is composed of any one of these things, and who rules the whole world, the King of gods and men, did not think it unbecoming for him to take upon himself the part of arbitrator respecting these orphan maidens. And, as arbitrator, he, in my opinion, did more for them than if he had been merely a judge of the law, inasmuch as he is merciful and beneficent, and has filled all things everywhere with his beneficent power for he gave great praise to the maidens. 2.288. And some time afterwards, when he was about to depart from hence to heaven, to take up his abode there, and leaving this mortal life to become immortal, having been summoned by the Father, who now changed him, having previously been a double being, composed of soul and body, into the nature of a single body, transforming him wholly and entirely into a most sun-like mind; he then, being wholly possessed by inspiration, does not seem any longer to have prophesied comprehensively to the whole nation altogether, but to have predicted to each tribe separately what would happen to each of them, and to their future generations, some of which things have already come to pass, and some are still expected, because the accomplishment of those predictions which have been fulfilled is the clearest testimony to the future.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 156, 138 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

138. And one may find undeniable and notorious proofs of this having been the case. For, in the first place, one may derive them from about ten kings or more who reigned in order, one after another, for three hundred years, and who never once had any images or statues of themselves erected in our synagogues, though there were many of their relations and kinsmen whom they considered, and registered as, and spoke of as gods.
31. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.100-3.103, 3.162-3.166 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 98 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

98. But the new blessing which is promised is the acquisition of that wisdom which is not taught by the outward senses, but is comprehended by the pure mind, and by which the best of all emigrations is confirmed; when the soul departs from astronomy and learns to apply itself to natural philosophy, and to exchange unsure conjecture for certain apprehension, and, to speak with real truth, to quit the creature for the Creator, an the world for its father and maker;
33. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 147 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

147. On this account the law-giver says, "Every word which a widow or a woman who is divorced vows against her own soul shall remain against It." For if we call God the husband and father of the universe, supplying the origin and generation of all things, we shall be speaking rightly: as we shall if we call that heart widowed and divorced from God which either has not received divine seed, or, after having received it, has again voluntarily made it abortive.
34. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

63. for it does not follow, that although the souls of such as contradict those virtuous men are deprived of all liberty for having been completely led away and enslaved by folly and other vices, that on this account the whole human race is so too. But it is no wonder if we do not see numerous companies of those men advancing as it were in a solid body. In the first place, because whatever is exceedingly beautiful is rare; secondly, because men who are removed from the main crowd of inconsiderately judging persons, have abundant leisure for the contemplation of the things of nature, endeavouring, as far as it may be in their power, to correct life in general (for virtue is a thing of great benefit to the whole community); but when they are unable to succeed in their object, by reason of the numbers of absurdities which are continually impeding them in the different cities, which the different passions and vices of the soul have given strength to, they then retire into solitude, in order not to be carried away by the violence and rush of these absurdities, as by a wintry torrent.
35. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.6, 11.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him. 11.12. For as womancame from man, so a man also comes through a woman; but all things arefrom God.
36. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15-1.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens.
37. New Testament, Galatians, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father!
38. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.2, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
