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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9230
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Creation Of The World, 135


nanBut he asserts that the formation of the individual man, perceptible by the external senses is a composition of earthy substance, and divine spirit. For that the body was created by the Creator taking a lump of clay, and fashioning the human form out of it; but that the soul proceeds from no created thing at all, but from the Father and Ruler of all things. For when he uses the expression, "he breathed into," etc., he means nothing else than the divine spirit proceeding form that happy and blessed nature, sent to take up its habitation here on earth, for the advantage of our race, in order that, even if man is mortal according to that portion of him which is visible, he may at all events be immortal according to that portion which is invisible; and for this reason, one may properly say that man is on the boundaries of a better and an immortal nature, partaking of each as far as it is necessary for him; and that he was born at the same time, both mortal and the immortal. Mortal as to his body, but immortal as to his intellect. XLVII.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

82 results
1. Septuagint, Ezekiel, 37 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.8, 31.2-31.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.8. וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם׃ 31.2. רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן־אוּרִי בֶן־חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃ 31.3. וָאֲמַלֵּא אֹתוֹ רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים בְּחָכְמָה וּבִתְבוּנָה וּבְדַעַת וּבְכָל־מְלָאכָה׃ 25.8. And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them." 31.2. ’See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah;" 31.3. and I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship,"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.4, 1.23, 1.26-1.27, 2.3, 2.7-2.8, 2.10-2.14, 2.16-2.17, 3.3, 3.5, 3.9, 3.11, 3.14, 3.17, 3.21-3.22, 4.8-4.15, 4.25, 6.1-6.4, 9.20, 25.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.23. וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם חֲמִישִׁי׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.3. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 2.11. שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פִּישׁוֹן הוּא הַסֹּבֵב אֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ הַחֲוִילָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הַזָּהָב׃ 2.12. וּזֲהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב שָׁם הַבְּדֹלַח וְאֶבֶן הַשֹּׁהַם׃ 2.13. וְשֵׁם־הַנָּהָר הַשֵּׁנִי גִּיחוֹן הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב אֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ כּוּשׁ׃ 2.14. וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת׃ 2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הִגִּיד לְךָ כִּי עֵירֹם אָתָּה הֲמִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְבִלְתִּי אֲכָל־מִמֶּנּוּ אָכָלְתָּ׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.21. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ׃ 4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃ 4.11. וְעַתָּה אָרוּר אָתָּה מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה אֶת־פִּיהָ לָקַחַת אֶת־דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ מִיָּדֶךָ׃ 4.12. כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־יְהוָה גָּדוֹל עֲוֺנִי מִנְּשֹׂא׃ 4.14. הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ וְהָיָה כָל־מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ יְהוָה לָכֵן כָּל־הֹרֵג קַיִן שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקָּם וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה לְקַיִן אוֹת לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ כָּל־מֹצְאוֹ׃ 4.25. וַיֵּדַע אָדָם עוֹד אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת כִּי שָׁת־לִי אֱלֹהִים זֶרַע אַחֵר תַּחַת הֶבֶל כִּי הֲרָגוֹ קָיִן׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 25.27. וַיִּגְדְּלוּ הַנְּעָרִים וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו אִישׁ יֹדֵעַ צַיִד אִישׁ שָׂדֶה וְיַעֲקֹב אִישׁ תָּם יֹשֵׁב אֹהָלִים׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.23. And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day." 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.3. And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed." 2.10. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads." 2.11. The name of the first is Pishon; that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;" 2.12. and the gold of that land is good; there is bdellium and the onyx stone." 2.13. And the name of the second river is Gihon; the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Cush." 2.14. And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates." 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;" 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’" 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 3.11. And He said: ‘Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?’" 3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life." 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.21. And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them." 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 4.8. And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him." 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’" 4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground." 4.11. And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand." 4.12. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’" 4.13. And Cain said unto the LORD: ‘My punishment is greater than I can bear." 4.14. Behold, Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me.’" 4.15. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.’ And the LORD set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him." 4.25. And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’" 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 25.27. And the boys grew; and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a quiet man, dwelling in tents."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6, 2.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כְּדַבֵּר אַחַת הַנְּבָלוֹת תְּדַבֵּרִי גַּם אֶת־הַטּוֹב נְקַבֵּל מֵאֵת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶת־הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב בִּשְׂפָתָיו׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתֹכָם לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה׃ 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 2.1. Again it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.11, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.19-3.20, 8.22, 8.30, 16.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 16.15. בְּאוֹר־פְּנֵי־מֶלֶךְ חַיִּים וּרְצוֹנוֹ כְּעָב מַלְקוֹשׁ׃ 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 3.20. By His knowledge the depths were broken up, And the skies drop down the dew." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 16.15. In the light of the king’s countece is life; And his favour is as a cloud of the latter rain."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 104.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 19.36 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.36. בֶּן־שְׁמֹנִים שָׁנָה אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹם הַאֵדַע בֵּין־טוֹב לְרָע אִם־יִטְעַם עַבְדְּךָ אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֹכַל וְאֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁתֶּה אִם־אֶשְׁמַע עוֹד בְּקוֹל שָׁרִים וְשָׁרוֹת וְלָמָּה יִהְיֶה עַבְדְּךָ עוֹד לְמַשָּׂא אֶל־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 19.36. I am this day eighty years old: and can I discern between good and evil? can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink? can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women? why then should thy servant be a further burden to my lord the king?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.12. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 10.12. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding;"
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 22.20 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.20. As they gather silver and brass and iron and lead and tin into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it; so will I gather you in Mine anger and in My fury, and I will cast you in, and melt you."
11. Pindar, Olympian Odes, 2.56-2.80 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

62b. but perhaps there is some reason in it. Now the doctrine that is taught in secret about this matter, that we men are in a kind of prison and must not set ourselves free or run away, seems to me to be weighty and not easy to understand. But this at least, Cebes, I do believe is sound, that the gods are our guardians and that we men are one of the chattels of the gods. Do you not believe this? Yes, said Cebes
13. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

250c. the most blessed of mysteries, which we celebrated in a state of perfection, when we were without experience of the evils which awaited us in the time to come, being permitted as initiates to the sight of perfect and simple and calm and happy apparitions, which we saw in the pure light, being ourselves pure and not entombed in this which we carry about with us and call the body, in which we are imprisoned like an oyster in its shell. So much, then, in honor of memory, on account of which I have now spoken at some length, through yearning for the joys of that other time. But beauty
14. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

