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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9230
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Creation Of The World, 69


nanSo then after all the other things, as has been said before, Moses says that man was made in the image and likeness of God. And he says well; for nothing that is born on the earth is more resembling God than man. And let no one think that he is able to judge of this likeness from the characters of the body: for neither is God a being with the form of a man, nor is the human body like the form of God; but the resemblance is spoken of with reference to the most important part of the soul, namely, the mind: for the mind which exists in each individual has been created after the likeness of that one mind which is in the universe as its primitive model, being in some sort the God of that body which carries it about and bears its image within it. In the same rank that the great Governor occupies in the universal world, that same as it seems does the mind of man occupy in man; for it is invisible, though it sees everything itself; and it has an essence which is undiscernible, though it can discern the essences of all other things, and making for itself by art and science all sorts of roads leading in divers directions, and all plain; it traverses land and sea, investigating everything which is contained in either element.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

64 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14, 24.11, 33.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 24.11. וְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיֶּחֱזוּ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 24.11. And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand; and they beheld God, and did eat and drink." 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6, 2.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כְּדַבֵּר אַחַת הַנְּבָלוֹת תְּדַבֵּרִי גַּם אֶת־הַטּוֹב נְקַבֵּל מֵאֵת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶת־הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב בִּשְׂפָתָיו׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתֹכָם לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה׃ 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 2.1. Again it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.19-3.20, 8.22, 8.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 3.20. By His knowledge the depths were broken up, And the skies drop down the dew." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him,"
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.5-8.8, 104.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 43.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.4. מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ וַאֲנִי אֲהַבְתִּיךָ וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ וּלְאֻמִּים תַּחַת נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 43.4. Since thou art precious in My sight, and honourable, and I have loved thee; Therefore will I give men for thee, And peoples for thy life."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.12. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 10.12. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding;"
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above."
10. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246e. it partakes of the nature of the divine. But the divine is beauty, wisdom, goodness, and all such qualities; by these then the wings of the soul are nourished and grow, but by the opposite qualities, such as vileness and evil, they are wasted away and destroyed. Socrates. Now the great leader in heaven, Zeus, driving a winged chariot, goes first, arranging all things and caring for all things.
12. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

176a. THEO. If, Socrates, you could persuade all men of the truth of what you say as you do me, there would be more peace and fewer evils among mankind. SOC. But it is impossible that evils should be done away with, Theodorus, for there must always be something opposed to the good; and they cannot have their place among the gods, but must inevitably hover about mortal nature and this earth. Therefore we ought to try to escape from earth to the dwelling of the gods as quickly as we can;
13. Plato, Timaeus, 42, 41 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Anon., Jubilees, 2.14, 6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea.
15. Cicero, On Duties, 3.69 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.69. Hoc quamquam video propter depravationem consuetudinis neque more turpe haberi neque aut lege sanciri aut iure civili, tamen naturae lege sanctum est. Societas est enim (quod etsi saepe dictum est, dicendum est tamen saepius), latissime quidem quae pateat, omnium inter omnes, interior eorum, qui eiusdem gentis sint, propior eorum, qui eiusdem civitatis. Itaque maiores aliud ius gentium, aliud ius civile esse voluerunt; quod civile, non idem continuo gentium, quod autem gentium, idem civile esse debet. Sed nos veri iuris germanaeque iustitiae solidam et expressam effigiem nullam tenemus, umbra et imaginibus utimur. Eas ipsas utinam sequeremur! feruntur enim ex optimis naturae et veritatis exemplis. 3.69.  Owing to the low ebb of public sentiment, such a method of procedure, I find, is neither by custom accounted morally wrong nor forbidden either by statute or by civil law; nevertheless it is forbidden by the moral law. For there is a bond of fellowship — although I have often made this statement, I must still repeat it again and again — which has the very widest application, uniting all men together and each to each. This bond of union is closer between those who belong to the same nation, and more intimate still between those who are citizens of the same city-state. It is for this reason that our forefathers chose to understand one thing by the universal law and another by the civil law. The civil law is not necessarily also the universal law; but the universal law ought to be also the civil law. But we possess no substantial, life-like image of true Law and genuine Justice; a mere outline sketch is all that we enjoy. I only wish that we were true even to this; for, even as it is, it is drawn from the excellent models which Nature and Truth afford.
16. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.'
17. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
18. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.26, 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 70-71, 89, 3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. but since it is necessary, to be consistent with the regular order in which the sacred history proceeds to go on, now to investigate the laws, we will for the present postpone the particular laws which are copies as it were; and first of all examine the more general laws which are, as it were, the models of the others.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 20, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. and I will destroy these things, and I will implant in those souls which are of a childlike age, young shoots, whose fruit shall nourish them. And those shoots are as follows: the practice of writing and reading with facility; an accurate study and investigation of the works of wise poets; geometry, and a careful study of rhetorical speeches, and the whole course of encyclical education. And in those souls which have arrived at the age of puberty or of manhood, I will implant things which are even better and more perfect, namely, the tree of prudence, the tree of courage, the tree of temperance, the tree of justice, the tree of every respective virtue.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 3-4, 47, 6, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. This, then, is the meaning of coming in front of one's judge, when brought up for judgment. But the case of coming in front of any one which has a bearing upon connection or familiarity, may be illustrated by the example of the allwise Abraham. "For," says Moses, "he was still standing in front of God." And a proof of his familiarity is contained in the expression that "he came near to God, and spoke." For it is fitting for one who has no connection with another to stand at a distance, and to be separated from him, but he who is connected with him should stand near to him. 18. These are the causes which may be advanced by probable conjecture, to explain the question which is raised on this point; for the true causes God alone knows. But having said what is fitting concerning these matters, I shall now proceed in regular order to discuss the laws themselves with accuracy and precision: first of all of necessity, mentioning this point, that of his laws God himself, without having need of any one else, thought fit to promulgate some by himself alone, and some he promulgated by the agency of his prophet Moses, whom he selected, by reason of his pre-eminent excellence, out of all men, as the most suitable man to be the interpreter of his will.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 95-97, 56 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

56. for we are of the race of picked men of Israel, that sees God, of whom not one has Disagreed;" that the instrument of the universe, the whole world, may be melodiously sounded in musical harmony.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 12, 121, 14, 73, 88, 11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. And as you must know that it is common for there to be great preludes to great propositions, and the greatest of all propositions is virtue, for it is conversant about the most important of all materials, namely, about the universal life of man; very naturally, therefore, that will not employ any short preface, but rather it will use as such, grammar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and all the other sorts of contemplation which proceed in accordance with reason; of which Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, is an emblem, as we will proceed to show.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 177 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 49, 80-81, 48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

48. For he thinks that it behoves him to adhere to the classification arising from the consideration of time, according to which, that which is oldest is entitled to priority, and after that, that which is the younger is admitted to a participation in their joint rights. But the practiser in wisdom, knowing that natures are not subject to time, desires what is younger first, and what is older afterwards. And moral reason agrees with him in this matter, for it is necessary for those who practise anything, first of all to come to the more recent learning, in order that after that, they may be able to derive advantage from that which is more perfect.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 68-69, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. for the means of life being given to a bad man, inflate and raise up to great height the mind which is devoid of wisdom, which is called the Syrian; but if they are bestowed on a lover of instruction, then they make the mind inclined to abide by the steady and solid doctrines of virtue and excellence. This is the brother of Rebekkah, that is to say, of perseverance, and he dwells in Charran, which name, being interpreted, means "holes," a symbol of the external senses; for he who is still moving about in mortal life has need of the organs of the external senses.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

