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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9230
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Creation Of The World, 157


nanAnd these things are not mere fabulous inventions, in which the race of poets and sophists delights, but are rather types shadowing forth some allegorical truth, according to some mystical explanation. And any one who follows a reasonable train of conjecture, will say with great propriety, that the aforesaid serpent is the symbol of pleasure, because in the first place he is destitute of feet, and crawls on his belly with his face downwards. In the second place, because he uses lumps of clay for food. Thirdly, because he bears poison in his teeth, by which it is his nature to kill those who are bitten by him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

32 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.16. הַמַּאֲכִלְךָ מָן בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּן אֲבֹתֶיךָ לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ וּלְמַעַן נַסֹּתֶךָ לְהֵיטִבְךָ בְּאַחֲרִיתֶךָ׃ 8.16. who fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and that He might prove thee, to do thee good at thy latter end;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.18, 18.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 18.19. וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 15.18. The woman also with whom a man shall lie carnally, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even." 18.19. And thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.8-21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃ 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’" 21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived."
5. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

378d. that is the sort of thing that ought rather to be said by their elders, men and women, to children from the beginning and as they grow older, and we must compel the poets to keep close to this in their compositions. But Hera’s fetterings by her son and the hurling out of heaven of Hephaestus by his father when he was trying to save his mother from a beating, and the battles of the gods in Homer’s verse are things that we must not admit into our city either wrought in allegory or without allegory. For the young are not able to distinguish what is and what is not allegory, but whatever opinions are taken into the mind at that age are wont to prove
6. Anon., Jubilees, 3.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.28. And she said to it, "of all the fruit of the trees of the garden God hath said unto us, Eat;
7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.14-3.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 168-207, 236-243, 256-257, 167 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

167. We have now, then, given a full explanation concerning the vision which appeared to Abraham, and concerning his celebrated and allglorious hospitality, in which the entertainer, who appeared to himself to be entertaining others was himself entertained; expounding every part of the passage with as much accuracy as we were able. But we must not pass over in silence the most important action of all, which is worthy of being listened to. For I was nearly saying that it is of more importance than all the actions of piety and religion put together. So we must say what seems to be reasonable concerning it.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 101, 95-97, 100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. therefore the character of patient endurance is good, and capable of receiving immortality, which is the perfect good. But the character of pleasure is evil, bringing in its train the greatest of all punishments, death. On which account Moses says, "Let Dan become a serpent," and that not in any other place rather than in the road.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 40, 52-53, 57, 61, 63-65, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And God cast out Adam, and placed him opposite the paradise of happiness; and he placed there On the Cherubim and a flaming sword, which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of Life. In this place Moses uses the expression, "He cast out," but previously he said, "He sent out," not using the various expressions at random, but being well aware with reference to what parts he was employing them with propriety and felicity. 1. I have in my former treatises set forth the lives of Moses and the other wise men down to his time, whom the sacred scriptures point out as the founders and leaders of our nation, and as its unwritten laws; I will now, as seems pointed out by the natural order of my subject, proceed to describe accurately the character of those laws which are recorded in writing, not omitting any allegorical meaning which may perchance be concealed beneath the plain language, from that natural love of more recondite and laborious knowledge which is accustomed to seek for what is obscure before, and in preference to, what is evident.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 11-15, 2-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. But this precaution does not appear to have turned out of any use; for since that time, though men have been separated into different nations, and have no longer used one language, nevertheless, land and sea have been repeatedly filled with unspeakable evils. For it was not the languages which were the causes of men's uniting for evil objects, but the emulation and rivalry of their souls in wrong-doing.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 164, 166-167, 170-171, 173-174, 177-178, 180, 81-88, 124 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

124. But there are times when virtue, as if making experiment of those who come to her as pupils, to see how much eagerness they have, does not come forward to meet them, but veiling her face like Tamar, sits down in the public road, giving room to those who are traveling along the road to look upon her as a harlot, in order that those who are over curious on the subject may take off her veil and disclose her features, and may behold the untouched, and unpolluted, and most exquisite, and truly virgin beauty of modesty and chastity.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 138-139, 149-151, 137 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

137. Those also who have inquired what it is that nourishes the soul, for as Moses says, "They knew not what it was," learnt at last and found that it was the word of God and the divine reason, from which flows all kinds of instinctive and everlasting wisdom. This is the heavenly nourishment which the holy scripture indicates, saying, in the character of the cause of all things, "Behold I rain upon you bread from Heaven;
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 43-44, 58, 60, 65, 67, 7, 17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. And the expression used by the writer of the psalm, in the following verse, testifies to the truth of my assertion, for he says, "He sent upon them the fury of His wrath, anger, and rage, and affliction, and he sent evil angels among Them." These are the wicked who, assuming the name of angels, not being acquainted with the daughters of right reason, that is with the sciences and the virtues, but which pursue the mortal descendants of mortal men, that is the pleasures, which can confer no genuine beauty, which is perceived by the intellect alone, but only a bastard sort of elegance of form, by means of which the outward sense is beguiled;
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 151-156, 158-177, 2, 37, 76, 8-9, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 154, 20, 22, 33, 60, 153 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