40b. and the other is a forward motion due to its being dominated by the revolution of the Same and Similar; but in respect of the other five motions they are at rest and move not, so that each of them may attain the greatest possible perfection. From this cause, then, came into existence all those unwandering stars which are living creatures divine and eternal and abide for ever revolving uniformly in the same spot; and those which keep swerving and wandering have been generated in the fashion previously described. And Earth, our nurse, which is globed around the pole that stretches through all
15. Anon., 1 Enoch, 22.13 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.13. of the sinners. Such has been made for the spirits of men who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression, and of the transgressors they shall be companions: but their spirits shall not be slain in the day of judgement nor shall they be raised from thence.'
16. Cicero, On Divination, 2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.38. Quid? cum pluribus deis immolatur, qui tandem evenit, ut litetur aliis, aliis non litetur? quae autem inconstantia deorum est, ut primis minentur extis, bene promittant secundis? aut tanta inter eos dissensio, saepe etiam inter proxumos, ut Apollinis exta bona sint, Dianae non bona? Quid est tam perspicuum quam, cum fortuito hostiae adducantur, talia cuique exta esse, qualis cuique obtigerit hostia? At enim id ipsum habet aliquid divini, quae cuique hostia obtingat, tamquam in sortibus, quae cui ducatur. Mox de sortibus; quamquam tu quidem non hostiarum causam confirmas sortium similitudine, sed infirmas sortis conlatione hostiarum. 2.38. Again, when sacrifices are offered to more than one god at the same time, how does it happen that the auspices are favourable in one case and unfavourable in another? Is it not strange fickleness in the gods to threaten disaster in the first set of entrails and to promise a blessing in the next? Or is there such discord among the gods — often even among those who are nearest of kin — that the entrails of the sacrifice you offer to Apollo, for example, are favourable and of those you offer at the same time to Diana are unfavourable? When victims for the sacrifice are brought up at haphazard it is perfectly clear that the character of entrails that you will receive will depend on the victim chance may bring. Oh! but someone will say, The choice itself is a matter of divine guidance, just as in the case of lots the drawing is directed by the gods! I shall speak of lots presently; although you really do not strengthen the cause of sacrifices by comparing them to lots; but you do weaken the cause of lots by comparing them with sacrifices.
17. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.38. The world on the contrary, since it embraces all things and since nothing exists which is not within it, is entirely perfect; how then can it fail to possess that which is the best? but there is nothing better than intelligence and reason; the world therefore cannot fail to possess them. Chrysippus therefore also well shows by the aid of illustrations that in the perfect and mature specimen of its kind everything is better than in the imperfect, for instance in a horse than in a foal, in a dog than in a puppy, in a man than in a boy; and that similarly a perfect and complete being is bound to possess that which is the best thing in all the world;
18. Cicero, Republic, 6.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.18. Quae cum intuerer stupens, ut me recepi, Quid? hic, inquam, quis est, qui conplet aures meas tantus et tam dulcis sonus? Hic est, inquit, ille, qui intervallis disiunctus inparibus, sed tamen pro rata parte ratione distinctis inpulsu et motu ipsorum orbium efficitur et acuta cum gravibus temperans varios aequabiliter concentus efficit; nec enim silentio tanti motus incitari possunt, et natura fert, ut extrema ex altera parte graviter, ex altera autem acute sonent. Quam ob causam summus ille caeli stellifer cursus, cuius conversio est concitatior, acuto et excitato movetur sono, gravissimo autem hic lunaris atque infimus; nam terra nona inmobilis manens una sede semper haeret complexa medium mundi locum. Illi autem octo cursus, in quibus eadem vis est duorum, septem efficiunt distinctos intervallis sonos, qui numerus rerum omnium fere nodus est; quod docti homines nervis imitati atque cantibus aperuerunt sibi reditum in hunc locum, sicut alii, qui praestantibus ingeniis in vita humana divina studia coluerunt.
19. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.11.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence."
21. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.9, 7.14, 7.23, 7.29, 14.46 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.' 7.29. Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.' 14.46. with his blood now completely drained from him, he tore out his entrails, took them with both hands and hurled them at the crowd, calling upon the Lord of life and spirit to give them back to him again. This was the manner of his death.'
22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.30, 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.15, 7.26, 9.15-9.16, 15.11, 17.30, 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.15. For righteousness is immortal. 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 9.16. We can hardly guess at what is on earth,and what is at hand we find with labor;but who has traced out what is in the heavens? 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 89, 58 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

58. But he to whose lot it falls, not only by means of his knowledge, to comprehend all the other things which exist in nature, but also to behold the Father and Creator of the universe, has advanced to the very summit of happiness. For there is nothing above God; and if any one, directing towards him the eye of the soul, has reached up to him, let him then pray for ability to remain and to stand firm before him;
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1. In every uncertain and important business it is proper to invoke God, because he is the good Creator of the world, and because nothing is uncertain with him who is possessed of the most accurate knowledge of all things. But of all times it is most necessary to invoke him when one is preparing to discuss the incorruptibility of the world; for neither among the things which are visible to the outward senses is there anything more admirably complete than the world, nor among things appreciable by the intellect is there anything more perfect than God. But the mind is at all times the governor of the outward sense, and that which is appreciable by the intellect is at all times superior to that which is visible to the outward senses, but those persons in whom there is implanted a vigorous and earnest love of truth willingly undergo the trouble of making inquiries relative to the subordinate things, from that which is superior to and the ruler over them.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 20 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

20. Therefore, the allwise Moses attributes to the just man a knowledge of the husbandry of the soul, as an act consistent with his character, and thoroughly suited to him, saying, "Noah began to be a husbandman." But to the unjust man he attributes the task of tilling the ground, which is an employment bearing the heaviest burdens without any knowledge.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 47, 96, 18 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

18. This, then, is the meaning of coming in front of one's judge, when brought up for judgment. But the case of coming in front of any one which has a bearing upon connection or familiarity, may be illustrated by the example of the allwise Abraham. "For," says Moses, "he was still standing in front of God." And a proof of his familiarity is contained in the expression that "he came near to God, and spoke." For it is fitting for one who has no connection with another to stand at a distance, and to be separated from him, but he who is connected with him should stand near to him. 18. These are the causes which may be advanced by probable conjecture, to explain the question which is raised on this point; for the true causes God alone knows. But having said what is fitting concerning these matters, I shall now proceed in regular order to discuss the laws themselves with accuracy and precision: first of all of necessity, mentioning this point, that of his laws God himself, without having need of any one else, thought fit to promulgate some by himself alone, and some he promulgated by the agency of his prophet Moses, whom he selected, by reason of his pre-eminent excellence, out of all men, as the most suitable man to be the interpreter of his will.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 175, 146 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 62, 61 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

61. But as the head is the chief of all the aforementioned parts of an animal, so is Esau the chief of this race, whose name is at one time interpreted "an oak," and at another, "a thing made." It is interpreted an oak, in reference to his being unbending, and implacable, and obstinate, and stiffnecked by nature, and having folly for his chief fellow counsellor, and being as such of a truly oaken character. And it is interpreted "a thing made," inasmuch as a life according to folly is an invention and a fable, full of tragic pomp and vain boasting; and, on the other hand, of mockery and comic ridicule, having in it nothing sound, being full of falsehood, having utterly cast off truth, and disregarding as a thing of no value, that nature which is void of distinctive qualities, or of particular species, but plain and sincere, which the practiser of virtue loves.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 32, 51, 64, 105 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

31. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 74, 81, 42 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

42. Dost thou now know, O impious man, the power of the Ruler of the universe? but before this thou didst not know it. For was there anything which thou hast ever fallen in with of more antiquity or power than God? And are not the virtues of their parents known to the children before anything else in the world? And was not the Ruler of the universe the creator and the father of it? So that if you now say that you know it, you do not know it now, because you did not know it from the beginning of the creation.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 194, 68-69, 109 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

109. For Moses says that he cannot be defiled neither in respect of his father, that is, the mind, nor his mother, that is, the external sense; because, I imagine, he has received imperishable and wholly pure parents, God being his father, who is also the father of all things, and wisdom being his mother, by means of whom the universe arrived at creation;
33. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 11-56, 6-10 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

10. Since what shall we say? Must we not say that these animals which are terrestrial or aquatic live in air and spirit? What? Are not pestilential afflictions accustomed to exist when the air is tainted or corrupted, as if that were the cause of all such assuming vitality? Again, when the air is free from all taint and innocent, such as it is especially wont to be when the north wind prevails, does not the imbibing of a purer air tend to a more vigorous and more lasting duration of life?
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 5, 4 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

4. for besides this, those things which it is only the eyes of the body that see, are only seen by them because they take light as a coadjutor, and light is different, both from the object seen and from the things which see it. But all these things which the soul sees of itself, and through its own power, it sees without the cooperation of any thing or any one else; for the things which the soul does thus comprehend are a light to themselves
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-128, 13, 130-134, 136-139, 14, 140-149, 15, 151-152, 154, 16-19, 2, 20-29, 3, 30-38, 4, 40, 5, 56, 6, 66-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-89, 9, 90-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 19-20, 22-24, 44, 18 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 169, 28, 115 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