62. Accordingly, Abraham, as long as he was abiding in the land of the Chaldaeans, that is to say, in opinion, before he received his new name, and while he was still called Abram, was a man born of heaven, investigating the sublime nature of things on high, and all that took place in these regions, and the causes of them, and studying everything of that kind in the true spirit of philosophy; on which account he received an appellation corresponding to the pursuits to which he devoted himself: for the name Abram, being interpreted, signifies the sublime father, and is a name very fitting for the paternal mind, which in every direction contemplates sublime and heavenly things: for the mind is the father of our composite being, reaching as high as the sky and even farther.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 188 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

188. For the name Charran, being interpreted, means "a hole;" and holes are the emblems of the places of the outward sense. For in some sense they are all holes and caves, the eyes being the caves in which the sight dwells, the ears those of hearing, the nostrils of those smelling, the throat the cavern of taste, and the whole frame of the body, being the abode of touch.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 11-17, 66-69, 7, 71, 8-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. And what wonder is there if the living God is beyond the reach of the comprehension of man, when even the mind that is in each of us is unintelligible and unknown to us? Who has ever beheld the essence of the soul? the obscure nature of which has given rise to an infinite number of contests among the sophists who have brought forward opposite opinions, some of which are inconsistent with any kind of nature.
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-139, 14, 140-149, 15, 150-152, 16-19, 2, 20-29, 3, 30-38, 4, 40-49, 5, 50-59, 6, 60-68, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-89, 9, 90-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 19-20, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 28, 92, 169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

169. for God did not grant this even to the all-wise Moses; not though he addressed innumerable requests to him, all having this object; but an oracle was delivered to him, telling him, "Thou shalt see my back parts, but my face thou shalt not See;" and the meaning of this is, that all the things which are behind God are within the comprehension of a virtuous man, but he himself alone is incomprehensible; and he is incomprehensible by any direct and immediate access (for by such means it is only explained what kind of being he is), but he may be understood in his subsequent and consistent faculties; for they, by means of the works accomplished by them, declare not his essence, but his existence. XLIX.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. and the law is a witness to this which in the great hymn speaks thus--"He was fat, he was rich, he was exceeding broad, and he forsook God who had made him, and he forgot God his Saviour." For in truth those men whose lives have been exceedingly fortunate and are so at the time, do not remember the eternal God, but they think time their god;
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 48, 43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