153. And we must inquire the cause why the handmaid gave the servant drink from the fountain, but gave the camels water from the well. May it not perhaps be that the stream here signifies the sacred scripture itself, which irrigates the sciences, and that the well is rather akin to memory? For the depths which he has already mentioned, he produces by means of memory as it were out of a well;
18. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 2, 62, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And Cain went out from before the face of God, and dwelt in the land of Nod, opposite to Eden." Now we may raise the question whether we are to take the expressions which occur in the books that have been handed down to us by Moses and to interpret them in a somewhat metaphorical sense, while the ideas which readily present themselves as derived from the names are very deficient in truth.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 15, 17, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And he also added, that she should bring forth his Brother." The addition of one thing is a taking away of some other; as for instance, of particles in arithmetic, and of reasons in the soul. If then we must say that Abel is added, we must also think that Cain is taken away. But that the unusual character of expression may not cause perplexity to many we will endeavour to explain accurately the philosophy which is apparent beneath them, as clearly as may be in our power.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.194-1.195 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.194. In this manner, too, Moses is called up to the bush. For, the scripture says, "When he saw that he was turning aside to see, God called him out of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses: and he said, What is it, Lord?" And Abraham also, on the occasion of offering up his beloved and only son as a burnt-offering, when he was beginning to sacrifice him, and when he had given proof of his piety, was forbidden to destroy the self-taught race, Isaac by name, from among men; 1.195. for at the beginning of his account of this transaction, Moses says that "God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Behold, here am I. And he said unto him, Take now thy beloved son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and offer him up." And when he had brought the victim to the altar, then the angel of the Lord called him out of heaven, saying, "Abraham, Abraham," and he answered, "Behold, here am I. And he said, Lay not thy hand upon the child, and do nothing to Him.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.28-1.30, 1.113-1.115, 2.164, 3.32, 3.63, 3.178 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.28. But not only are wealth, and glory, and all other such things, mere phantoms and unsubstantial images, but also all the other deceits which the inventors of fables have devised, puffing themselves up by reason of their ingenuity, while they have been raising a fortification of false opinion in opposition to the truth, bringing in God as if by some theatrical machine, in order to prevent the everlasting and only true existing God from being consigned to oblivion, are so likewise. But such men have adapted their falsehood to melodies, and rhythm, and metres, with a reference to what is persuasive, thinking that by these means they should easily cajole all who read their works. 1.29. Not but what they have also joined to themselves the arts of statuary and painting as copartners in their system of deceit, in order that, bringing over the spectators by well-fabricated appearances of colours, and forms, and distinctive qualities, and having won over by their allurements those principal outward senses of sight and hearing, the one by the exquisite beauty of lifeless forms, and the other by a poetical harmony of numbers--they may ravish the unstable soul and render it feeble, and deprive it of any settled foundation. 1.30. On this account, Moses, being well aware that pride had by that time advanced to a very high pitch of power, and that it was well guarded by the greater part of mankind, and that too not from compulsion but of their own accord, and fearing lest those men who are admirers of uncorrupted and genuine piety may be carried away as by a torrent, stamped a deep impression on the minds of men, engraving piety on them, in order that the impression he thus made might not become confused or weakened, so as at last to become wholly effaced by time. And he is constantly prophesying and telling his people that there is one God, the creator and maker of the universe; and at other time he teaches them that he is the Lord of all created things, since all that is firm, and solid, and really stable and sure, is by nature so framed as to be connected with him alone. 1.113. but the high priest he absolutely forbade to mourn in any case whatever; and may we not say that this was rightly done? For as to the ministrations which belong to the other priests, one individual can perform them instead of another, so that, even if some be in mourning, still none of the usual observances need be omitted; but there is no one besides the high priest himself, who is permitted to perform his duties instead of him; for which reason, he must always be kept free from all defilement, never touching any dead body, in order that, being always ready to offer up prayers and sacrifices on behalf of the whole world at suitable seasons, he may continue to fulfil the duties of his office without hindrance. 1.114. And otherwise too, besides this consideration, the man who has been assigned to God, and who has become the leader of his sacred band of worshippers, ought to be disconnected with, and alienated from, all things of creation, not being so much the slave of the love of either parents, or children, or brothers, as either to omit or to delay any one of those holy actions, which it is by all means better should be done at once; 1.115. and God commands the high priest neither to rend his clothes over his very nearest relations when they die, nor to take from his head the ensign of the priesthood, nor in short to depart from the holy place on any plea of mourning, that, showing proper respect to the place, and to the sacred ornaments with which he himself is crowned, he may show himself superior to pity, and pass the whole of his life exempt from all sorrow. 2.164. Apart from the fact that the legislation is in a certain way teaching about the priesthood and that the one who lives by the laws is at once considered a priest, or rather a high priest, in the judgment of truth, the following point is also remarkable. The multitude of gods, both male and female, honored in individual cities happens to be undetermined and indefinite. The poetic clan and the great company of humans have spoken fabulously about them, people for whom the search for truth is impractical and beyond their capability of investigation. Yet all do not reverence and honor the same gods, but different people different gods. The reason is that they do not consider as gods those belonging to another land but make the acceptance of them the occasion for laughter and a joke. They charge those who honor them with great foolishness since they completely violate sound sense. 3.32. And there are particular periods affecting the health of the woman when a man may not touch her, but during that time he must abstain from all connection with her, respecting the laws of nature. And, at the same time, he must learn not to waste his vigour in the pursuit of an unseemly and barbarous pleasure; for such conduct would be like that of a husbandman who, out of drunkenness or sudden insanity, should sow wheat or barley in lakes or flooded torrents, instead of over the fertile plains; for it is proper to cast seed upon fields when they are dry, in order that it may bear abundant fruit. 3.63. And the law takes such exceeding pains to prevent any irregularity taking place with respect to marriages, that even in the case of husbands and wives who have come together for legitimate embraces, in strict accordance with the laws of marriage, after they have arisen from their beds it does not allow them to touch anything before they have had recourse to washings and ablutions; keeping them very far from adultery and from all accusations referring to adultery.XI. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 199 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