115. But if there were any such thing as an absolutely independent authority added, then becoming full of arrogant domination, and elated with vanity and false opinions, forgetting themselves and the contemptible material of which they are composed, they look upon themselves as composed of a more valuable material than the composition of man admits of; and becoming swollen with pride, they think themselves worthy of even divine honours. At all events, before now some persons have ventured to say, that they "do not know the true God," forgetting their own human nature, by reason of the immoderate excess of corporeal and external things [...] and each imagining [...] XXXIV.
38. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 68 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

68. For when the president, or superintendent, or father, or whatever we like to call him, of our composite body, right reason, is departed, having left the flock that is in us, it being neglected and suffered to go its own way, perishes and the loss to its master is great. But the irrational and wandering flock, being deprived of its shepherd, who ought to admonish and instruct it, strays away to a great distance from rational and immortal life. XX.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 48, 43 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

43. And he learnt all these things from Abraham his grandfather, who was the author of his own education, who gave to the all-wise Isaac all that he had, leaving none of his substance to bastards, or to the spurious reasonings of concubines, but he gives them small gifts, as being inconsiderable persons. For the possessions of which he is possessed, namely, the perfect virtues, belong only to the perfect and legitimate son; but those which are of an intermediate character, are suitable to and fall to the share of those who are not perfect, but who have advanced as far as the encyclical branches of elementary education, of which Agar and Cheturah partake, Agar meaning "a dwelling near," and Cheturah meaning "sacrificing.
40. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.30-1.34, 1.73, 1.133-1.141, 1.143, 1.188 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.30. Now then is the fourth element which exists within us, the domit mind, comprehensible to us in the same manner as these other divisions? Certainly not; for what do we think it to be in its essence? Do we look upon it as spirit, or as blood, or, in short, as any bodily substance! But it is not a substance, but must be pronounced incorporeal. Is it then a limit, or a species, or a number, or a continued act, or a harmony, or any existing thing whatever? 1.31. Is it, the very first moment that we are born, infused into us from without, or is it some warm nature in us which is cooled by the air which is diffused around us, like a piece of iron which has been heated at a forge, and then being plunged into cold water, is by that process tempered and hardened? (And perhaps it is from the cooling process [psyxis] to which it is thus submitted that the soul [heµ psycheµ] derives its name.) What more shall we say? When we die, is it extinguished and destroyed together with our bodies? or does it continue to live a long time? or, thirdly, is it wholly incorruptible and immortal? 1.32. Again, where, in what part does this mind lie hid? Has it received any settled habitation? For some men have dedicated it to our head, as the principal citadel, around which all the outward senses have their lairs; thinking it natural that its body-guards should be stationed near it, as near the palace of a mighty king. Some again contend earnestly in favour of the position which they assign it, believing that it is enshrined like a statue in the heart. 1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures? 1.34. For among created things, the heaven is holy in the world, in accordance with which body, the imperishable and indestructible natures revolve; and in man the mind is holy, being a sort of fragment of the Deity, and especially according to the statement of Moses, who says, "God breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living Soul. 1.73. And do not wonder if, according to the rules of allegorical description, the sun is likened to the Father and Governor of the universe; for in reality nothing is like unto God; but those things which by the vain opinion of men are thought to be so, are only two things, one invisible and the other visible; the soul being the invisible thing, and the sun the visible one. 1.133. Such then may be said, by way of preface, to the discussion of that description of visions which are sent from God. But it is time now to turn to the subject itself, and to investigate, with accuracy, every portion of it. The scripture therefore says, "And he dreamed a dream. And behold a ladder was planted firmly on the ground, the head of which reached to heaven, and the angels of God were ascending and descending along It. 1.134. By the ladder in this thing, which is called the world, is figuratively understood the air, the foundation of which is the earth, and the head is the heaven; for the large interior space, which being extended in every direction, reaches from the orb of the moon, which is described as the most remote of the order in heaven, but the nearest to us by those who contemplate sublime objects, down to the earth, which is the lowest of such bodies, is the air. 1.135. This air is the abode of incorporeal souls, since it seemed good to the Creator of the universe to fill all the parts of the world with living creatures. On this account he prepared the terrestrial animals for the earth, the aquatic animals for the sea and for the rivers, and the stars for the heaven; for every one of these bodies is not merely a living animal, but is also properly described as the very purest and most universal mind extending through the universe; so that there are living creatures in that other section of the universe, the air. And if these things are not comprehensible by the outward senses, what of that? For the soul is also invisible. 1.136. And yet it is probable that the air should nourish living animals even more than the land or the water. Why so? Because it is the air which has given vitality to those animals which live on the earth and in the water. For the Creator of the universe formed the air so that it should be the habit of those bodies which are immovable, and the nature of those which are moved in an invisible manner, and the soul of such as are able to exert an impetus and visible sense of their own. 1.137. Is it not then absurd that that element, by means of which the other elements have been filled with vitality, should itself be destitute of living things? Therefore let no one deprive the most excellent nature of living creatures of the most excellent of those elements which surrounds the earth; that is to say, of the air. For not only is it not alone deserted by all things besides, but rather, like a populous city, it is full of imperishable and immortal citizens, souls equal in number to the stars. 1.138. Now of these souls some descend upon the earth with a view to be bound up in mortal bodies, those namely which are most nearly connected with the earth, and which are lovers of the body. But some soar upwards, being again distinguished according to the definitions and times which have been appointed by nature. 1.139. of these, those which are influenced by a desire for mortal life, and which have been familiarised to it, again return to it. But others, condemning the body of great folly and trifling, have pronounced it a prison and a grave, and, flying from it as from a house of correction or a tomb, have raised themselves aloft on light wings towards the aether, and have devoted their whole lives to sublime speculations. 1.140. There are others, again, the purest and most excellent of all, which have received greater and more divine intellects, never by any chance desiring any earthly thing whatever, but being as it were lieutets of the Ruler of the universe, as though they were the eyes and ears of the great king, beholding and listening to everything. 1.141. Now philosophers in general are wont to call these demons, but the sacred scripture calls them angels, using a name more in accordance with nature. For indeed they do report (diangellousi) the injunctions of the father to his children, and the necessities of the children to the father. 1.143. having received a notion of which he once entreated one of those mediators, saying: "Do thou speak for us, and let not God speak to us, lest we Die." For not only are we unable to endure his chastisements, but we cannot bear even his excessive and unmodified benefits, which he himself proffers us of his own accord, without employing the ministrations of any other beings. 1.188. According to analogy, therefore, the knowledge of the world appreciable by the intellect is attained to by means of our knowledge of that which is perceptible by the outward senses, which is as it were a gate to the other. For as men who wish to see cities enter in through the gates, so also they who wish to comprehend the invisible world are conducted in their search by the appearance of the visible one. And the world of that essence which is only open to the intellect without any visible appearance or figure whatever, and which exists only in the archetypal idea which exists in the mind, which is fashioned according to its appearance, will be brought on without any shade; all the walls, and all the gates which could impede its progress being removed, so that it is not looked at through any other medium, but by itself, putting forth a beauty which is susceptible of no change, presenting an indescribable and exquisite spectacle. XXXIII.
41. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.14, 1.22, 1.32, 1.34, 1.116, 1.171, 1.277, 4.123 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.14. and the subjects being all the natures beneath the moon, hovering in the air and adjacent to the earth. But that the rulers aforesaid are not independent and absolute, but are the viceroys of one supreme Being, the Father of all, in imitation of whom they administer with propriety and success the charge committed to their care, as he also presides over all created things in strict accordance with justice and with law. Others, on the contrary, who have not discovered the supreme Governor, who thus rules everything, have attributed the causes of the different things which exist in the world to the subordinate powers, as if they had brought them to pass by their own independent act. 1.22. To whom the Father of the universe thus speaks, saying: "You shall not make to yourselves gods of silver and Gold;"{4}{#ex 20:20.} all but teaching them in express words, "You shall not make to yourselves any gods whatever of this or of any other material, nor shall you worship anything made with hands," being forbidden expressly with respect to the two most excellent materials; for silver and gold are esteemed the most honourable of all materials. 1.32. But the Father and Ruler of the universe is a being whose character it is difficult to arrive at by conjecture and hard to comprehend; but still we must not on that account shrink from an investigation of it. Now, in the investigations which are made into the nature of God, there are two things of the greatest importance, about which the intellect of the man who devotes himself to philosophy in a genuine spirit is perplexed. One is, whether there is any Deity at all? this question arises from the atheism (which is the greatest of all vice 1.34. He, therefore, who comes into that which is truly the greatest of cities, namely, this world, and who beholds all the land, both the mountain and the champaign district full of animals, and plants, and the streams of rivers, both overflowing and depending on the wintry floods, and the steady flow of the sea, and the admirable temperature of the air, and the varieties and regular revolutions of the seasons of the year; and then too the sun and moon, the rulers of day and night, and the revolutions and regular motions of all the other planets and fixed stars, and of the whole heaven; would he not naturally, or I should rather say, of necessity, conceive a notion of the Father, and creator, and governor of all this system; 1.116. For the law designs that he should be the partaker of a nature superior to that of man; inasmuch as he approaches more nearly to that of the Deity; being, if one must say the plain truth, on the borders between the two, in order that men may propitiate God by some mediator, and that God may have some subordinate minister by whom he may offer and give his mercies and kindnesses to mankind.XXIV. 1.171. Moreover, the most fragrant of all incenses are offered up twice every day in the fire, being burnt within the veil, both when the sun rises and sets, before the morning and after the evening sacrifice, so that the sacrifices of blood display our gratitude for ourselves as being composed of blood, but the offerings of incense show our thankfulness for the domit part within us, our rational spirit, which was fashioned after the archetypal model of the divine image. 1.277. And this command is a symbol of nothing else but of the fact that in the eyes of God it is not the number of things sacrificed that is accounted valuable, but the purity of the rational spirit of the sacrificer. Unless, indeed, one can suppose that a judge who is anxious to pronounce a holy judgment will never receive gifts from any of those whose conduct comes before his tribunal, or that, if he does receive such presents, he will be liable to an accusation of corruption; and that a good man will not receive gifts from a wicked person, not even though he may be poor and the other rich, and he himself perhaps in actual want of what he would so receive; and yet that God can be corrupted by bribes, who is most all-sufficient for himself and who has no need of any thing created; who, being himself the first and most perfect good thing, the everlasting fountain of wisdom, and justice, and of every virtue, rejects the gifts of the wicked. 4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{#le 3:17.} The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.CONCERNING THE SOUL OR LIFE OF MANXXIV. For the essence of the soul of man is the breath of God, especially if we follow the account of Moses, who, in his history of the creation of the world, says that God breathed into the first man, the founder of our race, the breath of life; breathing it into the principal part of his body, namely the face, where the outward senses are established, the body-guards of the mind, as if it were the great king. And that which was thus breathed into his face was manifestly the breath of the air, or whatever else there may be which is even more excellent than the breath of the air, as being a ray emitted from the blessed and thricehappy nature of God.
42. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 200-205, 199 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

