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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9230
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Creation Of The World, 47-52


nanThis is the cause why the earth bore fruit and herbs before God proceeded to adorn the heaven. And next the heaven was embellished in the perfect number four, and if any one were to pronounce this number the origin and source of the all-perfect decade he would not err. For what the decade is in actuality, that the number four, as it seems, is in potentiality, at all events if the numerals from the unit to Four are placed together in order, they will make ten, which is the limit of the number of immensity, around which the numbers wheel and turn as around a goal.


nanMoreover the number four also comprehends the principles of the harmonious concords in music, that in fours, and in fifths, and the diapason, and besides this the double diapason from which sounds the most perfect system of harmony is produced. For the ratio of the sounds in fourths is as four to three; and in fifths as three to two; and in the diapason that ratio is doubled: and in the double diapason it is increased fourfold, all which ratios the number four comprehends. At all events the first, or the epistritus, is the ratio of four to three; the second, or the hemiolius, is that of three to two: the twofold ratio is that of two to one, or four to two: and the fourfold ratio is that of four to one. XVI.


nanThere is also another power of the number four which is a most wonderful one to speak of and to contemplate. For it was this number that first displayed the nature of the solid cube, the numbers before four being assigned only to incorporeal things. For it is according to the unit that that thing is reckoned which is spoken of in geometry as a point: and a line is spoken of according to the number two, because it is arranged by nature from a point; and a line is length without breadth. But when breadth is added to it, it becomes a superficies, which is arranged according to the number three. And a superficies, when compared with the nature of a solid cube, wants one thing, namely depth, and when this one thing is added to the three, it becomes four. On which account it has happened that this number is a thing of great importance, inasmuch as from an incorporeal substance perceptible only by intellect, it has led us on to a comprehension of a body divisible in a threefold manner, and which by its own nature is first perceived by the external senses.


nanAnd he who does not comprehend what is here said may learn to understand it from a game which is very common. Those who play with nuts are accustomed when they have placed three nuts on the floor, to place one more on the top of them producing a figure like a pyramid. Accordingly the triangle stands on the floor, arranged up to the number three, and the nut which is placed upon it makes up four in number, and in figure it produces a pyramid, being now a solid body.


nanAnd in addition to this there is this point also of which we should not be ignorant, the number four is the first number which is a square, being equal on all sides, the measure of justice and equality. And that it is the only number the nature of which is such that it is produced by the same numbers whether in combination, or in power. In combination when two and two are added together; and again in power when we speak of twice two; and in this is displays an exceedingly beautiful kind of harmony, which is not the lot of any other number. If we examine the number six which is composed of two threes, if these two numbers are multiplied it is not the number six that is produced, but a different one, the number nine.


nanAnd the number four has many other powers also, which we must subsequently show more accurately in a separate essay appropriated to it. At present it is sufficient to add this that it was the foundation of the creation of the whole heaven and the whole world. For the four elements, out of which this universe was made, flowed from the number four as from a fountain. And in addition to the four elements the seasons of the year are also four, which are the causes of the generation of animals and plants, the year being divided into the quadruple division of winter, and spring, and summer, and autumn. XVII.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.9-1.19, 14.22-14.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.12. וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע לְמִינֵהוּ וְעֵץ עֹשֶׂה־פְּרִי אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.13. וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 1.15. וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃ 1.17. וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.18. וְלִמְשֹׁל בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה וּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.19. וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם רְבִיעִי׃ 14.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־מֶלֶךְ סְדֹם הֲרִימֹתִי יָדִי אֶל־יְהוָה אֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 14.23. אִם־מִחוּט וְעַד שְׂרוֹךְ־נַעַל וְאִם־אֶקַּח מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ וְלֹא תֹאמַר אֲנִי הֶעֱשַׁרְתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָם׃ 1.9. And God said: ‘Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so." 1.10. And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good." 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.12. And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.13. And there was evening and there was morning, a third day." 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;" 1.15. and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.16. And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars." 1.17. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth," 1.18. and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good." 1.19. And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day." 14.22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom: ‘I have lifted up my hand unto the LORD, God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth," 14.23. that I will not take a thread nor a shoe-latchet nor aught that is thine, lest thou shouldest say: I have made Abram rich;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD."
3. Plato, Philebus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