43. And he learnt all these things from Abraham his grandfather, who was the author of his own education, who gave to the all-wise Isaac all that he had, leaving none of his substance to bastards, or to the spurious reasonings of concubines, but he gives them small gifts, as being inconsiderable persons. For the possessions of which he is possessed, namely, the perfect virtues, belong only to the perfect and legitimate son; but those which are of an intermediate character, are suitable to and fall to the share of those who are not perfect, but who have advanced as far as the encyclical branches of elementary education, of which Agar and Cheturah partake, Agar meaning "a dwelling near," and Cheturah meaning "sacrificing.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.46, 1.52-1.60, 1.161-1.165, 1.215-1.216, 1.228-1.229 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.46. therefore his mother, perseverance, that is Rebecca, says to him, "Rise up and flee to Laban, my brother, to Charran, and dwell with him certain Days." Do you not perceive then that the practiser of virtue will not endure to live permanently in the country of the outward senses, but only to remain there a few days and a short time, on account of the necessities of the body to which he is bound? But a longer time and an entire life is allotted to him in the city which is appreciable only by the intellect. IX. 1.52. Therefore, having left the land of the Chaldaeans, Terah is said to have migrated to Charran; bringing with him his son Abraham and the rest of his household who agreed with him in opinion, not in order that we might read in the account of the historical chronicles that some men had become emigrants, leaving their native country and becoming inhabitants of a foreign land as if it were their own country, but in order that a lesson of the greatest importance to life and full of wisdom, and adapted to man alone, might not be neglected. 1.53. And what is the lesson? The Chaldaeans are great astronomers, and the inhabitants of Charran occupy themselves with the topics relating to the external senses. Therefore the sacred account says to the investigator of the things of nature, why are you inquiring about the sun, and asking whether he is a foot broad, whether he is greater than the whole earth put together, or whether he is even many times as large? And why are you investigating the causes of the light of the moon, and whether it has a borrowed light, or one which proceeds solely from itself? Why, again, do you seek to understand the nature of the rest of the stars, of their motion, of their sympathy with one another, and even with earthly things? 1.54. And why, while walking upon the earth do you soar above the clouds? And why, while rooted in the solid land, do you affirm that you can reach the things in the sky? And why do you endeavour to form conjectures about matters which cannot be ascertained by conjecture? And why do you busy yourself about sublime subjects which you ought not to meddle with? And why do you extend your desire to make discoveries in mathematical science as far as the heaven? And why do you devote yourself to astronomy, and talk about nothing but high subjects? My good man, do not trouble your head about things beyond the ocean, but attend only to what is near you; and be content rather to examine yourself without flattery. 1.55. How, then, will you find out what you want, even if you are successful? Go with full exercise of your intellect to Charran, that is, to the trench which is dug, into the holes and caverns of the body, and investigate the eyes, the ears, the nostrils, and the other organs of the external senses; and if you wish to be a philosopher, study philosophically that branch which is the most indispensable and at the same time the most becoming to a man, and inquire what the faculty of sight is, what hearing is, what taste, what smell, what touch is, in a word, what is external sense; then seek to understand what it is to see, and how you see; what it is to hear, and how you hear; what it is to smell, or to taste, or to touch, and how each of these operations is ordinarily effected. 1.56. But it is not the very extravagance of insane folly to seek to comprehend the dwelling of the universe, before your own private dwelling is accurately known to you? But I do not as yet lay the more important and extensive injunction upon you to make yourself acquainted with your own soul and mind, of the knowledge of which you are so proud; for in reality you will never be able to comprehend it. 1.57. Mount up then to heaven, and talk arrogantly about the things which exist there, before you are as yet able to comprehend, according to the words of the poet, "All the good and all the evil Which thy own abode contains;" and, bringing down that messenger of yours from heaven, and dragging him down from his search into matters existing there, become acquainted with yourself, and carefully and diligently labour to arrive at such happiness as is permitted to man. 1.58. Now this disposition the Hebrews called Terah, and the Greeks Socrates; for they say also that the latter grew old in the most accurate study by which he could hope to know himself, never once directing his philosophical speculations to the subjects beyond himself. But he was really a man; but Terah is the principle itself which is proposed to every one, according to which each man should know himself, like a tree full of good branches, in order that these persons who are fond of virtue might without difficulty gather the fruit of pure morality, and thus become filled with the most delightful and saving food. 1.59. Such, then, are those men who reconnoitre the quarters of wisdom for us; but those who are actually her athletes, and who practise her exercises, are more perfect. For these men think fit to learn with complete accuracy the whole question connected with the external senses, and after having done so, then to proceed to another and more important speculation, leaving all consideration of the holes of the body which they call Charran. 1.60. of the number of these men is Abraham, who attained to great progress and improvement in the comprehension of complete knowledge; for when he knew most, then he most completely renounced himself in order to attain to the accurate knowledge of him who was the truly living God. And, indeed, this is a very natural course of events; for he who completely understands himself does also very much, because of his thorough appreciation of it, renounce the universal nothingness of the creature; and he who renounces himself learns to comprehend the living God. XI. 1.161. for having forsaken the language of those who indulge in sublime conversations about astronomy, a language imitating that of the Chaldaeans, foreign and barbarous, he was brought over to that which was suited to a rational being, namely, to the service of the great Cause of all things. 1.162. Now this disposition stands in need of two powers to take care of it, the power that is of authority, and that of conferring benefits, in order that in accordance with the authority of the governor, it may obey the admonitions which it receives, and also that it may be greatly benefited by his beneficence. But the other disposition stands in need of the power of beneficence only; for it has not derived any improvement from the authority which admonishes it, inasmuch as it naturally claims virtue as its own, but by reason of the bounty which is showered upon it from above, it was good and perfect from the beginning; 1.163. therefore God is the name of the beneficent power, and Lord is the title of the royal power. What then can any one call a more ancient and important good, than to be thought worthy to meet with unmixed and unalloyed beneficence? And what can be less valuable than to receive a mixture of authority and liberality? And it appears to me that it was because the practiser of virtue saw that he uttered that most admirable prayer that, "the Lord might be to him as God;" for he desired no longer to stand in awe of him as a governor, but to honour and love him as a benefactor. 1.164. Now is it not fitting that even blind men should become sharpsighted in their minds to these and similar things, being endowed with the power of sight by the most sacred oracles, so as to be able to contemplate the glories of nature, and not to be limited to the mere understanding of the words? But even if we voluntarily close the eye of our soul and take no care to understand such mysteries, or if we are unable to look up to them, the hierophant himself stands by and prompts us. And do not thou ever cease through weariness to anoint thy eyes until you have introduced those who are duly initiated to the secret light of the sacred scriptures, and have displayed to them the hidden things therein contained, and their reality, which is invisible to those who are uninitiated. 1.165. It is becoming then for you to act thus; but as for ye, O souls, who have once tasted of divine love, as if you had even awakened from deep sleep, dissipate the mist that is before you; and hasten forward to that beautiful spectacle, putting aside slow and hesitating fear, in order to comprehend all the beautiful sounds and sights which the president of the games has prepared for your advantage. XXVII. 1.215. For there are, as it seems, two temples belonging to God; one being this world, in which the high priest is the divine word, his own firstborn son. The other is the rational soul, the priest of which is the real true man, the copy of whom, perceptible to the senses, is he who performs his paternal vows and sacrifices, to whom it is enjoined to put on the aforesaid tunic, the representation of the universal heaven, in order that the world may join with the man in offering sacrifice, and that the man may likewise co-operate with the universe. 1.216. He is now therefore shown to have these two things, the speckled and the variegated character. We will now proceed to explain the third and most perfect kind, which is denominated thoroughly white. When this same high priest enters into the innermost parts of the holy temple, he is clothed in the variegated garment, and he also assumes another linen robe, made of the very finest flax. 1.228. A very glorious boast for the soul, that God should think fit to appear to and to converse with it. And do not pass by what is here said, but examine it accurately, and see whether there are really two Gods. For it is said: "I am the God who was seen by thee;" not in my place, but in the place of God, as if he meant of some other God. 1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou);
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.18, 2.13, 3.1-3.6, 4.69 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. But it is altogether ridiculous to imagine that the mind, which is the smallest thing in us, being in fact invisible, is the ruler of those organs which belong to the external senses, but that the greatest and most perfect ruler of the whole universe is not the King of kings; that the being who sees, is not the ruler of those who do not see. 2.13. for there are some men who swear, if chance so prompts them, to commit theft, or sacrilege, or adultery, or rape, or to inflict wounds or slaughter, or any similar acts of wickedness, and who perform them without any delay, making an excuse that they must keep their oaths, as if it were not better and more acceptable to God to do no iniquity, than to perform such a vow and oath as that. The national laws and ancient ordices of every people are established for the sake of justice and of every virtue, and what else are laws and ordices but the sacred words of nature having an authority and power in themselves, so that they differ in no respect from oaths? 3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life. 3.3. Nevertheless, the most grievous of all evils was lying in wait for me, namely, envy, that hates every thing that is good, and which, suddenly attacking me, did not cease from dragging me after it by force till it had taken me and thrown me into the vast sea of the cares of public politics, in which I was and still am tossed about without being able to keep myself swimming at the top. 3.4. But though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne 3.5. And if at any time unexpectedly there shall arise a brief period of tranquillity, and a short calm and respite from the troubles which arise from state affairs, I then rise aloft and float above the troubled waves, soaring as it were in the air, and being, I may almost say, blown forward by the breezes of knowledge, which often persuades me to flee away, and to pass all my days with her, escaping as it were from my pitiless masters, not men only, but also affairs which pour upon me from all quarters and at all times like a torrent. 3.6. But even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II. 4.69. And what in life is there equally beautiful with truth, which the all-wise legislator erected in the most sacred place, in that part of the dress of the chief priest, where the domit part of the soul lies, wishing to adorn it with the most beautiful and glorious of all ornaments? And next to truth he has placed power as akin to it, which he has in this case called manifestation, being the two images of the two kinds of speech which exist in us, the secret speech and the lettered speech, for the lettered speech requires manifestation, by which the secret thoughts in all our hearts are made known to our neighbour, but the secret speech has need of truth for the perfection of life and actions, by means of which the road to happiness is found out.XII.
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 147 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