39. New Testament, Romans, 11.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen.
40. New Testament, John, 1.3, 1.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him.
41. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 50.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

50.2. וְהוּא בְאֶחָד וּמִי יְשִׁיבֶנּוּ וְנַפְשׁוֹ אִוְּתָה וַיָּעַשׂ (איוב כג, יג), תָּנָא אֵין מַלְאָךְ אֶחָד עוֹשֶׂה שְׁתֵּי שְׁלִיחוֹת, וְלֹא שְׁנֵי מַלְאָכִים עוֹשִׂים שְׁלִיחוּת אֶחָת, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ שְׁנֵי, אֶלָּא מִיכָאֵל אָמַר בְּשׂוֹרָתוֹ וְנִסְתַּלֵּק, גַּבְרִיאֵל נִשְׁתַּלַּח לַהֲפֹךְ אֶת סְדוֹם, וּרְפָאֵל לְהַצִּיל אֶת לוֹט. (בראשית יט, א): וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הַמַּלְאָכִים סְדֹמָה, הָכָא אַתְּ אָמַר מַלְאָכִים וּלְהַלָּן (בראשית יח, ב): קוֹרֵא אוֹתָן אֲנָשִׁים, אֶלָּא לְהַלָּן שֶׁהָיְתָה שְׁכִינָה עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן קְרָאָם אֲנָשִׁים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּסְתַּלְּקָה שְׁכִינָה מֵעַל גַּבֵּיהֶן לָבְשׁוּ מַלְאָכוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי אַבְרָהָם שֶׁהָיָה כֹּחוֹ יָפֶה נִדְמוּ לוֹ בִּדְמוּת אֲנָשִׁים, אֲבָל לוֹט עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיָה כֹּחוֹ רַע נִדְמוּ לוֹ בִּדְמוּת מַלְאָכִים. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא עַד שֶׁלֹא עָשׂוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן קְרָאָן אֲנָשִׁים מִשֶּׁעָשׂוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן מַלְאָכִים. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא לְאֶחָד שֶׁנָּטַל הֶגְמוֹנְיָא מִן הַמֶּלֶךְ, עַד שֶׁלֹא הִגִּיעַ לְבֵית אוֹרְיָין שֶׁלּוֹ הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ כְּפַגָּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְבֵית אוֹרְיָין שֶׁלּוֹ הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ כְּקָאלְמִין, כָּךְ עַד שֶׁלֹא עָשׂוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן קְרָאָן אֲנָשִׁים כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן קְרָאָן מַלְאָכִים. 50.2. \"But He is at one with Himself, and who can turn him? And what His soul desireth, even that He doeth.\" (Job 23:13) It was taught: One angel does not carry out two commissions, and two angels do not carry out one commission. And you say \"two\"!? (Genesis 19:1) Rather, Michael said his tidings and departed, Gabriel was sent to overthrow Sodom, and Raphael to rescue Lot."
42. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86b. ריבה להן ומעשה נמי בר' יוחנן בן מתיא שאמר לבנו צא שכור לנו פועלים הלך ופסק להן מזונות וכשבא אצל אביו אמר לו בני אפילו אתה עושה להן כסעודת שלמה בשעתו לא יצאת ידי חובתך עמהן שהן בני אברהם יצחק ויעקב,למימרא דסעודתא דאברהם אבינו עדיפא מדשלמה והכתיב (מלכים א ה, ב) ויהי לחם שלמה ליום אחד שלשים כור סולת וששים כור קמח עשרה בקר בריאים ועשרה בקר רעי ומאה צאן לבד מאיל וצבי ויחמור וברבורים אבוסים ואמר גוריון בן אסטיון משמיה דרב הללו לעמילן של טבחים ור' יצחק אמר הללו לציקי קדירה,ואמר ר' יצחק אלף נשים היו לשלמה כל אחת ואחת עשתה לו בביתה כך מאי טעמא זו סבורה שמא אצלי סועד היום וזו סבורה [שמא] אצלי סועד היום ואילו גבי אברהם כתיב (בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם ויקח בן בקר רך וטוב ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בן בקר אחד רך שנים וטוב שלשה,התם תלתא תורי לתלתא גברי הכא לכל ישראל ויהודה שנאמר (מלכים א ד, כ) יהודה וישראל רבים כחול אשר על (שפת) הים,מאי ברבורים אבוסים אמר רב שאובסים אותן בעל כרחן ושמואל אמר שאבוסים ועומדים מאליהם ורבי יוחנן אמר מביאין תור ממרעיתו בדלא אניס ותרנגולת מאשפתה בדלא אניסא,אמר רבי יוחנן מובחר שבבהמות שור מובחר שבעופות תרנגולת אמר אמימר זגתא אוכמתא בי בטניתא דמשתכחא ביני עצרי דלא מציא פסיא קניא,(בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בן בקר אחד רך שנים וטוב שלשה ואימא חד כדאמרי אינשי רכיך וטב,א"כ לכתוב רך טוב מאי וטוב ש"מ לדרשה אימא תרי מדטוב לדרשה רך נמי לדרשה,מתיב רבה בר עולא ואיתימא רב הושעיא ואיתימא רב נתן ברבי הושעיא (בראשית יח, ז) ויתן אל הנער וימהר לעשות אותו כל חד וחד יהביה לנער חד (בראשית יח, ח) ויקח חמאה וחלב ובן הבקר אשר עשה ויתן לפניהם דקמא קמא דמטיא אייתי לקמייהו,ולמה לי תלתא תסגי בחד אמר רב חנן בר רבא כדי להאכילן שלש לשונות בחרדל אמר רבי תנחום בר חנילאי לעולם אל ישנה אדם מן המנהג שהרי משה עלה למרום ולא אכל לחם מלאכי השרת ירדו למטה ואכלו לחם ואכלו סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נראו כמי שאכלו ושתו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שעשה אברהם למלאכי השרת בעצמו עשה הקב"ה לבניו בעצמו וכל [מה] שעשה אברהם ע"י שליח עשה הקב"ה לבניו ע"י שליח,(בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם (במדבר יא, לא) ורוח נסע מאת ה' ויקח חמאה וחלב (שמות טז, ד) הנני ממטיר לכם לחם מן השמים,(בראשית יח, ח) והוא עומד עליהם תחת העץ (שמות יז, ו) הנני עומד לפניך שם על הצור [וגו'] (בראשית יח, טז) ואברהם הולך עמם לשלחם (שמות יג, כא) וה' הולך לפניהם יומם,(בראשית יח, ד) יוקח נא מעט מים (שמות יז, ו) והכית בצור ויצאו ממנו מים ושתה העם,ופליגא דר' חמא בר' חנינא דאמר ר' חמא בר' חנינא וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בשכר שלשה זכו לשלשה בשכר חמאה וחלב זכו למן בשכר והוא עומד עליהם זכו לעמוד הענן בשכר יוקח נא מעט מים זכו לבארה של מרים,יוקח נא מעט מים ורחצו רגליכם אמר רבי ינאי ברבי ישמעאל אמרו לו וכי בערביים חשדתנו שהם משתחוים לאבק רגליהם כבר