32c. the sweet and cheering hope of pleasant things to come, the fearful and woful expectation of painful things to come. Pro. Yes, indeed, this is another kind of pleasure and pain, which belongs to the soul itself, apart from the body, and arises through expectation. Soc. You are right. I think that in these two kinds, both of which are, in my opinion, pure, and not formed by mixture of pain and pleasure, the truth about pleasure will be made manifest
4. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

27d. ourselves we must also invoke so to proceed, that you may most easily learn and I may most clearly expound my views regarding the subject before us. Tim.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 244 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. But some say that it was not Aristotle who invented this doctrine, but some of the Pythagoreans; but I have met with a work of Ocellus, a Lucanian by birth, entitled, "A Treatise on the Nature of the Universe," in which he has not only asserted that the world is indestructible, but he has even endeavoured to prove it so by demonstrative proofs. IV.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 101-114, 116, 120, 95, 100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. Very beautifully, therefore, and at the same time most unavoidably, does the sacred historian tell us in the fashion of an incidental narrative, when the memorial of that heavenly and divine food was consecrated in the golden urn, that "gomer was the tenth part of three Measures." For in us men there appear to be three measures, the outward senses, and speech, and mind. The outward sense being the measure of the objects of outward sense, speech being the measure of nouns and verbs, and of whatever is said; and the mind being the measure of those things which can only be perceived by the intellect.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 106-121, 154-175, 19-30, 50-52, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 105 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

105. For the expression, "It is not the voice of men beginning to exert themselves in battle," is equivalent to the words, "of men who have got the better in war," for exertion in battle is the cause of victory. Thus he represents the wise Abraham, after the destruction of the nine kings, that is, of the four passions and the five powers of the outward senses, which were all set in motion in a manner contrary to nature, preluding with a hymn of gratitude, and saying, "I will stretch forth my hand to the most high God, who made heaven and earth; that I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet of any thing that is Thine
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. There are three different modes by which we proceed towards the most excellent end, namely, instruction, nature, and practice. There are also three persons, the oldest of the wise men who in the account given to us by Moses derive three names from these modes, whose lives I have now discussed, having examined the man who arrived at excellence in consequence of instruction, and him who was self-taught, and him who attained to the proposed end by practice. Accordingly, proceeding in regular order, I will now describe the life of the man occupied in civil affairs. And again, Moses has given us one of the patriarchs as deriving his name from this kind of life, in which he had been immersed from his earliest youth.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 163 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

163. Therefore, joy accompanies a good when it is already arrived, and hope while it is expected. For we rejoice when it is come, and we hope while it is coming; just as in the case also with the contrary feelings; for the presence of evil brings us grief, and the expectation of evil generates fear, and fear is nothing more than grief before grief, as hope is joy before joy. For the same relation that, I imagine, fear bears to grief, that same does hope bear to joy.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-128, 13, 134, 14-16, 168, 17-19, 2, 20-29, 3, 30-38, 4, 40-46, 48-49, 5, 50-59, 6, 60-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-89, 9, 90-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 171-172, 2, 152 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

152. So that they are marvellously simple people who have ever had an idea of coming to the end of any branch of knowledge whatever. For that which has seemed to be near and within reach is nevertheless a long way distant from the end; since no created being is perfect in any department of learning, but falls as far short of it as a thoroughly infant child just beginning to learn does, in comparison of a man who both by age and skill is qualified to be a master. XLV.
14. Philo of Alexandria, De Providentia, 2.12, 2.15 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