147. But, nevertheless, the lawgiver neither neglected the safety of the unclean animals, nor did he permit those which were clean to use their strength in disregard of justice, crying out and declaring loudly in express words, if one may say so, to those persons who have ears in their soul, not to injure any one of a different nation, unless they have some grounds for bringing accusations against them beyond the fact of their being of another nation, which is not ground of blame; for those things which are not wickedness, and which do not proceed from wickedness, are free from all reproach. XXVIII.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.7, 2.11, 2.13, 2.44, 2.48, 2.59-2.65, 2.127-2.129 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. Therefore the connection of these four powers is beautiful and harmonious, for being all connected together and united one to another, they unite in concert, receiving and imparting a reciprocity of benefits from and to one another, imitating the virgin graces with whom it is an immutable law of their nature that they cannot be disunited, with respect to whom one might fairly say, what is habitually said of the virtues, that he who has one has them all. 2.11. And those who are well versed in the sacred scriptures know this, for if he had not had these principles innate within him he would never have compiled those scriptures at the promptings of God. And he gave to those who were worthy to use them the most admirable of all possessions, namely, faithful copies and imitations of the original examples which were consecrated and enshrined in the soul, which became the laws which he revealed and established, displaying in the clearest manner the virtues which I have enumerated and described above. 2.13. if any one examines them by his reason, he will find to be put in motion in an innumerable multitude of pretexts, either because of wars, or of tyrannies, or of some other unexpected events which come upon nations through the various alterations and innovations of fortune; and very often luxury, abounding in all kind of superfluity and unbounded extravagance, has overturned laws, from the multitude not being able to bear unlimited prosperity, but having a tendency to become insolent through satiety, and insolence is in opposition to law. 2.44. and then, if they make any fresh start and begin to improve, how great is the increase of their renown and glory? I think that in that case every nation, abandoning all their own individual customs, and utterly disregarding their national laws, would change and come over to the honour of such a people only; for their laws shining in connection with, and simultaneously with, the prosperity of the nation, will obscure all others, just as the rising sun obscures the stars. 2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words. 2.59. But in the great deluge I may almost say that the whole of the human race was destroyed, while the history tells us that the house of Noah alone was preserved free from all evil, inasmuch as the father and governor of the house was a man who had never committed any intentional or voluntary wickedness. And it is worth while to relate the manner of his preservation as the sacred scriptures deliver it to us, both on account of the extraordinary character of it, and also that it may lead to an improvement in our own dispositions and lives. 2.60. For he, being considered a fit man, not only to be exempted from the common calamity which was to overwhelm the world, but also to be himself the beginning of a second generation of men, in obedience to the divine commands which were conveyed to him by the word of God, built a most enormous fabric of wood, three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in width, and thirty in height, and having prepared a number of connected chambers within it, both on the ground floor and in the upper story, the whole building consisting of three, and in some parts of four stories, and having prepared food, brought into it some of every description of animals, beasts and also birds, both male and female, in order to preserve a means of propagating the different species in the times that should come hereafter; 2.61. for he knew that the nature of God was merciful, and that even if the subordinate species were destroyed, still there would be a germ in the entire genus which should be safe from destruction, for the sake of preserving a similitude to those animals which had hitherto existed, and of preventing anything that had been deliberately called into existence from being utterly destroyed. 2.62. and after they had all entered into the ark, if any one had beheld the entire collection, he would not have been wrong if he had said that it was a representation of the whole earth, containing, as it did, every kind of animal, of which the whole earth had previously produced innumerable species, and will hereafter produce such again. 2.63. And what was expected happened at no long period after; for the evil abated, and the destruction caused by the deluge was diminished every day, the rain being checked, and the water which had been spread over the whole earth, being partly dried up by the flame of the sun, and partly returning into the chasms and rivers, and other channels and receptacles in the earth; for, as if God had issued a command to that effect, every nature received back, as a necessary repayment of a loan, what it had lent, that is, every sea, and fountain, and river, received back their waters; and every stream returned into its appropriate channel. 2.64. But after the purification, in this way, of all the things beneath the moon, the earth being thus washed and appearing new again, and such as it appeared to be when it was at first created, along with the entire universe, Noah came forth out of his wooden edifice, himself and his wife, and his sons and their wives, and with his family there came forth likewise, in one company, all the races of animals which had gone in with them, in order to the generation and propagation of similar creatures in future. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb 2.127. And this logeum is described as double with great correctness; for reason is double, both in the universe and also in the nature of mankind, in the universe there is that reason which is conversant about incorporeal species which are like patterns as it were, from which that world which is perceptible only by the intellect was made, and also that which is concerned with the visible objects of sight, which are copies and imitations of those species above mentioned, of which the world which is perceptible by the outward senses was made. Again, in man there is one reason which is kept back, and another which finds vent in utterance: and the one is, as it were a spring, and the other (that which is uttered 2.128. And the architect assigned a quadrangular form to the logeum, intimating under an exceedingly beautiful figure, that both the reason of nature, and also that of man, ought to penetrate everywhere, and ought never to waver in any case; in reference to which, it is that he has also assigned to it the two virtues that have been already enumerated, manifestation and truth; for the reason of nature is true, and calculated to make manifest, and to explain everything; and the reason of the wise man, imitating that other reason, ought naturally, and appropriately to be completely sincere, honouring truth, and not obscuring anything through envy, the knowledge of which can benefit those to whom it would be explained; 2.129. not but what he has also assigned their two appropriate virtues to those two kinds of reason which exist in each of us, namely, that which is uttered and that which is kept concealed, attributing clearness of manifestation to the uttered one, and truth to that which is concealed in the mind; for it is suitable to the mind that it should admit of no error or falsehood, and to explanation that it should not hinder anything that can conduce to the most accurate manifestation.
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 156 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

156. Therefore, he knew that they had synagogues, and that they were in the habit of visiting them, and most especially on the sacred sabbath days, when they publicly cultivate their national philosophy. He knew also that they were in the habit of contributing sacred sums of money from their first fruits and sending them to Jerusalem by the hands of those who were to conduct the sacrifices.
41. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.32, 1.39-1.40, 2.89-2.90 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh.
42. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, 2.68 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

43. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.21, 1.31, 1.81, 3.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 140-142, 146, 156, 159-160, 165-172, 176, 181, 184, 187-188, 190, 192-193, 196-197, 199, 201, 205-206, 209, 214, 226, 230-232, 235-236, 57, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

134. for, having taken it, he began to divide it thus: in the first instance, he made two divisions, the heavy and the light, separating that which was thick from that which was more subtle. After that, he again made a second division of each, dividing the subtle part into air and fire, and the denser portion into water and earth; and, first of all, he laid down those elements, which are perceptible by the outward senses, to be, as it were, the foundations of the world which is perceptible by the outward senses.
45. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 66, 84-87, 89-90, 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

126. And this will also be proved by the oracle which was given to the all-wise Moses, in which these words are contained: "Behold, is there not Aaron thy brother, the Levite? I know that he will speak for thee; and behold he will be coming forth to meet thee, and he will rejoice in himself when he seeth Thee." For here the Creator says, that he knows that uttered speech is a burden to the mind, because it speaks; for he represents it, that is to say, articulate sound, as the organ, as it were, of all this concrete being of ours.
46. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 46-47, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. In such important points are animals superior to plants. Let us now see in what man is superior to the rest of the animal creation. X. Man, then, has received this one extraordinary gift, intellect, which is accustomed to comprehend the nature of all bodies and of all things at the same time; for, as in the body, the sight is the most important faculty, and since in the universe the nature of light is the most pre-eminent thing, in the same manner that part of us which is entitled to the highest rank is the mind.
47. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 76, 81-84, 86, 89-91, 75 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

75. Moreover Palestine and Syria too are not barren of exemplary wisdom and virtue, which countries no slight portion of that most populous nation of the Jews inhabits. There is a portion of those people called Essenes, in number something more than four thousand in my opinion, who derive their name from their piety, though not according to any accurate form of the Grecian dialect, because they are above all men devoted to the service of God, not sacrificing living animals, but studying rather to preserve their own minds in a state of holiness and purity.
48. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 27, 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

126. And Moses very appropriately says that the fruit of education is not only holy but also praised; for every one of the virtues is a holy thing, but most especially is gratitude holy; but it is impossible to show gratitude to God in a genuine manner, by those means which people in general think the only ones, namely offerings and sacrifices; for the whole world could not be a temple worthy to be raised to his honour, except by means of praises and hymns, and those too must be such as are sung, not by loud voices, but by the invisible and pure mind, which shall raise the shout and song to him.
49. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.35-15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ. 15.58. Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast,immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know thatyour labor is not in vain in the Lord.
50. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