199. Again, who is there who would deny that those men who were born of him who was made out of the earth were noble themselves, and the founders of noble families? persons who have received a birth more excellent than that of any succeeding generation, in being sprung from the first wedded pair, from the first man and woman, who then for the first time came together for the propagation of offspring resembling themselves. But, nevertheless, when there were two persons so born, the elder of them endured to slay the younger; and, having committed the great and most accursed crime of fratricide, he first defiled the ground with human blood.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 28-29, 40, 54-55, 75-77, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. Having mentioned the Essenes, who in all respects selected for their admiration and for their especial adoption the practical course of life, and who excel in all, or what perhaps may be a less unpopular and invidious thing to say, in most of its parts, I will now proceed, in the regular order of my subject, to speak of those who have embraced the speculative life, and I will say what appears to me to be desirable to be said on the subject, not drawing any fictitious statements from my own head for the sake of improving the appearance of that side of the question which nearly all poets and essayists are much accustomed to do in the scarcity of good actions to extol, but with the greatest simplicity adhering strictly to the truth itself, to which I know well that even the most eloquent men do not keep close in their speeches. Nevertheless we must make the endeavour and labour to attain to this virtue; for it is not right that the greatness of the virtue of the men should be a cause of silence to those who do not think it right that anything which is creditable should be suppressed in silence;
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.56, 2.194 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.56. Therefore on this occasion, as the holy scriptures tell us, thunderbolts fell from heaven, and burnt up those wicked men and their cities; and even to this day there are seen in Syria monuments of the unprecedented destruction that fell upon them, in the ruins, and ashes, and sulphur, and smoke, and dusky flame which still is sent up from the ground as of a fire smouldering beneath; 2.194. for the Egyptians, almost alone of all men, set up the earth as a rival of the heaven considering the former as entitled to honours equal with those of the gods, and giving the latter no especial honour, just as if it were proper to pay respect to the extremities of a country rather than to the king's palace. For in the world the heaven is the most holy temple, and the further extremity is the earth; though this too is in itself worthy of being regarded with honour; but if it is brought into comparison with the air, is as far inferior to it as light is to darkness, or night to day, or corruption to immortality, or a mortal to God.
25. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.43, 1.45, 2.4, 2.71-2.108, 3.161-3.168, 3.203-3.208, 3.210, 3.237 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV. 1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement. 1.45. God therefore sows and implants terrestrial virtue in the human race, being an imitation and representation of the heavenly virtue. For, pitying our race, and seeing that it is exposed to abundant and innumerable evils, he firmly planted terrestrial virtue as an assistant against and warderoff of the diseases of the soul; being, as I have said before, an imitation of the heavenly and archetypal wisdom which he calls by various names. Now virtue is called a paradise metaphorically, and the appropriate place for the paradise is Eden; and this means luxury: and the most appropriate field for virtue is peace, and ease, and joy; in which real luxury especially consists.
26. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.10, 1.23-1.53, 1.90, 1.92, 1.94, 1.96-1.97, 3.56, 4.57, 4.73 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 292-293, 164 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