51. The consequence of which conduct of his was that "Every shepherd of sheep is an abomination to the Egyptians." For every man who loves his passions hates right reason as the governor and guide to good things; just as foolish children hate their tutors and teachers, and every one who reproves them or corrects them, or would lead them to virtue. But Moses says that he "will sacrifice the abominations of the Egyptians to God." namely the virtues which are faultless and most becoming victims, which every foolish man abominates. So that very appropriately, Abel, who brought the best offerings to God, is called a shepherd; but he, who offered every thing to himself and to his own mind, is called a tiller of the earth, namely Cain. And what is meant by tilling the Earth we have shown in our previous treatises. XIII.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.33-1.34 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures? 1.34. For among created things, the heaven is holy in the world, in accordance with which body, the imperishable and indestructible natures revolve; and in man the mind is holy, being a sort of fragment of the Deity, and especially according to the statement of Moses, who says, "God breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living Soul.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.1, 1.51-1.52, 1.210-1.211, 1.277, 1.317-1.318, 2.1, 2.62-2.63, 2.73, 2.162-2.167, 3.7, 4.132-4.135, 4.143-4.148, 4.182 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The genera and heads of all special laws, which are called "the ten commandments," have been discussed with accuracy in the former treatise. We must now proceed to consider the particular commands as we read them in the subsequent passages of the holy scriptures; and we will begin with that which is turned into ridicule by people in general. 1.51. And he receives all persons of a similar character and disposition, whether they were originally born so, or whether they have become so through any change of conduct, having become better people, and as such entitled to be ranked in a superior class; approving of the one body because they have not defaced their nobility of birth, and of the other because they have thought fit to alter their lives so as to come over to nobleness of conduct. And these last he calls proselytes (proseµlytou 1.52. Accordingly, having given equal rank and honour to all those who come over, and having granted to them the same favours that were bestowed on the native Jews, he recommends those who are ennobled by truth not only to treat them with respect, but even with especial friendship and excessive benevolence. And is not this a reasonable recommendation? What he says is this. "Those men, who have left their country, and their friends, and their relations for the sake of virtue and holiness, ought not to be left destitute of some other cities, and houses, and friends, but there ought to be places of refuge always ready for those who come over to religion; for the most effectual allurement and the most indissoluble bond of affectionate good will is the mutual honouring of the one God. 1.210. and we must speak in the same way of other matters. When you wish to give thanks to God with your mind, and to assert your gratitude for the creation of the world, give him thanks for the creation of it as a whole, and of all its separate parts in their integrity, as if for the limbs of a most perfect animal; and by the parts I mean, for instance, the heaven, and the sun, and the moon, and the fixed stars; and secondly the earth, and the animals, and plants which spring from it; and next the seas and rivers, whether naturally springing from the ground or swollen by rain as winter torrents, and all the things in them: and lastly, the air and all the changes that take place in it; for winter, and summer, and spring, and autumn, being the seasons of the year, and being all of great service to mankind, are what we may call affections of the air for the preservation of all these things that are beneath the moon. 1.211. And if ever you give thanks for men and their fortunes, do not do so only for the race taken generally, but you shall give thanks also for the species and most important parts of the race, such as men and women, Greeks and barbarians, men on the continent, and those who have their habitation in the islands; and if you are giving thanks for one individual, do not divide your thankfulness in expression into gratitude for minute trifles and inconsiderable matters, but take in your view the most comprehensive circumstances, first of all, his body and his soul, of which he consists, and then his speech, and his mind, and his outward senses; for such gratitude cannot of itself be unworthy of being listened to by God, when uttered, for each of these particulars.XXXIX. 1.277. And this command is a symbol of nothing else but of the fact that in the eyes of God it is not the number of things sacrificed that is accounted valuable, but the purity of the rational spirit of the sacrificer. Unless, indeed, one can suppose that a judge who is anxious to pronounce a holy judgment will never receive gifts from any of those whose conduct comes before his tribunal, or that, if he does receive such presents, he will be liable to an accusation of corruption; and that a good man will not receive gifts from a wicked person, not even though he may be poor and the other rich, and he himself perhaps in actual want of what he would so receive; and yet that God can be corrupted by bribes, who is most all-sufficient for himself and who has no need of any thing created; who, being himself the first and most perfect good thing, the everlasting fountain of wisdom, and justice, and of every virtue, rejects the gifts of the wicked. 1.317. For we should acknowledge only one relationship, and one bond of friendship, namely, a mutual zeal for the service of God, and a desire to say and do everything that is consistent with piety. And these bonds which are called relationships of blood, being derived from one's ancestors, and those connections which are derived from intermarriages and from other similar causes, must all be renounced, if they do not all hasten to the same end, namely, the honour of God which is the one indissoluble bond of all united good will. For such men will lay claim to a more venerable and sacred kind of relationship; 1.318. and the law confirms my assertion, where it says that those who do what is pleasing to nature and virtuous are the sons of God, for it says, "Ye are the sons of the Lord your God,"{48}{#de 14:1.} inasmuch as you will be thought worthy of his providence and care in your behalf as though he were your father. And that care is as much superior to that which is shown by a man's own parents, as I imagine the being who takes it is superior to them.LIX. 2.1. In the treatise preceding this one we have discussed with accuracy two articles of the ten commandments, that which relates to not thinking that any other beings are absolute gods, except God himself; and the other which enjoins us not to worship as God any object made with hands. And we also spoke of the laws which relate specially to each of these points. But we will now proceed to discuss the three which come next in the regular order, again adapting suitable special laws to each. 2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy. 2.73. For while it does not permit them to lend on usury to their fellow countrymen, it has allowed them to receive interest from foreigners; calling the former, with great felicity of expression, their brothers, in order to prevent any one's grudging to give of his possessions to those who are as if by nature joint inheritors with themselves; but those who are not their fellow countrymen are called strangers, as is very natural. For the being a stranger shows that a person has no right to a participation in any thing, unless, indeed, any one out of an excess of virtue should treat even those in the conditions of strangers as kindred and related, from having been bred up under a virtuous state of things, and under virtuous laws which look upon what is virtuous alone as good. 2.162. There is also a festival on the day of the paschal feast, which succeeds the first day, and this is named the sheaf, from what takes place on it; for the sheaf is brought to the altar as a first fruit both of the country which the nation has received for its own, and also of the whole land; so as to be an offering both for the nation separately, and also a common one for the whole race of mankind; and so that the people by it worship the living God, both for themselves and for all the rest of mankind, because they have received the fertile earth for their inheritance; for in the country there is no barren soil but even all those parts which appear to be stony and rugged are surrounded with soft veins of great depth, which, by reason of their richness, are very well suited for the production of living Things.{20}{sections 163û174 were omitted in Yonge's translation because the edition on which Yonge based his translation, Mangey, lacked this material. These lines have been newly translated for this volume.