199. Again, who is there who would deny that those men who were born of him who was made out of the earth were noble themselves, and the founders of noble families? persons who have received a birth more excellent than that of any succeeding generation, in being sprung from the first wedded pair, from the first man and woman, who then for the first time came together for the propagation of offspring resembling themselves. But, nevertheless, when there were two persons so born, the elder of them endured to slay the younger; and, having committed the great and most accursed crime of fratricide, he first defiled the ground with human blood.
43. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.2-1.7, 1.158, 1.279, 2.7, 2.24, 2.65, 2.209, 2.288 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.2. for the glory of the laws which he left behind him has reached over the whole world, and has penetrated to the very furthest limits of the universe; and those who do really and truly understand him are not many, perhaps partly out of envy, or else from the disposition so common to many persons of resisting the commands which are delivered by lawgivers in different states, since the historians who have flourished among the Greeks have not chosen to think him worthy of mention 1.3. the greater part of whom have both in their poems and also in their prose writings, disparaged or defaced the powers which they have received through education, composing comedies and works full of Sybaritish profligacy and licentiousness to their everlasting shame, while they ought rather to have employed their natural endowments and abilities in preserving a record of virtuous men and praiseworthy lives, so that honourable actions, whether ancient or modern, might not be buried in silence, and thus have all recollection of them lost, while they might shine gloriously if duly celebrated; and that they might not themselves have seemed to pass by more appropriate subjects, and to prefer such as were unworthy of being mentioned at all, while they were eager to give a specious appearance to infamous actions, so as to secure notoriety for disgraceful deeds. 1.4. But I disregard the envious disposition of these men, and shall proceed to narrate the events which befell him, having learnt them both from those sacred scriptures which he has left as marvellous memorials of his wisdom, and having also heard many things from the elders of my nation, for I have continually connected together what I have heard with what I have read, and in this way I look upon it that I am acquainted with the history of his life more accurately than other people. 1.5. And I will begin first with that with which it is necessary to begin. Moses was by birth a Hebrew, but he was born, and brought up, and educated in Egypt, his ancestors having migrated into Egypt with all their families on account of the long famine which oppressed Babylon and all the adjacent countries; for they were in search of food, and Egypt was a champaign country blessed with a rich soil, and very productive of every thing which the nature of man requires, and especially of corn and wheat 1.6. for the river of that country at the height of summer, when they say that all other rivers which are derived from winter torrents and from springs in the ground are smaller, rises and increases, and overflows so as to irrigate all the lands, and make them one vast lake. And so the land, without having any need of rain, supplies every year an unlimited abundance of every kind of good food, unless sometimes the anger of God interrupts this abundance by reason of the excessive impiety of the inhabitants. 1.7. And his father and mother were among the most excellent persons of their time, and though they were of the same time, still they were induced to unite themselves together more from an uimity of feeling than because they were related in blood; and Moses is the seventh generation in succession from the original settler in the country who was the founder of the whole race of the Jews. 1.158. What more shall I say? Has he not also enjoyed an even greater communion with the Father and Creator of the universe, being thought unworthy of being called by the same appellation? For he also was called the god and king of the whole nation, and he is said to have entered into the darkness where God was; that is to say, into the invisible, and shapeless, and incorporeal world, the essence, which is the model of all existing things, where he beheld things invisible to mortal nature; for, having brought himself and his own life into the middle, as an excellently wrought picture, he established himself as a most beautiful and Godlike work, to be a model for all those who were inclined to imitate him. 1.279. Who has ever discovered with accuracy the first origin of the birth of these people? Their bodies, indeed, may have been fashioned according to human means of propagation; but their souls have been brought forth by divine agency, wherefore they are nearly related to God. May my soul die as to the death of the body, that it may be remembered among the souls of the righteous, such as the souls of these men are. 2.7. Therefore the connection of these four powers is beautiful and harmonious, for being all connected together and united one to another, they unite in concert, receiving and imparting a reciprocity of benefits from and to one another, imitating the virgin graces with whom it is an immutable law of their nature that they cannot be disunited, with respect to whom one might fairly say, what is habitually said of the virtues, that he who has one has them all. 2.24. But on this fast it is not lawful to take any food or any drink, in order that no bodily passion may at all disturb or hinder the pure operations of the mind; but these passions are wont to be generated by fulness and satiety, so that at this time men feast, propitiating the Father of the universe with holy prayers, by which they are accustomed to solicit pardon for their former sins, and the acquisition and enjoyment of new blessings. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb 2.209. Moreover, in accordance with the honour due to the Creator of the universe, the prophet hallowed the sacred seventh day, beholding with eyes of more acute sight than those of mortals its pre-eminent beauty, which had already been deeply impressed on the heaven and the whole universal world, and had been borne about as an image by nature itself in her own bosom; 2.288. And some time afterwards, when he was about to depart from hence to heaven, to take up his abode there, and leaving this mortal life to become immortal, having been summoned by the Father, who now changed him, having previously been a double being, composed of soul and body, into the nature of a single body, transforming him wholly and entirely into a most sun-like mind; he then, being wholly possessed by inspiration, does not seem any longer to have prophesied comprehensively to the whole nation altogether, but to have predicted to each tribe separately what would happen to each of them, and to their future generations, some of which things have already come to pass, and some are still expected, because the accomplishment of those predictions which have been fulfilled is the clearest testimony to the future.
44. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.42, 1.105, 1.108, 2.4-2.5, 2.77, 2.96, 3.52, 3.96, 3.161 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV. 1.105. Accordingly God says, "In the day in which ye eat of it ye shall die the death." And yet, though they have eaten of it, they not only do not die, but they even beget children, and are the causes of life to other beings besides themselves. What, then, are we to say? Surely that death is of two kinds; the one being the death of the man, the other the peculiar death of the soul--now the death of the man is the separation of his soul from his body, but the death of the soul is the destruction of virtue and the admission of vice; 1.108. Well, therefore, did Heraclitus say this, following the doctrine of Moses; for he says, "We are living according to the death of those men; and we have died according to their life." As if he had said, Now, when we are alive, we are so though our soul is dead and buried in our body, as if in a tomb. But if it were to die, then our soul would live according to its proper life, being released from the evil and dead body to which it is bound.
45. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, 2.40 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

46. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.62, 1.81, 2.56, 2.59, 2.66 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

47. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 283, 55-57, 84, 98, 214 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

214. Is not this the thing which the Greeks say that Heraclitus, that great philosopher who is so celebrated among them, put forth as the leading principle of his whole philosophy, and boasted of it as if it were a new discovery? For it is in reality an ancient discovery of Moses, that out of the same thing opposite things are produced having the ratio of parts to the whole, as has here been shown. XLVI.
48. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 118, 283, 60, 80, 83-84, 86-87, 90, 114 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

114. but of the lovers of knowledge the prophet speaks in a great song, and says, "That she has made them to ascend upon the strength of the earth, and has fed them upon the produce of the Fields," showing plainly that the godless man fails in attaining his object, in order that he may grieve the more while strength is not added to these operations in which he expends his energies, but while on the other hand it is take from them; but they who follow after virtue, placing it above all these things which are earthly and mortal, disregard their strength in their exceeding abundance, using God as the guide to conduct them in their ascent, who proffers to them the produce of the earth for their enjoyment and most profitable use, likening the virtues to fields, and the fruits of the virtues to the produce of the fields, according to the principles of their generation; for from prudence is derived prudent action, and from temperance temperate action, and from piety pious conduct, and from each of the other virtues is derived the energy in accordance with it. XXXI.
49. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 3, 35-38, 40, 42-48, 50, 58, 78, 96, 151 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

151. These are mighty deeds of boldness for a heavenly and celestial soul, which has utterly forsaken the regions of earth, and which has been drawn up on high, and has its abode among the divine natures. For being filled with the sight of the genuine and incorruptible good things, it very naturally repudiates those which only last a day and are spurious. XXXIII.
50. Anon., 2 Baruch, 51.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

51. Anon., Didache, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 36.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36.2. διὰ τούτου ἀτενίζομεν a)teni/twmen A "lat us fir our gaze." εἰς τὰ ὕψη τῶν οὐρανῶν, διὰ τούτου ἐνοπτριζόμεθα τὴν ἄμωμον καὶ ὑπερτάτην ὄψιν αὐτοῦ, διὰ τούτου ἠνεῴχθησαν ἡμῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ τῆς καρδίας, διὰ τούτου ἡ ἀσύνετος καὶ ἐσκοτωμένη διάνοια ἡμῶν ἀναθάλλει εἰς τὸ φῶς, διὰ τούτου ἠθέλησεν ὁ δεσπότης τῆς ἀθανάτου γνώσεως ἡμᾶς γεύσασθαι, ὃς Heb. 1, 3, 4 ὦν ἀπαύγασμα τῆς μεγαλωσύνης αὐτοῦ, τοσούτῳ μείζων ἐστὶν ἀγγέλων, ὅσῳ διαφορώτερον ὄνομα Heb. 1, 7; Pa 104, 4 κεκληρονόμηκεν.
53. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.4.27, 1.14.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.100, 3.212, 18.87 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.212. 8. But Moses refused all that honor which he saw the multitude ready to bestow upon him, and attended to nothing else but the service of God. He went no more up to Mount Sinai; but he went into the tabernacle, and brought back answers from God for what he prayed for. His habit was also that of a private man, and in all other circumstances he behaved himself like one of the common people, and was desirous to appear without distinguishing himself from the multitude, but would have it known that he did nothing else but take care of them. 18.87. but Pilate prevented their going up, by seizing upon file roads with a great band of horsemen and foot-men, who fell upon those that were gotten together in the village; and when it came to an action, some of them they slew, and others of them they put to flight, and took a great many alive, the principal of which, and also the most potent of those that fled away, Pilate ordered to be slain.
55. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.31, 6.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. Now these caves were in the precipices of craggy mountains, and could not be come at from any side, since they had only some winding pathways, very narrow, by which they got up to them; but the rock that lay on their front had beneath it valleys of a vast depth, and of an almost perpendicular declivity; insomuch that the king was doubtful for a long time what to do, by reason of a kind of impossibility there was of attacking the place. Yet did he at length make use of a contrivance that was subject to the utmost hazard; 1.31. 1. At the same time that Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, had a quarrel with the sixth Ptolemy about his right to the whole country of Syria, a great sedition fell among the men of power in Judea, and they had a contention about obtaining the government; while each of those that were of dignity could not endure to be subject to their equals. However, Onias, one of the high priests, got the better, and cast the sons of Tobias out of the city; 6.47. For what man of virtue is there who does not know, that those souls which are severed from their fleshly bodies in battles by the sword are received by the ether, that purest of elements, and joined to that company which are placed among the stars; that they become good demons, and propitious heroes, and show themselves as such to their posterity afterwards?
56. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
57. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.17, 15.35-15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. For Christ sent me not to baptize, but topreach the gospel -- not in wisdom of words, so that the cross ofChrist wouldn't be made void. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ. 15.58. Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast,immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know thatyour labor is not in vain in the Lord.
58. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.9, 5.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 5.23. May the God of peace himself sanctify you completely. May your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
59. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

60. New Testament, Acts, 1.3-1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. To these he also showed himself alive after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and spoke about God's Kingdom. 1.4. Being assembled together with them, he charged them, "Don't depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which you heard from me.
61. New Testament, Colossians, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth.
62. New Testament, Ephesians, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, that you may be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inward man;
63. New Testament, Galatians, 2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me.
64. New Testament, Hebrews, 3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

65. New Testament, Romans, 7.22, 8.9-8.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.22. For I delight in God's law after the inward man 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you.
66. New Testament, John, 5.21, 6.38, 7.39, 13.35, 20.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.21. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he desires. 6.38. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. 7.39. But he said this about the Spirit, which those believing in him were to receive. For the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus wasn't yet glorified. 13.35. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another. 20.22. When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit!
67. New Testament, Luke, 1.26-1.31, 7.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.26. Now in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth 1.27. to a virgin pledged to be married to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary. 1.28. Having come in, the angel said to her, "Rejoice, you highly favored one! The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women! 1.29. But when she saw him, she was greatly troubled at the saying, and considered what kind of salutation this might be. 1.30. The angel said to her, "Don't be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 1.31. Behold, you will conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, and will call his name 'Jesus.' 7.35. Wisdom is justified by all her children.
68. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 8.1. ... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]..."
69. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

70. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.6.1-1.6.3, 1.30.6, 1.30.8-1.30.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

71. Irenaeus, Demonstration of The Apostolic Teaching, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

72. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 5.4-5.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

73. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35a. מתני׳ big strongכיצד /strong /big מברכין על הפירות על פירות האילן הוא אומר בורא פרי העץ חוץ מן היין שעל היין הוא אומר בורא פרי הגפן ועל פירות הארץ הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה חוץ מן הפת שעל הפת הוא אומר המוציא לחם מן הארץ ועל הירקות הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה רבי יהודה אומר בורא מיני דשאים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא ה"מ דתנו רבנן (ויקרא יט, כד) קדש הלולים לה' מלמד שטעונים ברכה לפניהם ולאחריהם מכאן אמר ר"ע אסור לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיברך,והאי קדש הלולים להכי הוא דאתא האי מיבעי ליה חד דאמר רחמנא אחליה והדר אכליה ואידך דבר הטעון שירה טעון חלול ושאינו טעון שירה אין טעון חלול וכדר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מנין שאין אומרים שירה אלא על היין שנאמר (שופטים ט, יג) ותאמר להם הגפן החדלתי את תירושי המשמח אלהים ואנשים אם אנשים משמח אלהים במה משמח מכאן שאין אומרים שירה אלא על היין,הניחא למאן דתני נטע רבעי אלא למאן דתני כרם רבעי מאי איכא למימר דאתמר ר' חייא ור' שמעון ברבי חד תני כרם רבעי וחד תני נטע רבעי,ולמאן דתני כרם רבעי הניחא אי יליף ג"ש דתניא ר' אומר נאמר כאן (ויקרא יט, כה) להוסיף לכם תבואתו ונאמר להלן (דברים כב, ט) ותבואת הכרם מה להלן כרם אף כאן כרם אייתר ליה חד הלול לברכה,ואי לא יליף גזרה שוה ברכה מנא ליה ואי נמי יליף גזרה שוה אשכחן לאחריו לפניו מנין,הא לא קשיא דאתיא בקל וחומר כשהוא שבע מברך כשהוא רעב לא כל שכן,אשכחן כרם שאר מינין מנין,דיליף מכרם מה כרם דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,איכא למפרך מה לכרם שכן חייב בעוללות,קמה תוכיח מה לקמה שכן חייבת בחלה,כרם יוכיח וחזר הדין לא ראי זה כראי זה ולא ראי זה כראי זה הצד השוה שבהן דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בו צד מזבח ואתי נמי זית דאית ביה צד מזבח,וזית מצד מזבח אתי והא בהדיא כתיב ביה כרם דכתיב (שופטים טו, ה) ויבער מגדיש ועד קמה ועד כרם זית אמר רב פפא כרם זית אקרי כרם סתמא לא אקרי,מ"מ קשיא מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בהן צד מזבח אלא דיליף לה משבעת המינין מה שבעת המינין דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,מה לשבעת המינין שכן חייבין בבכורים ועוד התינח לאחריו לפניו מנין,הא לא קשיא דאתי בקל וחומר כשהוא שבע מברך כשהוא רעב לכ"ש,ולמאן דתני נטע רבעי הא תינח כל דבר נטיעה דלאו בר נטיעה כגון בשר ביצים ודגים מנא ליה אלא סברא הוא אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה:,ת"ר אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה וכל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה מעל מאי תקנתיה ילך אצל חכם,ילך אצל חכם מאי עביד ליה הא עביד ליה איסורא אלא אמר רבא ילך אצל חכם מעיקרא וילמדנו ברכות כדי שלא יבא לידי מעילה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה כאילו נהנה מקדשי שמים שנא' (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה ר' לוי רמי כתיב לה' הארץ ומלואה וכתיב (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם לא קשיא כאן קודם ברכה 35a. strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna discusses the blessings recited over various foods. bHow does one recite a blessing over fruits? Overdifferent bfruitsthat grow on a btree one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, with the exception of wine.Although wine is produced from fruit of the tree, due to its significance, its blessing differs from other fruits of the tree. bOver wine one recites: Who creates fruit of the vine. Over fruitsthat grow from bthe earth, one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground, with the exception of bread.Bread, too, is significant and its blessing differs from other fruits of the ground, bas over bread one recites: Who brings forth bread from the earth. Overherbs and leafy bvegetables one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat there is room to distinguish between fruits that grow from the earth, herbs, and leafy vegetables. Although they are all fruit of the ground, since they have different qualities, the blessing on the latter is: bWho creates various kinds of herbs. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Concerning the fundamental basis for blessings, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,the obligation to recite a blessing before eating, derived? The Gemara answers: bAs the Sages taughtin the iSifra /i: With regard to saplings, it is stated that in their fourth year their fruit will be: b“…sanctified for praises before the Lord”(Leviticus 19:24). This verse bteachesthat bthey requirepraise of God in the form of a bblessingboth bbeforehand and thereafter,as the verse says praises in the plural. bFrom here, Rabbi Akiva said: A person is forbidden to taste anything before he recites a blessing,as without reciting praise over food, it has the status of a consecrated item, from which one is forbidden to derive pleasure.,The Gemara asks: bAnddid bthisverse: b“Sanctified for praises,” come for thatpurpose? bThisverse bis necessaryto derive other matters. bOnebeing bthat the Merciful One said: Redeem it and then eat it.This midrash interprets ihillul /i, praise, as iḥillul /i, redemption. bAnd the othermatter derived from this verse is: bAn object whichis offered upon the altar and brequires a songof praise when it is offered, as is the case with the libation of wine, brequires redemption. And that which does not require a songof praise, all other fruits, bdoes not require redemption. Andthis is bin accordance withthe opinion that bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: From whereis it derived that bone only recites a songof praise in the Temple bover thelibation of bwineon the altar? bAs it is stated: “And the vine replied: Should I leave my wine, which gladdens God and man,and go and wave above the trees?” (Judges 9:13). bIfwine bgladdens people, in whatway bdoes it gladden God?Rather, derive bfrom here that one only recites a songof praise bover wine,as wine gladdens God when offered as part of the service in the Temple.In any case, other ihalakhothave been derived from this verse. From where, then, is the requirement to recite blessings derived?,Indeed, bthisworks out bwell according to the one who taught,as a rule: bA fourth-year saplingin the imishnayotdealing with the prohibition to eat fruits produced during the first three years of a tree’s existence and the sanctity of the fruit produced in its fourth year; as, in his opinion, fourth-year fruits that grow on all trees must be redeemed. bHowever, according to the one who taught,as a rule: bA fourth-year grapevine, what can be said?Indeed, he derives the ihalakhathat only wine that is accompanied by a song of praise requires redemption, from the interpretation of ihillulas iḥillul /i. bAs it was stated: Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bone taughtthese imishnayotusing the term: bA fourth-year grapevine, and one taughtusing the term: bA fourth-year sapling. /b, bAnd according to the one who taught: A fourth year grapevine, thisworks out bwell if he derivesthis matter bfrom a verbal analogy [ igezera shava /i],and therefore need not derive this ihalakhafrom the term ihillulim /i. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: It is stated herewith regard to the laws of the prohibition of fruit for the tree’s first three years: “But in the fifth year you may eat its fruit, bso that it may increase your produce [ itevuato /i];I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 19:25). bAnd it is stated below,with regard to the laws of diverse kinds: “You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the growth of the seed that you have sown be forfeited bwith the produce [ iutevuat /i] of the vineyard”(Deuteronomy 22:9). Based on a verbal analogy, it can be derived: bJust as below,with regard to the laws of diverse kinds, the produce is that which grows in bvineyards; so too, here,with regard to the ihalakhotof the fruits of a sapling, the produce is that which grows in bvineyards.Consequently, according to the one who holds this verbal analogy, bone extra ihillul /iremains from which to derive bthe blessing.Since he derives that the laws of fourth-year saplings apply only to grapes from the verbal analogy, he can derive the requirement to recite blessings before partaking of food from the word ihillulim /i., bAnd if he does not derivethis ihalakhaby means of ba verbal analogy,he must derive this ihalakhafrom the term ihillulim /i, in which case, bfrom where does he derivethe mitzva bto recite a blessingbefore partaking of food? bAnd even if he derivesthis ihalakhaby