יצא ממנו ישמעאל,(בראשית יח, א) וירא אליו ה' באלוני ממרא והוא יושב פתח האוהל כחום היום מאי כחום היום אמר רבי חמא בר' חנינא אותו היום יום שלישי של מילה של אברהם היה ובא הקב"ה לשאול באברהם הוציא הקב"ה חמה מנרתיקה כדי שלא יטריח אותו צדיק באורחים,שדריה לאליעזר למיפק לברא נפק ולא אשכח אמר לא מהימנא לך היינו דאמרי תמן לית הימנותא בעבדי נפק איהו חזייה להקדוש ברוך הוא דקאי אבבא היינו דכתיב (בראשית יח, ג) אל נא תעבור מעל עבדך,כיון דחזא דקא אסר ושרי אמר לאו אורח ארעא למיקם הכא היינו דכתיב (בראשית יח, ב) וישא עיניו וירא והנה שלשה אנשים נצבים עליו וירא וירץ לקראתם מעיקרא אתו קמו עליה כי חזיוהו דהוה ליה צערא אמרו לאו אורח ארעא למיקם הכא,מאן נינהו שלשה אנשים מיכאל וגבריאל ורפאל מיכאל שבא לבשר את שרה רפאל שבא לרפא את אברהם גבריאל אזל למהפכיה לסדום והא כתיב (בראשית יט, א) ויבאו שני המלאכים סדומה בערב דאזל מיכאל בהדיה לשזביה ללוט דיקא נמי [דכתיב] (בראשית יט, כה) ויהפוך את הערים האל ולא כתיב ויהפכו שמע מינה,מאי שנא לגבי אברהם דכתיב (בראשית יח, ה) כן תעשה כאשר דברת ומאי שנא לגבי לוט דכתיב 86b. bhe has increasedhis obligation to bthem,since if he had meant to give them no more than the accepted amount, he would not have made any stipulation at all. The mishna then continues: bAndthere is balsoa supporting bincident involving Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya, who said to his son: Go outand bhire laborers for us.His son bwent,hired them, band pledgedto provide bsustece for themas a term of their employment, without specifying the details. bAnd when he cameback bto his fatherand reported what he had done, Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya bsaid to him: My son, even if you were to prepare a feast for them like that ofKing bSolomon in his time, you would not have fulfilled your obligation to them, as they are the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. /b,The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that the feast of Abraham, our forefather, was superior to that ofKing bSolomon? But isn’t it written: “And Solomon’s provision for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and sixty measures of meal; ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, beside harts, and gazelles, and roebucks, and fatted fowl”(I Kings 5:2–3). bAnd Guryon ben Asteyon says in the name of Rav: Thesemeasures of flour mentioned in the verse bwereused merely bfor the bakers’ well-worked dough [ ila’amilan /i]that was placed in the pot to absorb the steam. bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Thesemeasures of flour were used bformeat bpudding,a mixture of wine, flour, and leftover meat, bin a pot. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥakfurther bsays:King bSolomon had one thousand wives, each one of whom would prepare for him at her homea feast of bsuchproportions. bWhat is the reasonthat they did this? bThiswife breasoned: Perhaps he will feast with me today, and thatwife breasoned: Perhaps he will feast with me today. But with regard to Abraham, it is written: “And Abraham ran to the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good”(Genesis 18:7), band Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says,in explanation of the verse: b“A calf”indicates bone;the word b“tender”means an additional one, i.e., btwo; “and good”indicates yet another one. This makes a total of bthreecalves, a considerably smaller feast than that of Solomon.,The Gemara answers: bThere,with regard to Abraham, he prepared bthree oxen for three people,whereas bhere,in the case of Solomon, his wives would prepare a feast bfor the entirerealms of bIsrael and Judah, as it is stated: “Judah and Israel were many, as the sand which is by the seain multitude, eating and drinking and making merry” (I Kings 4:20). Abraham’s feast was proportionately greater than that of Solomon.,With regard to the verse cited in relation to King Solomon, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the term b“fatted fowl [ iavusim /i]”? Rav says:It means bthat they are fed [ iovsim /i] by force. Shmuel says:It means bthat they were fattened [ iavusim /i] and maintained on their own accord,i.e., they were naturally fat. bRabbi Yoḥa says:Solomon’s feasts were of fine quality because bthey would bring from his herd an ox that had never been forcedto work, bandthey would also bring ba hen from its coop that had never been forcedto lay eggs, and use those for the cuisine.,The Gemara cites a related statement of Rabbi Yoḥa. bRabbi Yoḥa says: The choicest of cattleis the box. The choicest of fowlis the bhen.With regard to the type of hen to which this is referring, bAmeimar says:It is ba fattened, black hen [ izagta /i] that is found amongthe wine bvats, whichconsumes so many grape seeds that it bcannot take a stepthe length of ba reed,due to its corpulence.,The Gemara returns to discuss the verse in Genesis: b“And Abraham ran to the herd,and fetched a calf tender and good” (Genesis 18:7). bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: “A calf”is bone; “tender”indicates an additional one, i.e., btwo; “and good”indicates another one, for a total of bthreecalves. The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsaythat the verse is referring to only