} 2.163. The reason is that a priest has the same relation to a city that the nation of the Jews has to the entire inhabited world. For it serves as a priest--to state the truth--through the use of all purificatory offerings and the guidance both for body and soul of divine laws which have checked the pleasures of the stomach and those under the stomach and [tamed] the mob [of the Senses]{21}{there is a clear problem with the text here, i.e., the noun ochlon lacks a verb.} by having appointed reason as charioteer over the irrational senses; they also have driven back and overturned the undiscriminating and excessive urges of the soul, some by rather gentle instructions and philosophical exhortations, others by rather weighty and forcible rebukes and by fear of punishment, the fear which they brandish threateningly. 2.164. Apart from the fact that the legislation is in a certain way teaching about the priesthood and that the one who lives by the laws is at once considered a priest, or rather a high priest, in the judgment of truth, the following point is also remarkable. The multitude of gods, both male and female, honored in individual cities happens to be undetermined and indefinite. The poetic clan and the great company of humans have spoken fabulously about them, people for whom the search for truth is impractical and beyond their capability of investigation. Yet all do not reverence and honor the same gods, but different people different gods. The reason is that they do not consider as gods those belonging to another land but make the acceptance of them the occasion for laughter and a joke. They charge those who honor them with great foolishness since they completely violate sound sense. 2.165. But if he is, whom all Greeks together with all barbarians acknowledge with one judgment, the highest Father of both gods and humans and the Maker of the entire cosmos, whose nature--although it is invisible and unfathomable not only to sight but also to perception--all who spend their time with mathematics and other philosophy long to discover, leaving aside none of the things which contribute to the discovery and service of him, then it was necessary for all people to cling to him and not as if through some mechanical device to introduce other gods into participation of equal honors. 2.166. Since they slipped in the most essential matter, the nation of the Jews--to speak most accurately--set aright the false step of others by having looked beyond everything which has come into existence through creation since it is generate and corruptible in nature, and chose only the service of the ungenerate and eternal. The first reason for this is because it is excellent; the second is because it is profitable to be dedicated and associated with the Older rather than those who are younger and with the Ruler rather than those who are ruled and with the Maker rather those things which come into existence. 2.167. For this reason it amazes me that some dare to charge the nation with an anti-social stance, a nation which has made such an extensive use of fellowship and goodwill toward all people everywhere that they offer up prayers and feasts and first fruits on behalf of the common race of human beings and serve the really self-existent God both on behalf of themselves and of others who have run from the services which they should have rendered. 3.7. And since of the ten commandments which God himself gave to his people without employing the agency of any prophet or interpreter, five which are engraved in the first tablet have been already discussed and explained, as have also all the particular injunctions which were comprehended under them; and since it is now proper to examine and expound to the best of our power and ability the rest of the commandments which are found in the second table, I will attempt as before to adapt the particular ordices which are implied in them to each of the general laws. 4.132. This may be sufficient to say, being in fact all that I am able to advance, about the laws which bear on appetite and desire by way of filling up the whole body of the ten commandments, and of the subordinate injunctions contained in them; for if we are to look upon the brief heads which were oracularly delivered by the voice of God, as the generic laws, and all the particular ordices which Moses subsequently interpreted and added as the special laws; then there is need of great care and skill in order to preserve the arrangement unconfused in order to an accurate comprehension of it, and I therefore have taken great care, and have assigned and apportioned to each of these generic laws of the whole code all that properly belonged to it. 4.133. But enough of this. We must however not remain ignorant that as separately there are some particular injunctions related to each one of the ten generic commandments, which have nothing in common with any one of the others; so also there are some things to be observed which are common to the whole, being adapted not to one or two, as people say, but to the whole ten commandments. 4.134. And I mean by this those virtues which are of common utility, for each one of these ten laws separately, and all of them together, train men and encourage them to prudence, and justice, and piety, towards God and all the rest of the company of virtues, connecting sound words with good intentions, and virtuous actions with wise language, that so the organ of the soul may be wholly and entirely held together in a good and harmonious manner so as to produce a well-regulated and faultless innocence and consistency of life. 4.135. We have spoken before of that queen of all the virtues, piety and holiness, and also of prudence and moderation; we must now proceed to speak of justice which is conversant about subjects which are akin and nearly related to Them.{33}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On Justice. The publisher has elected to follow the Loeb numbering.}XXVI. 4.143. The lawgiver also gives this most admirable injunction, that one must not add anything to, or take anything away from the law, but that it is a duty to keep all the ordices as originally established in an equal and similar state to that in which they were at first delivered without alteration; for, as it seems, there might otherwise be an addition of what is injust; for there is nothing which has been omitted by the wise lawgiver which can enable a man to partake of entire and perfect justice. 4.144. Moreover, by this command Moses intimates the perfection of all other virtue; for each separate virtue is free from all deficiency, and is complete, deriving its perfection from itself; so that if there were any addition thereto, or anything taken away therefrom, it would be utterly and entirely changed and altered, so as to assume a contrary character. 4.145. What I meant to say is this, all who are profoundly ignorant and uninstructed, all who have the very slightest smattering of education, know that courage is a virtue which is conversant about terrible objects; is a science teaching one what he ought to endure and dare. 4.146. But if any one, under the influence of that ignorance which proceeds from insolence, should be so superfluous as to fancy himself capable of correcting that which requires no correction, and should consequently venture to add anything or take away anything, he, by so doing, is altering the whole appearance of the thing, changing that which had a good character into unseemliness; for by any addition to courage he will produce audacity, but if he takes anything away from it he will produce cowardice, not leaving even the name of courage, that most useful of all virtues to life. 4.147. In the same manner, if any one makes an addition, be it ever so small, or ever so great, to that queen of the virtues, piety, or if he takes anything away from it, he will change and metamorphose its whole appearance, and make it something quite different; for any addition will engender superstition, and any diminution will produce impiety, real piety itself wholly disappearing under the operation, which every one should pray for, that it may be continually conspicuous and brilliant, since it is the cause of the greatest of all blessings, inasmuch as it produces a knowledge of the service of God, which one ought to look upon as more important and more precious than any dominion or authority. 4.148. And we may give instances of every other virtue resembling what we have said about these just mentioned; but since I am in the habit of avoiding prolixity, I will be satisfied with what has been stated, which may be a sufficient guide to what might be said respecting these virtues which we omit to mention.ABOUT NOT MOVING LANDMARKSXXVIII. 4.182. Let not any one then think that nobility of birth is a perfect good, and therefore neglect virtuous actions, considering that that man deserves greater anger who, after he has been born of virtuous parents, brings disgrace on his parents by reason of the wickedness of his disposition and conduct; for if he has domestic examples of goodness which he may imitate, and yet never copies them, so as to correct his own life, and to render it healthy and virtuous, he deserves reproach.XXXV.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 102-104, 108, 141, 187-227, 52, 101 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