means of ba verbal analogy, we founda source for the obligation to recite a blessing baftereating, similar to the obligation stated in the verse: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless.” However, bfrom whereis it derived that there is an obligation to recite a blessing bbeforehand?From one ihillul /i, the fundamental ihalakhaof redemption of fourth-year saplings is derived.,The Gemara answers this: This is bnot difficult, as itmay be bderived by means of an ia fortioriinference: If when he is satiated,after eating, bheis obligated to brecite a blessingover food, bwhen he is hungry,before eating, ball the more sothat he is obligated to recite a blessing over food.,The Gemara comments: In that way, bwe founda source for the obligation to recite a blessing over the produce of bvineyards,but bfrom whereis it derived with regard to bother types ofproduce?,The Gemara responds: bIt is derivedby means of the hermeneutic principle: What do we find, bfromthe produce of a bvineyard: Just asthe fruit of the bvineyard is an itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit and it requires a blessing, so too, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,The Gemara rejects this proof: bThisderivation bcan be refuted,as a vineyard is unique: bWhatis unique about a bvineyard, that it is obligated inthe mitzva requiring to give bsmall, incomplete clusters of grapes [ iolelot /i]to the poor? That is a stringency that does not apply to other fruits. Perhaps the blessing is also a stringency that applies only to grapes.,The Gemara answers: In that case, bstanding grain can provethat the ihalakhaof iolelotis not a factor in the obligation to recite a blessing. One is obligated by Torah law to recite a blessing after eating bread, even though the ihalakhaof iolelotdoes not apply to grain. The Gemara rejects this proof: bWhatis unique about bripe grain, that it is obligated inthe mitzva of separating iḥalla /ifrom the dough? That is a stringency that does not apply to other foods. Perhaps the blessing is also a stringency that applies only to grain.,The Gemara responds: In that regard, bvineyards can provethat the ihalakhaof iḥallais not a factor in the obligation to recite a blessing. In summary: bAnd the derivation has revertedto its starting point. However, at this point the ihalakhais derived from a combination of the two sources: bThe aspect of this is not like the aspect of that, and the aspect of that is not like the aspect of this; the common denominator is:Both are bitemsfrom bwhich one derives benefit andeach brequires a blessing.A general principle may be derived: bSo too, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,Again, the Gemara objects: bWhatis unique about bthe common denominatorbetween grapes and grain that prevents utilizing it as a paradigm for other food items? Grapes and grain bhave an aspectof being offered upon the baltar,and perhaps that is the reason that they require blessings. Based on that reasoning, although all other food items cannot be derived from the common denominator, ban olive may also be derived as it too has an aspectof being offered upon the baltar,as olive oil is one of the components of a meal offering.,The Gemara questions this point: bIs an olive derived fromthe fact that it bhas an aspectof being offered upon the baltar? Isn’t it written explicitly with regard tothe olive blistedthat the orchard in which it grows is called ikerem /i; as it is written: “And burnt up from the shocks and the standing grain and the olive yards [ ikerem zayit /i]”(Judges 15:5)? Just as the orchard in which grapes grow is called ikerem /i, and grapes require a blessing, the olive also grows in a ikeremand should require a blessing. bRav Pappa said:Nevertheless, an analogy may not be drawn between the two; where the olive grows bis called ikerem zayit /i, it is not called ikeremunmodified,which is a term reserved for grapevines.,The Gemara returns to the issue at hand, noting that bin any case, it is difficult: Whatis unique about bthe common denominatorbetween grapes and grain? That they bpossess an aspectof being offered upon the baltar. Rather, it is derived fromthe obligation to recite a blessing bupon the seven species.After the verse speaks of the seven species, it states: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless.” This is a paradigm for all other foods, that they too require a blessing: bJust as the seven species are itemsfrom bwhich one derives benefit and require a blessing, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,Again, the Gemara rejects this: bWhatis unique babout the seven species? That one is obligated inthe mitzva bof first fruits.However, other produce with regard to which one is not obligated in the mitzva of first fruits, from where is it derived that they require a blessing? bFurthermore,even if the seven species can serve as a paradigm, bthisworks out bwellwith regard to the blessing bthereafter;but bfrom whereis the obligation to recite a blessing bbeforehandderived?,The Gemara responds to the question: This is bnot difficult, as itmay be bderived by means of an ia fortioriinference: If when he is satiated,after eating, bheis obligated to brecite a blessingover food, bwhen he is hungry,before eating, ball the more sohe is obligated to recite a blessing over food.,In any case, this is not an absolute proof. Furthermore, even baccording to the one who taught: A fourth-year saplingin all the relevant imishnayot /i, bitworks out bwellwith regard to beverything that can be planted,that one is obligated to recite a blessing. However, with regard to bitems that cannot be planted, such as meat, eggs, and fish, from where does hederive the ihalakhathat one is obligated to recite a blessing? bRather,all previous attempts at deriving this ihalakhaare rejected. The fundamental obligation to recite a blessing over food is founded on breason: One is forbidden to derive benefit from this world without a blessing. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta /i: bOne is forbidden to derive benefit from this world,which is the property of God, bwithoutreciting ba blessingbeforehand. bAnd anyone who derives benefit from this world without a blessing,it is as if he is guilty of bmisuseof a consecrated object. The Gemara adds: bWhat is his remedy? He should go to a Sage. /b,The Gemara is puzzled: bHe should go to a Sage; what will he do to him?How can the Sage help after bhe has already violated a prohibition? Rather, Rava said,this is how it should be understood: bHe should go to a Sage initially,in his youth, bandthe Sage bwill teach him blessings, so that he will not come tobe guilty of this type of bmisuseof a consecrated object in the future.,Similarly, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he enjoyed objects consecrated to the heavens, as it is stated: “The earth and all it contains is the Lord’s,the world and all those who live in it” (Psalms 24:1). Rabbi Levi expressed this concept differently. bRabbi Levi raised a contradiction: It is written: “The earth and all it contains is the Lord’s,” and it is writtenelsewhere: b“The heavens are the Lord’s and the earth He has given over to mankind”(Psalms 115:16). There is clearly a contradiction with regard to whom the earth belongs. He himself resolves the contradiction: This is bnot difficult. Here,the verse that says that the earth is the Lord’s refers to the situation bbefore a blessingis recited
74. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.143 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.143. It is a living thing in the sense of an animate substance endowed with sensation; for animal is better than non-animal, and nothing is better than the world, ergo the world is a living being. And it is endowed with soul, as is clear from our several souls being each a fragment of it. Boethus, however, denies that the world is a living thing. The unity of the world is maintained by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius in the first book of his Physical Discourse. By the totality of things, the All, is meant, according to Apollodorus, (1) the world, and in another sense (2) the system composed of the world and the void outside it. The world then is finite, the void infinite.
75. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 115.5, 115.12-115.15, 115.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