bonecalf, bas people saywhen describing a single item that it is btender and good? /b,The Gemara answers: bIf so, letthe verse bwrite: Tender, good. Whatis the significance of the term b“and good,”which indicates an addition? bConclude from thisthat the verse is stated bforthe purpose of ban expositionand is referring to more than one calf. The Gemara challenges: But one can still bsaythere were only btwocalves. The Gemara answers: bFromthe fact that the word b“good”is written bfor an exposition,to include an additional calf, it may be inferred that the term b“tender”is balsowritten bfor an expositionand indicates yet another calf., bRabba bar Ulla raises an objection, and some sayit is bRav Hoshaya, and some sayit is bRav Natan, son of Rabbi Hoshaya,who raises the objection: The verse states: b“And he gave it to the servant; and he hastened to prepare it”(Genesis 18:7). The singular term “it” indicates that there was only one calf. The Gemara answers: Abraham bgave each and everycalf bto one servant,i.e., he gave the three calves to three different servants. The Gemara raises a question from the verse: b“And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them”(Genesis 18:8), which again indicates that there was only one calf. The Gemara responds: The verse means bthat as each calf arrivedprepared, bhe brought it before them,and he did not serve all three calves at once.,The Gemara asks: bAnd why do Ineed bthreecalves? bOnecalf bshould be sufficientfor three guests. bRav Ḥa bar Rava said:Abraham prepared three calves bin order to feedthe guests bthree tongues with mustard,a particular delicacy. With regard to this incident, bRabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai says: A person should never deviate from thelocal bcustom, as Moses ascended toheaven bon high and did not eat breadwhile he was there, whereas bthe ministering angels descended downto this world, as guests visiting Abraham, band they ate bread.You say: bAnd they atebread? Can it benter your mindthat they actually ate food? bRather, saythat btheymerely bappeared as though they ate and drank. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Every action that Abraham performed himself for the ministering angels, the Holy One, Blessed be He, performed Himself forAbraham’s bdescendants. And every action that Abraham performed through a messenger, the Holy One, Blessed be He,likewise bperformed for his descendants through a messenger. /b,The Gemara elaborates: With regard to Abraham, the verse states: b“And Abraham ran to the herd”(Genesis 18:7), bringing the meat himself, and in reference to God’s actions for Abraham’s descendants the verse states: b“And there went forth a wind from the Lord,and brought across quails from the sea” (Numbers 11:31), that God brought meat to them. In reference to Abraham, the verse states: b“And he took curd and milk”(Genesis 18:8), and God says to the Jewish people: b“Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you”(Exodus 16:4), which shows that God gave food to the Jewish people.,With regard to Abraham, the verse states: b“And he stood by them under the tree,and they ate” (Genesis 18:8), and in reference to God, the verse states: b“Behold, I will stand before you there upon the rockin Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and there shall come water out of it” (Exodus 17:6). In the case of Abraham it is written: b“And Abraham went with them to bring them on the way”(Genesis 18:16), and the verse states: b“And the Lord went before them by day”(Exodus 13:21).,By contrast, Abraham performed certain actions through an agent. He said: b“Let now a little water be fetched”(Genesis 18:4), and correspondingly the verse states in reference to Moses, God’s messenger: b“And you shall strike the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink”(Exodus 17:6).,The Gemara notes: bAndin stating this, Rav bdisagreeswith bthatstatement bof Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina. As Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says, and likewise the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: In reward for threeacts of hospitality that Abraham performed for the angels, his descendants bmerited threerewards. The Gemara elaborates: bIn reward forproviding them with bcurd and milk,the Jewish people bmerited the manna; in reward for: “And he stood [ iomed /i] by them,”the Jews bmerited the pillar [ iamud /i] of cloud; in reward forAbraham saying: b“Let now a little water be fetched,”they bmerited the well of Miriam.This statement does not distinguish between actions performed by Abraham himself and those performed by means of a messenger.,The Gemara continues its analysis of the verse: b“Let now a little water be fetched and wash your feet”(Genesis 18:4). bRabbi Yannai, son of Rabbi Yishmael, saidthat the guests bsaid toAbraham: bAre you suspicious that we are Arabs who bow to the dust of their feet? Yishmael has already issued from him,i.e., your own son acts in this manner.,§ The Gemara expounds another verse involving Abraham: b“And the Lord appeared to him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day”(Genesis 18:1). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“the heat of the day”? Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: That day was the third day after Abraham’s circumcision, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, came to inquireabout the well-being bof Abraham. The Holy One, Blessed be He, removed the sun from its sheath in order not to bother that righteous one with guests,i.e., God made it extremely hot that day to allow Abraham to recover from his circumcision, as he would not be troubled by passing travelers whom he would invite into his tent.,Despite the intense heat, Abraham wanted to invite guests. bHe sent Eliezerhis slave bto go outsideto see if there were any passersby. Eliezer bwent out but did not findanyone. Abraham bsaid to him: I do not believe you.The Gemara comments: bThisdemonstrates the popular adage bthatpeople bthere,i.e., in Eretz Yisrael, bsay: Slaves do not have any credibility.The Gemara continues: Abraham bhimself went out and saw the Holy One, Blessed be He, standing at the entranceto his tent. bThis is as it is written:“My Lord, if now I have found favor in your eyes, bdo not leave Your servant”(Genesis 18:3), i.e., God’s presence was there, and Abraham asked Him for permission to attend to the travelers., bOnceGod bsawAbraham btying and untyingthe bandage on his circumcision, God bsaid:It is bnot proper conduct to stand here,i.e., it is not respectful to Abraham even for God to stand there. bThis is as it is written: “And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, three men stood over him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them”(Genesis 18:2). The verse first states that they stood over him, and then it says that he ran to meet them. The Gemara reconciles this apparent contradiction: bInitially, they came and stood over him. Upon seeing that he was in pain, they said:It is bnot proper conduct to stand here. /b,The Gemara continues: bWho are these three men?They are the angels bMichael, Gabriel, and Raphael: Michael, who came to announceto bSarahthat she was to give birth to a son; bRaphael, who came to heal Abrahamafter his circumcision; and bGabriel,who bwent to overturn Sodom.The Gemara asks: bBut it is written: “And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening”(Genesis 19:1). The Gemara answers bthat Michael went along withGabriel to Sodom bto save Lot.The Gemara notes: The language bis also precise, as it is written: “And he overturned those cities”(Genesis 19:25), band it is not written: They overturnedthose cities. bConclude from itthat only one angel overturned Sodom.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is different with regard tothe incident involving bAbraham,where the angels acquiesced immediately to his request to remain with him, bas it is written: “So do, as you have said”(Genesis 18:5), band what is different with regard to Lot,where they first displayed reluctance, bas it is written: /b
43. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.4

3.4. O sovereign Lord, didst thou not speak at the beginning when thou didst form the earth -- and that without help -- and didst command the dust


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
angels Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
anthropomorphism Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
aristotelian tradition Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
astrology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
body Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
child, childhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 237
cloud man, merkavah imagery related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 288
cosmic christology Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
creation Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
creation of the world Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
creeping things Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
demiurge Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
destruction Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
diatribe Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
discipline Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 17
divine logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149
enoch, repentance represented by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
enoch Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
ethics Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
eve Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
exposition of the law Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 165, 237
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
first cause Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 288
fish Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
god, imitation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
goddess, younger gods Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
greek logos, jewish wisdom and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
heavenly agent Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
human, primal Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