101. There is also an innumerable host of other special ordices relating to one's fellow countrymen of great humanity and beauty; but, as I have mentioned them at sufficient length in my former treatises, I shall be satisfied with what I have said on those subjects, which I then put forth seasonably as a kind of specimen of the whole. XX.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.30-1.31, 2.1, 2.48, 2.88, 2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. Therefore men in general, even if the slightest breeze of prosperity does only blow their way for a moment, become puffed up and give themselves great airs, becoming insolent to all those who are in a lower condition than themselves, and calling them dregs of the earth, and annoyances, and sources of trouble, and burdens of the earth, and all sorts of names of that kind, as if they had been thoroughly able to establish the undeviating character of their prosperity on a solid foundation, though, very likely, they will not remain in the same condition even till tomorrow 1.31. for there is nothing more inconstant than fortune, which tosses human affairs up and down like dice. often has a single day thrown down the man who was previously placed on an eminence, and raised the lowly man on high. And while men see these events continually taking place, and though they are well assured of the fact, still they overlook their relations and friends, and transgress the laws according to which they were born and brought up; and they overturn their national hereditary customs to which no just blame whatever is attached, dwelling in a foreign land, and by reason of their cordial reception of the customs among which they are living, no longer remembering a single one of their ancient usages. 2.1. The first volume of this treatise relates to the subject of the birth and bringing up of Moses, and also of his education and of his government of his people, which he governed not merely irreproachably, but in so exceedingly praiseworthy a manner; and also of all the affairs, which took place in Egypt, and in the travels and journeyings of the nation, and of the events which happened with respect to their crossing the Red Sea and in the desert, which surpass all power of description; and, moreover, of all the labours which he conducted to a successful issue, and of the inheritances which he distributed in portions to his soldiers. But the book which we are now about to compose relates to the affairs which follow those others in due order, and bear a certain correspondence and connection with them. 2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words. 2.88. Moreover, he chose the materials of this embroidery, selecting with great care what was most excellent out of an infinite quantity, choosing materials equal in number to the elements of which the world was made, and having a direct relation to them; the elements being the earth and the water, and the air and the fire. For the fine flax is produced from the earth, and the purple from the water, and the hyacinth colour is compared to the air (for, by nature, it is black 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 205, 156 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