51. New Testament, Ephesians, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, that you may be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inward man;
52. New Testament, John, 1.3-1.4, 1.9-1.18, 8.56, 11.27, 12.34, 12.41, 12.46, 16.21, 20.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 8.56. Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day. He saw it, and was glad. 11.27. She said to him, "Yes, Lord. I have come to believe that you are the Christ, God's Son, he who comes into the world. 12.34. The multitude answered him, "We have heard out of the law that the Christ remains forever. How do you say, 'The Son of Man must be lifted up?' Who is this Son of Man? 12.41. Isaiah said these things when he saw his glory, and spoke of him. 12.46. I have come as a light into the world, that whoever believes in me may not remain in the darkness. 16.21. A woman, when she gives birth, has sorrow, because her time has come. But when she has delivered the child, she doesn't remember the anguish any more, for the joy that a human being is born into the world. 20.31. but these are written, that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.
53. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 34 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. But the youth said unto the apostle with many tears: Wherein have I sinned against thee? for thou art a man that hast two forms, and wheresoever thou wilt, there thou art found, and art restrained of no man, as I behold. For I saw that man that stood by thee and said unto thee: I have many wonders to show forth by thy means and I have great works to accomplish by thee, for which thou shalt receive a reward; and thou shalt make many to live, and they shall be in rest in light eternal as children of God. Do thou then, saith he, speaking unto thee of me, quicken this youth that hath been stricken of the enemy and be at all times his overseer. Well, therefore, art thou come hither, and well shalt thou depart again unto him, and yet he never shall leave thee at any time. But I am become without care or reproach: and he hath enlightened me from the care of the night and I am at rest from the toil of the day: and I am set free from him that provoked me to do thus, sinning against him that taught me to do contrary thereto: and I have lost him that is the kinsman of the night that compelled me to sin by his own deeds, and have found him that is of the light, and is my kinsman. I have lost him that darkeneth and blindeth his own subjects that they may not know what they do and, being ashamed at their own works, may depart from him, and their works come to an end; and have found him whose works are light and his deeds truth, which if a man doeth he repenteth not of them. And I have left him with whom lying abideth, and before whom darkness goeth as a veil, and behind him followeth shame, shameless in indolence; and I have found him that showeth me fair things that I may take hold on them, even the son of the truth that is akin unto concord, who scattereth away the mist and enlighteneth his own creation, and healeth the wounds thereof and overthroweth the enemies thereof. But I beseech thee, O man of God, cause me to behold him again, and to see him that is now become hidden from me, that I may also hear his voice whereof I am not able to express the wonder, for it belongeth not to the nature of this bodily organ. [Before this speech Syr. (Wright) inserts one of equal length, chiefly about man's free will and fall. But the fifth-century palimpsest edited by Mrs. Lewis agrees with the Greek.]
54. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1, 12.6, 41.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 12.6. תּוֹלְדוֹת אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן כָּל תּוֹלְדוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בַּתּוֹרָה חֲסֵרִין בַּר מִן תְּרֵין (רות ד, יח): וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדוֹת פָּרֶץ וגו' וְהָדֵין. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אִינוּן חֲסֵרִין, רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אָבִין אָמַר כְּנֶגֶד שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים שֶׁנִּטְּלוּ מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: זִיווֹ, חַיָּיו, וְקוֹמָתוֹ, וּפְרִי הָאָרֶץ, וּפֵרוֹת הָאִילָן, וּמְאוֹרוֹת. זִיווֹ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב יד, כ): מְשַׁנֶּה פָנָיו וַתְּשַׁלְּחֵהוּ. חַיָּיו מִנַּיִן (בראשית ג, יט): כִּי עָפָר אַתָּה. קוֹמָתוֹ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ג, ח): וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה גֻּזְעָה קוֹמָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְנַעֲשֵׂית שֶׁל מֵאָה אַמָּה. פְּרִי הָאִילָן וּפְרִי הָאָרֶץ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ג, יז): אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ. מְאוֹרוֹת, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אִישׁ כְּפַר עַכּוֹ אָמַר מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְקַלְּלוּ הַמְאוֹרוֹת מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לֹא לָקוּ עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת. אַתְיָא כְּרַבָּנָן וְלָא אַתְיָא כְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לֹא לָן כְּבוֹדוֹ עִמּוֹ, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (תהלים מט, יג): אָדָם בִּיקָר בַּל יָלִין וגו'. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת נִטַּל זִיווֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וּטְרָדוֹ מִגַּן עֵדֶן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ג, כד): וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת הָאָדָם, וּכְתִיב (איוב יד, כ): מְשַׁנֶּה פָנָיו וַתְּשַׁלְּחֵהוּ, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן, אוֹתָהּ הָאוֹרָה שֶׁנִּבְרָא בָּהּ הָעוֹלָם, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן עָמַד וְהִבִּיט בָּהּ מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַעֲשֵׂה דּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ וּמַעֲשֵׂה דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל וּמַעֲשֵׂה דּוֹר הַפְלָגָה שֶׁהֵן מְקוּלְקָלִים, עָמַד וּגְנָזוֹ מֵהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב לח, טו): וְיִמָּנַע מֵרְשָׁעִים אוֹרָם. וְלָמָּה גְּנָזוֹ, אֶלָּא גְּנָזוֹ לַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, ד): וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאוֹר כִּי טוֹב, וְאֵין טוֹב אֶלָּא צַדִּיקִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ג, י): אִמְרוּ צַדִּיק כִּי טוֹב. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁגְּנָזוֹ לַצַּדִּיקִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ד, יח): וְאֹרַח צַדִּיקִים כְּאוֹר נֹגַהּ. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹר שֶׁהוּא גָּנוּז לַצַּדִּיקִים שָׂמַח, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי יג, ט): וְאוֹר צַדִּיקִים יִשְׂמָח. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי גְּזֵירָא אָמַר, שְׁלשִׁים וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת שִׁמְשָׁה אוֹתָהּ הָאוֹרָה, שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שֶׁל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שֶׁל לֵיל שַׁבָּת, וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָטָא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּקֵּשׁ לְגָנְזָהּ, חָלַק כָּבוֹד לַשַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, ג): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, וּבַמֶּה בֵּרְכוֹ, בָּאוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁקְעָה הַחַמָּה בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת שִׁמְשָׁה הָאוֹרָה, הִתְחִילוּ הַכֹּל מְקַלְּסִין לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב לז, ג): תַּחַת כָּל הַשָּׁמַיִם יִשְׁרֵהוּ, מִפְּנֵי מָה, (איוב לז, ג): וְאוֹרוֹ עַל כַּנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ. הֵאִירָה אוֹתָהּ הָאוֹרָה כָּל הַיּוֹם וְכָל הַלַּיְלָה. כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁקְעָה חַמָּה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת הִתְחִיל הַחשֶׁךְ מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָא, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִתְיָרֵא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אָמַר שֶׁמָּא אוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (בראשית ג, טו): הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב, בָּא לְהִזְדַּוֵּוג לִי, (תהלים קלט, יא): וָאֹמַר אַךְ חשֶׁךְ יְשׁוּפֵנִי, אֶתְמְהָא. מֶה עָשָׂה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא זִמֵּן לוֹ שְׁנֵי רְעָפִים וְהִקִּישָׁן זֶה לָזֶה וְיָצָאת הָאוֹר וּבֵרַךְ עָלֶיהָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, יא): וְלַיְלָה אוֹר בַּעֲדֵנִי, אַתְיָא כְּהַהִיא דְּתָנֵי דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מִפְּנֵי מָה מְבָרְכִין עַל הָאוֹר בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בּוֹרֵא מְאוֹרֵי הָאֵשׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ, רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר, אַף בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשָּׁבַת בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ הַדְּבָרִים עַל מְלֵיאָתָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָטָא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נִתְקַלְקְלוּ, וְעוֹד אֵינָן חוֹזְרִין לְתִקּוּנָן עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא בֶּן פֶּרֶץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (רות ד, יח): וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדוֹת פֶּרֶץ, מָלֵא, בִּשְׁבִיל שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: זִיווֹ, חַיָּיו, קוֹמָתוֹ, פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ, וּפֵרוֹת הָאִילָן, וּמְאוֹרוֹת. זִיווֹ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ה, לא): וְאֹהֲבָיו כְּצֵאת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּגְבֻרָתוֹ. חַיָּיו מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סה, כב): כִּי כִּימֵי הָעֵץ יְמֵי עַמִּי וגו', תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר אֵין עֵץ אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ג, יח): עֵץ חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ. קוֹמָתוֹ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כו, יג): וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא בְּקוֹמָה זְקוּפָה וְלֹא יְרֵאִים מִכָּל בְּרִיָּה. רַבִּי יוּדָן אוֹמֵר מֵאָה אַמָּה כְּאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אָמַר מָאתַיִם אַמָּה. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אָמַר שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת, קוֹמְמָאָה, מִיּוּת מָאתַיִם. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמַר תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת אַמָּה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי דוֹסָא אָמַר טַעְמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מֵהָכָא: כִּי כִּימֵי הָעֵץ יְמֵי עַמִּי, כַּשִּׁקְמָה הַזּוֹ שֶׁהִיא עוֹשָׂה בָּאָרֶץ שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה, וְהַוְּלַד יוֹצֵא מִמְּעֵי אִמּוֹ בְּאַמָּה גְדוּמָה, צֵא וַחֲשֹׁב אַמָּה וּמֶחֱצָה בְּכָל שָׁנָה, הֲרֵי תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת אַמָּה. פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ וּפֵרוֹת הָאִילָן מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה ח, יב): כִּי זֶרַע הַשָּׁלוֹם הַגֶּפֶן תִּתֵּן פִּרְיָהּ וגו'. מְאוֹרוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ל, כו): וְהָיָה אוֹר הַלְּבָנָה כְּאוֹר הַחַמָּה וגו'. 41.3. וְאַבְרָם כָּבֵד מְאֹד בַמִּקְנֶה בַּכֶּסֶף וּבַזָּהָב (בראשית יג, ב), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קה, לז): וַיּוֹצִיאֵם בְּכֶסֶף וְזָהָב וגו'. (בראשית יג, ג): וַיֵּלֶךְ לְמַסָּעָיו, בַּמַּסָּעוֹת שֶׁהָלַךְ, בָּהֶן חָזַר. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי מְנַחֵם הָלַךְ לִפְרֹעַ הַקָּפוֹתָיו. (בראשית יג, ה): וְגַם לְלוֹט הַהֹלֵךְ אֶת אַבְרָם וגו', אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים טוֹבִים הָיוּ לְלוֹט בַּעֲבוּר אַבְרָם, (בראשית יב, ד): וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָם וגו' וַיֵּלֶךְ אִתּוֹ לוֹט. וְגַם לְלוֹט הַהֹלֵךְ אֶת אַבְרָם. (בראשית יד, טז): וַיָּשֶׁב אֶת כָּל הָרְכֻשׁ וְגַם אֶת לוֹט. (בראשית יט, כט): וַיְהִי בְּשַׁחֵת אֱלֹהִים וגו' וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת אַבְרָהָם וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת לוֹט מִתּוֹךְ וגו'. וּכְנֶגְדָּן הָיוּ בָנָיו צְרִיכִים לִפְרֹעַ לָנוּ טוֹבוֹת, לֹא דַּיָּן שֶׁלֹא פָּרְעוּ לָנוּ טוֹבוֹת אֶלָּא רָעוֹת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (במדבר כב, ה ו): וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָכִים אֶל בִּלְעָם בֶּן בְּעוֹר וגו' וְעַתָּה לְכָה נָא אָרָה לִי אֶת הָעָם. (שופטים ג, יג): וַיֶּאֱסֹף אֵלָיו אֶת בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וַעֲמָלֵק וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּךְ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּירְשׁוּ אֶת עִיר הַתְּמָרִים. (דברי הימים ב כ, א): וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי כֵן בָּאוּ בְנֵי מוֹאָב וּבְנֵי מִדְיָן [ועמון] וְעִמָּהֶם מִן הָעַמּוֹנִים עַל יְהוֹשָׁפָט. וְעוֹד כְּתִיב (איכה א, י): יָדוֹ פָּרַשׂ צָר עַל כָּל מַחֲמַדֶּיהָ. וְנִכְתַּב חֵטְא שֶׁלָּהֶם בְּאַרְבָּעָה מְקוֹמוֹת, (דברים כג, ד ה): לֹא יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי, עַל דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם, וּכְתִיב (מיכה ו, ה): עַמִּי זְכָר נָא מַה יָּעַץ בָּלָק מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וּמֶה עָנָה וגו'. (נחמיה יג, ב): כִּי לֹא קִדְּמוּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמָּיִם וַיִּשְׂכֹּר עָלָיו אֶת בִּלְעָם לְקַלְלוֹ (יהושע כד, ט): וַיִּקְרָא לְבִלְעָם בֶּן בְּעוֹר לְקַלֵּל אֶתְכֶם. עָמְדוּ אַרְבָּעָה נְבִיאִים וְחָתְמוּ גְּזַר דִּינָם, אֵלּוּ הֵם: יְשַׁעְיָה וְיִרְמְיָה צְפַנְיָה וִיחֶזְקֵאל. יְשַׁעְיָה אָמַר (ישעיה טו, א): מַשָֹּׂא מוֹאָב כִּי בְּלֵיל שֻׁדַּד עָר מוֹאָב נִדְמָה כִּי בְּלֵיל שֻׁדַּד קִיר מוֹאָב נִדְמָה. יִרְמְיָה אָמַר (ירמיה מט, ב): לָכֵן הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם ה' וְהִשְׁמַעְתִּי אֶל רַבַּת בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן תְּרוּעַת מִלְחָמָה וְהָיְתָה לְתֵל שְׁמָמָה וּבְנֹתֶיהָ בָּאֵשׁ תִּצַּתְנָה וְיָרַשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת יֹרְשָׁיו אָמַר ה'. יְחֶזְקֵאל אָמַר (יחזקאל כה, י יא): לִבְנֵי קֶדֶם עַל בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְמוֹרָשָׁה לְמַעַן לֹא תִזָּכֵר בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן בַּגּוֹיִם, וּבְמוֹאָב אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי ה': צְפַנְיָה אָמַר (צפניה ב, ט): לָכֵן חַי אָנִי נְאֻם ה' צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מוֹאָב כִּסְדֹם תִּהְיֶה וּבְנֵי עַמּוֹן כַּעֲמֹרָה וגו'. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)." 12.6. ... seven things were taken away from Adam Harishon after he ate from the tree of knowing, including among them] his brilliance, his life, and his stature / zivo v’chayyav v’qomato..." 41.3. ... R’ Shimon bar Aba said in the name of R’ Yocha: any where that it says ‘and it was’ (vayehi) it indicates distress and joy. If it is distress there is no distress like it and if it is joy there is no joy like it. R’ Shmuel ben Nachmani came and split the teaching in half. Anywhere that it says ‘and it was’ (vayehi) indicates distress, ‘and it will be’ (v’haya) indicates joy…The brought a challenge from this verse “…and he was [there] (v’haya) when Jerusalem was taken.” (Jeremiah 38:28) He said to them: this is still a cause of joy because on that very day Israel received full payment for their sins. As R’ Shmuel ben Nachmani said: Israel received full payment for their sins on the day the Holy Temple was destroyed, as it says “Your iniquity is finished, O daughter of Zion…” (Lamentations 4:22)"
55. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.4.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Tertullian, On The Soul, 21 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. bEvery chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the manwho has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). bAnd he concluded with “happy,” as it is writtenat the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. bHappy are those who take refuge in Him”(Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say iHalleluyauntil he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: bThere were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking?On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, bas it is written: “Let sins cease from the land”(Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But bis it written,let bsinnerscease?” Let bsinscease, bis written.One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., bMoreover, go to the end of the verse,where it says: b“And the wicked will be no more.”If, as you suggest, btransgressions shall ceaserefers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that bthe wicked will be no more,i.e., that they will no longer be evil? bRather, pray forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should repent,as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct band he prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, and they repented. /b,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: bA certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth,open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). bBecause she has not given birth,she should bsingand rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and bsaid: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b, bRather, whatis the meaning of: b“Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”?It means: bSing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who aredestined bfor Gehenna like you. /b,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1), bandsimilarly bit is said:“To the chief musician, ial tashḥet /i, ba imikhtamof David when fleeing from Saul into the cave”(Psalms 57:1). bWhich event was first? Since the event with Saul was first,it would have been appropriate bto write it first. /b,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him:For byou, who donot employ the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is difficult.But for bus, whoemploy the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is not difficult,as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, bRabbi Yoḥa said: From wherein the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the bjuxtapositionof verses? bAs it is said:“The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. bAdjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness”(Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, bWhy was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog?They are juxtaposed bsothat bif a person should say to you,expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: bIs there a slave who rebels against his master?Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? bYou too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his fatherand severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? bYet,nevertheless, bthere wassuch a son, Absalom, and bso too therecan bbea situation where people will seek to rebel against God., bRabbi Yoḥa saidexplanations of other verses bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so bwith reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said thisverse babout none other than his father, David,who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and bwho resided in five worldsor stages of life bandhis soul bsaid a songof praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., bHe resided in his mother’s womb,his first world, band said a songof praise of the pregcy, bas it is stated:“of David. bBless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name”(Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., bHe emerged into the atmosphere of the world,his second world, blooked upon the stars and constellations and said a songof praise of God for the entirety of creation, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts,His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i)., bHe nursed from his mother’s breast,his third world, band he looked upon her bosom and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ igemulav /i]”(Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between igemulavand igemulei meḥalav /i, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, bwhat ismeant by ball His benefits?What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? bRabbi Abbahu said:In contrast with most other animals, God bplaced her breastsnear her heart, bthe placethat is the source bof understanding. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat God did this? bRav Yehuda said: So thatthe nursing child bwould not look upon the place ofhis mother’s bnakedness. Rav Mattana said: So thatthe child bwould not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b, bHe witnessedin both vision and reality bthe downfall of the wicked and he said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David blooked upon the day of death and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty”(Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat bthisverse bwas stated with regard to the day of death?Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this bfromthe verses at bthe end of the matter,where bit is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perishand return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how bRav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularlystudy bbefore Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi,who was well versed in iaggadaand bwould arrange the iaggadabefore Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. brOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi bsaid to him: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? brRav Shimi bar Ukva bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bCome and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood,as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. bThe attribute of flesh and blood issuch that he bshapes a form on the wallfor all to see, yet bhe cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines.While bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so,as God bshapes one form within another form,a child in its mother’s womb, band instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this isthe explanation of bwhat Hannah saidwith regard to the birth of Samuel: b“There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God”(I Samuel 2:2)., bWhat isthe meaning of bthere is no rock [ itzur /i] like our God? There is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of b“there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not readthe verse to mean b“there is none like You [ ibiltekha /i]”; rather, readit to mean b“none can outlast You [ ilevalotkha /i],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood issuch bthat his creations outlast him,but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bImeant to bsay to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these fiveinstance of b“Blessthe Lord, bO my soul”?He answered him: bHe said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul,as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber,in His inner sanctum, bso too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber,in the innermost recesses of the body. brTherefore, bthat which has these five characteristics,the soul, bshould come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. bRav Hamnuna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenpraising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b“Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of the matter”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: bWho is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ ipeshara /i] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah,the king of Judea, band Isaiahthe prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. bHezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijahthe prophet, bwho went to Ahab,the king of Israel, bas it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab”(I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. bAnd Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab,king of Israel, bwho went to Elishathe prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., bWhat did the Holy One, Blessed be He, doto effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? bHe brought the sufferingof illness bupon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick.Isaiah did as God instructed, bas it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live”(Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; bwhat isthe meaning of byou will die and you will not live?This repetition means: bYou will die in this world, and you will not live,you will have no share, bin the World-to-Come. /b,Hezekiah bsaid to him: What is all of this?For what transgression am I being punished? brIsaiah bsaid to him: Because you did notmarry and bengage in procreation. brHezekiah apologized and bsaid:I had no children bbecause I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous.Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah bsaid to him: Why do youinvolve byourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded,the mitzva of procreation, byou are required to perform, and that which is acceptablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform,as He has so decided.,Hezekiah bsaid toIsaiah: bNow give me your daughteras my wife; bperhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. brIsaiah bsaid to him: The decree has already been decreed against youand this judgment cannot be changed. brHezekiah bsaid to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave.As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: bI have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father,from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: bEvenif ba sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy.One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that bit was also saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is statedin the words of Job: b“Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”(Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
58. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.138-7.139 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.138. Again, they give the name of cosmos to the orderly arrangement of the heavenly bodies in itself as such; and (3) in the third place to that whole of which these two are parts. Again, the cosmos is defined as the individual being qualifying the whole of substance, or, in the words of Posidonius in his elementary treatise on Celestial Phenomena, a system made up of heaven and earth and the natures in them, or, again, as a system constituted by gods and men and all things created for their sake. By heaven is meant the extreme circumference or ring in which the deity has his seat.The world, in their view, is ordered by reason and providence: so says Chrysippus in the fifth book of his treatise On Providence and Posidonius in his work On the Gods, book iii. – inasmuch as reason pervades every part of it, just as does the soul in us. Only there is a difference of degree; in some parts there is more of it, in others less. 7.139. For through some parts it passes as a hold or containing force, as is the case with our bones and sinews; while through others it passes as intelligence, as in the ruling part of the soul. Thus, then, the whole world is a living being, endowed with soul and reason, and having aether for its ruling principle: so says Antipater of Tyre in the eighth book of his treatise On the Cosmos. Chrysippus in the first book of his work On Providence and Posidonius in his book On the Gods say that the heaven, but Cleanthes that the sun, is the ruling power of the world. Chrysippus, however, in the course of the same work gives a somewhat different account, namely, that it is the purer part of the aether; the same which they declare to be preeminently God and always to have, as it were in sensible fashion, pervaded all that is in the air, all animals and plants, and also the earth itself, as a principle of cohesion.
59. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 13.12.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