image (εἰκών) Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
imitation, of the divine Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 17
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
jerusalem Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
jewish wisdom, greek logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149
jewish wisdom Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
johannine logos, personified wisdom and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
judaism' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 237
life, likeness Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
literal interpretation, living laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
logos of god Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
manna Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 17
merkavah imagery, devekut to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 288
metaphysics Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
mind Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
monotheism Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
moses Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
noah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
oxen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
paraphrase Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
personified wisdom, johannine logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
philo of alexandria Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
philos colleagues Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
philosophy Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
plato Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
platonic tradition Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
powers of god, beneficent Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
powers of god, creative Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
powers of god, kingly Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
powers of god, punitive Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
prepositional metaphysics Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
prophecy, mosaic Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 288
pseudo-sophronius, the ptolemies Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
punishment, gods powers doling out Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
question and answer Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
scholarship, aristotelian Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
scholarship Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
second god Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149
seeds, serpent, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
segor (tsoʿar) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
seth, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
sheep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
shema\u2003 Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
silence Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
simon magus van den Broek, Gnostic Religion in Antiquity (2013) 171
smell, social activity, wickedness and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
sodom, literal and ethical interpretations of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
sodom, segor escaping Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
sodom, sodomite cities, destruction of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
sodom, the two visitors and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
soul, individual Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
soul, irrational, vegetative Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
spirit, barbelo Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
stoic logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149
stoicism Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
tabernacle Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 288
telos Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
temple Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
testing passim, agents of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 17
the three visitors, vs. lots two visitors Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
timaeus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 181
triads, first Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
valentinus, yaldabaoth van den Broek, Gnostic Religion in Antiquity (2013) 171
virtue, noah, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
virtue, whole and complete Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
wealth, wickedness, social activity and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
wisdom, silence and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
wisdom Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 145
βίος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168
νόμος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
νόμος ἔμψυχος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 287
φιλοπραγμοσύνη Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 168