156. Therefore, he knew that they had synagogues, and that they were in the habit of visiting them, and most especially on the sacred sabbath days, when they publicly cultivate their national philosophy. He knew also that they were in the habit of contributing sacred sums of money from their first fruits and sending them to Jerusalem by the hands of those who were to conduct the sacrifices.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.65. Let us examine the expressions of the writer: "A river," says he, "goes forth out of Eden, to water the Paradise." This river is generic goodness; and this issues forth out of the Eden of the wisdom of God, and that is the word of God. For it is according to the word of God, that generic virtue was created. And generic virtue waters the Paradise: that is to say, it waters the particular virtues. But it does not derive its beginnings from any principle of locality, but from a principle of preeminence. For each of the virtues is really and truly a ruler and a queen. And the expression, "is separated," is equivalent to "is marked off by fixed boundaries;" since wisdom appoints them settled limits with reference to what is to be done. Courage with respect to what is to be endured; temperance with reference to what is to be chosen; and justice in respect of what is to be distributed. XX.
22. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, 2.93 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 3.12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 172, 168 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

168. And, indeed, of the ten commandments engraved on these tables which are properly and especially laws, there is an equal division into two numbers of five; the first of which contains the principle of justice relating to God, and the second those relating to man.
25. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 146-148, 156-161, 170-171, 175-176, 181, 141 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

141. However, we have now said enough on this subject, and let us proceed to investigate what comes afterwards. He continues thus: "And Cain said unto the Lord, My crime is too great to be Forgiven." Now what is meant by this will be shown by a consideration of simple passages. If a pilot were to desert his ship when tossed about by the sea, would it not follow of necessity that the ship would wander out of her course in the voyage? Shall I say more? If a charioteer in the contest of the horse-race were to quit his chariot, is it not inevitable that the course of the free horses would be disorderly and irregular? Again, when a city is left destitute of rulers or of laws, and laws, undoubtedly, are entitled to be classed on an equality with magistrates, must not that city be destroyed by those greatest of evils, anarchy and lawlessness?
26. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 58 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