60. Porphyry, Letter To Marcella, 33 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Naked was he sent into the world, and naked shall he call on Him that sent him. For |51 God listens only to those who are not weighed down by alien things, and guards those who are purified from corruption. Consider it a great help towards the blessed life if the captive in the thraldom of nature takes his captor captive. For we are bound in the chains that nature has cast around us, by the belly, the throat and the other members and parts of the body, and by the use of these and the pleasant sensations that arise therefrom and the fears they occasion. But if we rise superior to their witchcraft, and avoid the snares laid by them, we lead our captor captive. Neither trouble thyself much whether thou be male or female in body, nor look on thyself as a woman, for I did not approach thee as such. Flee all that is womanish in the soul, as though thou hadst a man's body about thee. For what is born from a virgin soul and a pure mind is most blessed, since imperishable springs from imperishable. But what the body produces is held corrupt by all the gods.
61. Augustine, Commentary On Genesis, 5.5.13 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62. Proclus, In Platonis Timaeum Commentarii, 2.302 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Proclus, In Platonis Timaeum Commentarii, 2.302 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

64. Aristobulus, Ap. Euseb. Praep. Evang., 13.12.12



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160; Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
abraham, vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 223
abraham Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 20
adam. man, first Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
adam. man, primordial Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
adam Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 69, 108; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 20; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 399; Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
allegory Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
ancestors vs. descendants Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
angelic substrate Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
anthropology Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71; Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148
antiochus of ascalon Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
apocalypticism, and philosophy Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 219
apophatic approach Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
appropriation (οἰκείωσις), philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
appropriation (οἰκείωσις), stoics on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
aristobulus Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 268
aristotle Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
ascend, ascension, ascent Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
asher, j. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 219
astrology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
astronomy Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
augustine, and ciceros translation of timaeus Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
augustine, creation narrative of Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
bardaisan of edessa Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
body Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74; Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
breath Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
cain Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160; Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
calcidius, on interpretations of genesis Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
capability (human) Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
carneades Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
causality, in creation Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
chaldean (hebrew language) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
chodollogomor, chosen father of sound Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 223
choice (αἵρεσις), philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
chosenness Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 223
christian Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
christians, christianity Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
clusters Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
collective humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 69
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
creation, augustines narrative of Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
creation, in genesis, six days of Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
creation Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 69, 70, 108
creeping things Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
daimones Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
dance, dancing Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
death Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233; Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148
demiurge Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
desires Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
destruction Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
diatribe Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
divine, image Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71
divine, judgment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
divine Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
divine essence, sefirot related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
divine logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149, 224
dreams Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
dualism, earth, Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70, 108
dyad and monad, the earthborn Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
earth, born Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
ecstasis, ecstasy, ecstatic, ex stasis Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
enos, in fourth generation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
ephesians Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
eternal life Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
ether Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
ethics Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
etymologies, of abraham and abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 223
etymologies, of harran Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
eudorus Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
eve Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74; Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
evil Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148
exegesis Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
fish Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
flight Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
form Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
four, the number Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
genealogy of virtues Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
genesis, two accounts of creation in Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
gnosticism, myth in Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
gnostics/gnosticism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
god, (great) king Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
god, as director Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
god, human created according to the image of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
god, invisible Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
god, maker Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
god, who is Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
goddess, younger gods Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
gods, judaeo-christian gnostics on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
gods, philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
gods, sethite-barbeloite gnostics on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
greek logos, jewish wisdom and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149
greek logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 74
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
harran, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
heaven, heaven and earth, Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
heaven, interpretations of (augustine) Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
heavenly, retinue Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
heavenly agent Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
heavenly person Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
hebrew, and chaldean Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
holiness Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
horsley, r. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 219
human, nature Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 69, 71
human, primal Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
hypostasis, primordial man as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
image (εἰκών) Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 69, 70, 71, 108; Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 20; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 399
imago dei Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
immortal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 69, 108
incarnation Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148
instruction Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
intellect Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125; Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
intellect (nous) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
intelligible Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
isis Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
jerusalem Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
jesus, and angels Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
jesus, son of god as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
jesus, son of man as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
jewish wisdom, greek logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149
jewish wisdom Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
johannine logos, firstborn (or son) image of Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
johannine logos, personified wisdom and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
john, gospel of Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148
judaeo-christian gnostics, acts of thomas Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
judaeo-christian gnostics, bardaisan of edessa Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
judaeo-christian gnostics, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
judaeo-christian gnostics Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
judaism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90, 181
judgment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
kahn, paul Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 265
kinship Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
knowledge Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70, 71
kosmos Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
lamprias (brother of plutarch) Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
life, likeness Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
light, true Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148
light Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
literal meaning Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
logos, sabbath and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
logos Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
logos (λόγος) Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148
logos of god, earthly and heavenly Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
logos of god, primordial Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
logos of god Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
love of god (θεοφιλία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
love of self (φιλαυτία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
macrocosm and microcosm Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
matter, augustines portrayal of Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
metaphysical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
middle-platonism Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 74
migrations of abraham, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219, 223
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219, 223
mind, flight of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
mind Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
molded Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70
mortal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71
mortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71
mosaic law, for ordinary people Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 96
mosaic law, philos view of, as divine Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 96
moses, as all-wise Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
moses, greek philosophical ideas and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
moses Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 20
moses (mosaic) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
mysteries, mystery, lesemysterium Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
myth of er, nature (physis) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
nature, human Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 69, 71
nautical metaphors Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
nn. Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
noah, generations of, as virtues Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
nobility Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 399
obedience Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
of material Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
ophites Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
origen Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
osiris Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
oxen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
parmenides Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
parts Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
passions Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 399
paul, saint Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
perception of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
personified wisdom, johannine logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 155
philo Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
philo of alexandria, and hellenistic judaism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on abel Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on appropriation (οἰκείωσις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on cain Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on choice (προαίρεσις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on likeness to/imitating god (ὁμοίωσις θεῷ) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on love for (one-)self (φιλαυτία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on love for god/being loved by god (θεοφιλία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on virtue (ἀρετή) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233; Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12; Frede and Laks, Traditions of Theology: Studies in Hellenistic Theology, its Background and Aftermath (2001) 296; Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285; Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
philosopher, philosophical, philosophy Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
physical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71
planets Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
plato, platonic, platonism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
plato, timaeus, augustine and Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
plato Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 219
platonic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71; Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
platonism, genesis Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 219
protreptikos Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 261
pythagorean-platonist tradition Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
reason, as puppet-master Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
responsibility Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71
revelation Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
reverence Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
rhetoric Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 261
sabbath Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
samaritan literature Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
sandelin, k. g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 219
second god Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149, 257
seeds, serpent, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
sefirot, divine essence related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
self-control Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
self-knowledge Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
self-perception Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
sellin, g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 219
sennaar, harran and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
sennaar, longing of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
serpent Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 20
seth, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
sethite-barbeloite gnostics, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 181
sheep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
simmias of thebes Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
sinlessness Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
socrates, abraham surpassing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 219
socrates (sokrates) Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
solitude, vs. public places Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
son of god, jesus as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
son of man Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 224
soul, eye of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
soul, flight of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
soul, individual Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
soul, irrational, vegetative Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
soul Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70, 71, 108; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
soul (psyche) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 20
sound, chosen father of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 223
sovereign Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 70, 71
speech, articulate vs. internal Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179, 223
spirit, barbelo Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 12
spirit-force Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71
spirit Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71
stars Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
stoic logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 149
stoicism Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
stoics Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
substance Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
sun, moon Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 90
tamar Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 399
telos Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
temple Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74; Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
temporality, and eternity Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
the body Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
the cosmos, the country, good men withdrawing to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
the mind Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
the sage, abraham as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 223
the soul Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
the world' Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 422
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 69, 70, 108
torah, mosaic (pentateuch) Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 74
triads, first Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160, 179
truth, leads to Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 242
truth Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 148
two powers in heaven Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 257
unity Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 285
virtue, noah, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 410
virtue Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
virtue (ἀρετή, virtus), philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
wisdom, kinship in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
wisdom Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 233
woman Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 71; Xenophontos and Marmodoro, The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium (2021) 20
λόγος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179, 223
νοῦς Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179
πάνσοφος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
ἀστεῖος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 179