164. For it is equality which allotted night and day and light and darkness to existing things. It is equality also that divided the human race into man and woman, making two divisions, unequal in strength, but most perfectly equal for the purpose which nature had principally in view, the generation of a third human being like themselves. For, says Moses, "God made man; in the image of God created he him; male and female he created Them." He no longer says "him," but "them," in the plural number, adapting the species to the genus, which have, as I have already said, been divided with perfect equality. XXXIV.
28. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 48, 47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

47. for that is the only quality in us which the Father, who created us, thought deserving of freedom; and, unloosing the bonds of necessity, he let it go unrestrained, bestowing on it that most admirable gift and most connected with himself, the power, namely, of spontaneous will, as far as he was able to receive it; for the irrational animals, in whose soul there is not that especial gift tending to freedom, namely, mind, are put under the yoke and have bridles put in their mouths, and so are given unto men to be their slaves, as servants are given to their masters. But man, who has had bestowed on him a voluntary and self-impelling intellect, and who for the most part puts forth his energies in accordance with deliberate purpose, very properly receives blame for the offences which he designedly commits, and praise for the good actions which he intentionally performs.
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.203 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.203. God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War. But Lot’s wife continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains at this day.
30. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 76.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.6.7 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Zoroastrian Literature, Yasna, 30.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
adam, deathbed of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
adam Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 94
aeons Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
alexandria Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 154
allegorical commentary Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178, 179
allegory Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 158; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178, 179; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 94, 99; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 10, 12
angels Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
anima/soul Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
anthropology Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
anthropophagy Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
apologetics Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 158
arsinoe (queen) Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 154
athenaeus Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 252
babel, tower of Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 158
baer, richard Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
bees, r. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
besnier, b. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
biblical interpretation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
bidding Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
body, pleasures of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
body Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
cain Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114, 189
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
chaeremon the stoic, on the egyptian priests Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 196
cherub Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 243
chronos Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 154
compatibilism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
contradiction Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 179
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
day, expulsion, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
dead sea scrolls Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
delight Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
demons, demonic Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
determinism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
diatribe, stoic-cynic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
didymus the blind Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
disease and pain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
dream Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 120
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
dualism Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
dupied Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
ecstasy Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 120
epicurus Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
erler, m. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
ethics Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
eve Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 94, 99
evil will, stoic non-free free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
exposition of the law Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178, 179
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
figures of speech, fictional opponent Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
flesh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
foreknowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
free choice/free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
gnostic, gnosticism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
gnosticism Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
god, creating/creativity of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
god and the divine Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
hadas–lebel, m. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
hagar Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 94
heaven Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
heraclitus the allegorist Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
heresy, heretics, heresiology Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
herodotus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
jacob Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 10
jaeger, w. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
john, fourth gospel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
joseph Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 10
josephus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
judaism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
laban Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 10
law, god's" '151.0_387.0@life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
le boulluec, a. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
life, of virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
life of joseph Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 179
literal sense Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 179
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
lives of the patriarchs Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178
lots wife Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 158
lévy, c. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
man Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
metaphysics Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
mind Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
moses Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
musonius, on food Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
musonius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
mutation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
myth, jewish Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 158
myth Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 94
mythological Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 179
myths Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
nimrod Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
on the creation of the world Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178, 179
on the decalogue Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178
on the special laws Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178
original sin Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
paradise Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178, 179
paraphrase Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 179
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114, 189
pedagogy Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
pentateuch Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
pharisees Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
philo Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 243; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178, 179
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
philo of alexandria Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
philos colleagues Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178, 179
philosophy Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
plato Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
platonism/platonic/platonists Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
platonism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
pleasure, serpent symbol of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114, 189
pleasure Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 10, 12
plutarch Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
pneuma Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
potiphar Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 179
potiphars wife Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 10
predetermination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
ptolemy ii philadelphus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
qumran essenes Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
quotation Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178
rebellion, animals, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
relics Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 158
sarah Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 94
scripture, allegorical interpretation Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
scripture, deeper meaning Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
self-control, lack of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
self-control Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
septuagint Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
serpent, of eve Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
serpent Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 243; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
sethians Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
snake Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189
sodom Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 158
sons, of deceit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
sons, of justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
soul Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 243; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114, 189
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8, 10, 12
sovereignty of god Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 28
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, characterizations as, soul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, characterizations as, truth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, effects of, virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirits, two (lqs 3-4) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
symbol Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178
tamar Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 10
testing passim, agents of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
testing passim, roles in Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8, 12
textual problem Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178
the lives of the patriachs Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 179
therapeutae Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
tongue Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
valentinus, valentinianism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251
venom Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
verisimilitude Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 178
vices Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
virtue Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8, 10, 12
vision Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 120
visionary Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 120
voice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 416
wendland, paul Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 114
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
wisdom Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 251; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 8
woman Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
worker of the earth' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 189