76. Porphyry, Letter To Marcella, 33 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Naked was he sent into the world, and naked shall he call on Him that sent him. For |51 God listens only to those who are not weighed down by alien things, and guards those who are purified from corruption. Consider it a great help towards the blessed life if the captive in the thraldom of nature takes his captor captive. For we are bound in the chains that nature has cast around us, by the belly, the throat and the other members and parts of the body, and by the use of these and the pleasant sensations that arise therefrom and the fears they occasion. But if we rise superior to their witchcraft, and avoid the snares laid by them, we lead our captor captive. Neither trouble thyself much whether thou be male or female in body, nor look on thyself as a woman, for I did not approach thee as such. Flee all that is womanish in the soul, as though thou hadst a man's body about thee. For what is born from a virgin soul and a pure mind is most blessed, since imperishable springs from imperishable. But what the body produces is held corrupt by all the gods.
77. Augustine, Commentary On Genesis, 5.5.13 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

78. Proclus, In Platonis Timaeum Commentarii, 2.302 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

79. Proclus, In Platonis Timaeum Commentarii, 2.302 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

80. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 5 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

81. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 9.2

82. Pseudo-Phocylides, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, 104, 103



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
abraham,gentleness of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
abraham,humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
abraham,moderation of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
abraham Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
acherusian sea (lake) Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
adam,earthy intellect/mind Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 157
adam,mouth of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
adam/adam,and dust Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
adam/adam,new or second Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 311
adam/adam,the first Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 311
adam Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 164, 168; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 398; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
aeschylus Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117
aether Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 191
afterlife Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
afterlife conceptions Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 177
alcinous Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 157
allegory,allegorical interpretation,philo Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 214, 215
allegory,allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 214, 215
androgyny Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 168
angelic substrate Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
angels,philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 215
angels Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117
anthropology Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157
antiochus of ascalon Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
apaugasma (ἀπαύγασμα) Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 285
apocalypticism,and philosophy Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 219
apollodorus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
apollos Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 323
apospasma (ἀπόσπασμα) Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 285
appropriation (οἰκείωσις),philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
appropriation (οἰκείωσις),stoics on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
archon Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164, 168
aristobulus Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 268
aristotle Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 157
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 211, 214, 215
ascent,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
ascent,frightful Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
ascent,soul,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
ascent Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
asher,j. Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 219
astrology Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12
augustine,and ciceros translation of timaeus Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
augustine,creation narrative of Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
baptism of john Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 323
baptism spirit and Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 323
belief Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
bezalel Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 75
bitterness Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
blessed life/blessedness Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 157
body,pleasures of Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116
body,views of Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 122
body Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 148, 311; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457, 731; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
cain Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116
calcidius,on interpretations of genesis Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
causality,in creation Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
cave Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
chaldean (hebrew language) Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
charges against,at corinth Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 323
charismatic endowment Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 148
cherubim Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
choice (αἵρεσις),philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
christ,see also jesus Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161
christian/christianity Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
christian Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
christians,christianity Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 219
chrysippus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
cicero Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
cohesion (ἕξις) Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 290
cold Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
confession Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 311
consolatory literature Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
corinthians Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161
cosmology,ancient Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 177
creation,augustines narrative of Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
creation,in genesis,six days of Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
creation,story of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 311
creation Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142, 285
curse,cursing Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146
death Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 148, 311
delphi Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 311, 371
demiurge Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157
descent,of the immortal man/adam of light Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 168
descent,of the spirit/breath into adam Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 168
diogenes laertius Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122
disciple Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
divine,image Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71
divine Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
divine essence Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 108
divine logos Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 149
divine presence,shekhinah related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 108
dreams Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 148, 311, 371
dualism,earth, Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
dust Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 311
dyad and monad,the earthborn Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
earth,as mother/nurse Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117
earth Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 311, 371
ecstasy,ecstatic Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 290
eden/new eden Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
elijah Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
emphysaō (ἐμφυσάω) Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142
ennoia Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 164, 168
enos,in fourth generation Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
enos Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
ephesians Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
esau Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 157
ethics Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12
eudorus Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
eve Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164, 168; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
evil Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157
exegesis Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142
ezekiel Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
fall Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164
false claim Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164
fate,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
father,fatherhood Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 165, 166
father Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157
figures of speech,metaphor Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122
fire,fiery Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142
fire Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 148
form Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
four,the number Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
fruit,immortality,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
gender Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 108
genesis,book of Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142
genesis,two accounts of creation in Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
gnostic,gnosticism Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 13
god,(great) king Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117
god,breath/inbreathing Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 148, 311
god,father Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117, 122
god,human created according to the image of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
god,image of Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
god,in philo Martens (2003), One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law, 79
god,presence of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
god,seal of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
god,sending of/by Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
god,winds of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
god Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
goddess,younger gods Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12
gods,philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
gods,theophilus on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 219
gods,valentinians on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 219
greek logos,jewish wisdom and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 149
greek logos Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 74
grief and mourning Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
growth (φύσις) Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 290
hades Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
harmony of the spheres Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 191
heat Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
heaven,heaven and earth, Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
heaven,interpretations of (augustine) Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
heavenly agent Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 155
hebrew,and chaldean Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
hellenistic judaism Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161
horsley,r. Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 219
human,nature Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71
human,primal Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13
human/humankind Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 148, 311
human being Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116
human nature Martens (2003), One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law, 79
humanity Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 191
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
ialdabaoth Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164, 168
image Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 164
image (εἰκών) Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13
image of god Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71
imagery,fountain Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117
imagery,marking/stamping Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122
imitation Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 191
immortal(ity) Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 285
immortality Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 13; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
inspiration Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 148, 311, 371
instructor Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 168
intermediate Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 157
invisible,ruling part Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12
irenaeus of lyon Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 219
jacob Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117, 157
jacobs dream Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117
jesus,and angels Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
jesus Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157
jesus christ,in the fourth gospel Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
jew/jewish,literature/ authors Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 148, 311, 371
jew/jewish,scripture Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 311
jewish wisdom,greek logos and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 149
jewish wisdom Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 155
johannine logos,personified wisdom and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 155
john,fourth gospel' "151.0_146.0@law,god's" Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
john,gospel of Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157
judaism,noumenal,phenomenal humanity Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 211
judaism,nous Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 214
judaism,noētos,aisthētos human Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 211
judaism,pneuma (spirit) Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 211, 214, 215
judaism,pneuma as divine agency Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210
judaism,pneuma as life breath Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210
judaism,pneuma in stoic thought Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 211
judaism,spirit of god,divine spirit Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 211, 214, 215
judaism Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
judaism and christianity Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 177
judaism in egypt,philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 211, 214, 215
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 211, 214, 215
justin,on virtue (ἀρετή) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 219
kinship language/terms Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157
knowledge Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164
law,god's" "151.0_311.0@law,god's" "151.0_371.0@law,god's" Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
law,god's" '151.0_148.0@law,torah Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 148
law Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 290
law of nature,death as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
life,concept of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
life,eternal Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
life,human Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 371
life,likeness Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13
life,spirit/breath of Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161
life Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164
light,adam of light Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 168
light Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164
likeness Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164
literature Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 148, 311, 371
logos,christological Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 13
logos,philo Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161
logos Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
logos (λόγος) Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157
logos of god,man Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 75, 108
logos of god Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 155
love of god (θεοφιλία) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
love of self (φιλαυτία) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
man (anthropos) barbelo,lordly man Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 168
man (anthropos) barbelo,man and son of man Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164
matter,augustines portrayal of Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
medical,knowledge and texts Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142
menander Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117
middle-platonism Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 74
mind Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 157
moderation Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 390
mortal Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71
mortality/immortality Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 148
mortality Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71
mosaic law,for ordinary people Martens (2003), One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law, 79
moses,as all-wise Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
moses,author of the torah Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116
moses,greek philosophical ideas and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
moses,lawgiver Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116
moses Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 148, 311; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457; Martens (2003), One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law, 79; O'Brien (2015), The Demiurge in Ancient Thought, 71
moses (mosaic) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
mouth,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
music Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 191
nature,human Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71
nature,philos and stoics views of Martens (2003), One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law, 79
nephesh Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 148
nobility Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 398
nous,faculty Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 164, 168
oppression,bitterness,by Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
oppression,burning,by Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 731
origen Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
paideia Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117
passion Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146
passions Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116
paul Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 164
paul (saul) Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 311
personified wisdom,johannine logos and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 155
philo O'Brien (2015), The Demiurge in Ancient Thought, 71
philo judaeus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 146, 147, 148, 311
philo judeas,de specialibus legibus Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142
philo judeas,quaestiones et solutiones in genesin Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 279
philo judeas Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142, 279, 285, 290
philo of alexandria,and hellenistic judaism Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,angels Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 215
philo of alexandria,anthropology bipartite Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 211
philo of alexandria,creation theology Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 211
philo of alexandria,on abel Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,on appropriation (οἰκείωσις) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,on cain Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,on choice (προαίρεσις) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,on god Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,on likeness to/imitating god (ὁμοίωσις θεῷ) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,on love for (one-)self (φιλαυτία) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,on love for god/being loved by god (θεοφιλία) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria,on virtue (ἀρετή) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90
philo of alexandria Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 90; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 157; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 211, 214, 215; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
philosophy Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 142; Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 177
physical Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71
physis,and nature of god Martens (2003), One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law, 79
plato,timaeus,augustine and Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 242
plato/platonic/platonism/neo-platonism Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117, 122
plato Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 219
platonic Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 20
platonism,genesis Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 219
pleasure Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116
pneuma,see also spirit Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 164, 168
pneuma Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122
pneumatic,see also spiritual Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161
posidonius Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
potiphar Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 116
progeny Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 457
protagoras Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 157
psychic adam/eve/body,essence Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161
psychic adam/eve/body Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 164, 168
pythagorean-platonist tradition Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160