58. Once more, he had no need of eyes, the organs without which there can be no comprehension of the light perceptible by the outward senses; but the light perceptible by the outward senses is a created light; and even before the creation God saw, using himself as light.
27. Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries On Metaphysics, 38.12, 38.14-38.16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 1.234 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Iamblichus, Theologoumena Arithmeticae, 80-82, 5 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

30. Augustine, Contra Academicos, 3.38 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

31. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 3.262



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, as a law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
abraham, humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
adam Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
alexander of aphrodisias Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 238
anatolius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195, 237, 238
arithmetic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 193
arithmology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185, 186
biography (bios), greek vs. roman Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
blame and praise Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2, 161
body, three-dimensional Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185
body Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 236; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
cosmogony Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
cosmos, intelligible/noetic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 236
creation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185, 186, 192; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
de abrahamo, place of, in philos works Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
de abrahamo, rhetoric in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
decad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186, 193
demiurge Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186
destruction Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
diodorus siculus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195
dionysius of halicarnassus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195
dispute between abraham and lot, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
dyad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185
elements, four Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 237
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
equality Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 237, 238
etymology Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 239
eve Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
exposition of the law, sequence of treatises in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
exposition of the law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
extension in three dimensions Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
faith, as fulfillment of hopes Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
faith Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
fates Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 193
fear, vs. hope Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
fear Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
figures of speech, tricolon Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 239
fire, element Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186
five, the number, in the war of the kings Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
four, the number Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
functions of soul (kinetic, cognitive, ontological) Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
geometric, objects Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 193
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186, 193
harmony Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
heavenly bodies Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 236, 237
hebdomad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 192; Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 279
homer Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195
hope, as gatekeeper of virtues Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
hope, vs. fear Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
iamblichus, pseudo-iamblichus Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 193
imagery, fountain Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 237, 238
imagery, running Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195, 239
imagery athletic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195
indivisible and divisible being Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
intellect, triad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185
isaac Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
jacob Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
jerusalem Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
joseph Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
judah Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 239
justice Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 237, 238
kingly power, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
kingly power, the kings, victory over Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
law of nature, mosaic laws consonant with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
law of nature Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
laws, biblical figures as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
laws, particular Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
laws, unwritten Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
laws, written Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
learning and teaching, abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
learning and teaching Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
literacy Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
logic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 237
logos of god Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 236
logos prophorikos, platonic/stoic concept Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 193
lydus, john Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 237, 238, 239
mind Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
mixtures Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
monad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185; Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 279
mosaic law, law of nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
moses, author of the torah Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 236
moses, praise of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
music Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186
nature, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
nature, isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
neopythagoreanism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185, 186
nicomachus Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 193
number, even Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 192, 193
number, infinite Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186
number, odd Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 192, 193
number, perfect Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185, 193
number Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185, 186, 192, 193
numbers, four Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 237, 238
numbers, ten Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 239
numbers, theory of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195, 236, 237, 238, 239
numbers Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 279
octave Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186, 193
particular laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
passions, fear among Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
passions, four Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
phanes Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 193
philo Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
philo of alexandria Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185, 186, 192, 193; Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
physics Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186
planets Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 236
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195, 237
polybius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195
practice, jacob and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
practice Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
praise and blame Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2, 161
prefaces, secondary Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
proofs Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
ps.iamblichus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 195, 237, 238, 239
pythagoras/pythagoreans Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
pythagoreanism/pythagoreans/pythagorean Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 238
reason, as incorruptible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
reason, god aiding Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
reason, senses controlled by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
rhetoric of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
right reason Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 237
sacrifice Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 239
same and different Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
sennaar, and the passions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
sennaar, the sodomite cities and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
socrates Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
sodom, the five senses and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
soul Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 236
speeches, inserted or expanded Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
stars, the statesman Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
stars Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 236
stoa/stoic/stoicism Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 238
stobaeus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 238
stoicism Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
substance Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185, 192
tabernacle Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185
telos Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
temple Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 74
ten, the number Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
ten commandments, as general heading of laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
tetractys Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 186
tetrad/tetractys Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 279
tetrad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185, 186
tetraktys (tetrad, numbers one to four) Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 198
thanksgiving Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 239
the corruptible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
the cosmos, and the law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
the cosmos, contemplation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
theology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185
theon of smyrna Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 238
to the passions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
triad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 185
triads, first Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
virtue, of universal value Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
virtues, cardinal' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 238
wisdom Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 193
written laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
διατριβή Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
λόγος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 366
νόμος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
προσωποποιία Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2
φιλανθρωπία and φιλάνθρωπος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 161
ἄγραφος νόμος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 2