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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9241
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 27


nanAnd they are accustomed to pray twice every day, at morning and at evening; when the sun is rising entreating God that the happiness of the coming day may be real happiness, so that their minds may be filled with heavenly light, and when the sun is setting they pray that their soul, being entirely lightened and relieved of the burden of the outward senses, and of the appropriate object of these outward senses, may be able to trace out truth existing in its own consistory and council chamber.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.9, 11.13-11.21, 21.6-21.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.21. לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 21.6. וְכֹל זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא הַקְּרֹבִים אֶל־הֶחָלָל יִרְחֲצוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־הָעֶגְלָה הָעֲרוּפָה בַנָּחַל׃ 21.7. וְעָנוּ וְאָמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ לֹא שפכה [שָׁפְכוּ] אֶת־הַדָּם הַזֶּה וְעֵינֵינוּ לֹא רָאוּ׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;" 11.21. that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth." 21.6. And all the elders of that city, who are nearest unto the slain man, shall wash their hands over the heifer whose neck was broken in the valley." 21.7. And they shall speak and say: ‘Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 29.38-29.42, 30.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.38. וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם תָּמִיד׃ 29.39. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 29.41. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכָּהּ תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 29.42. עֹלַת תָּמִיד לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לָכֶם שָׁמָּה לְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיךָ שָׁם׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 29.38. Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar: two lambs of the first year day by day continually." 29.39. The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk." 29.40. And with the one lamb a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink-offering." 29.41. And the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk, and shalt do thereto according to the meal-offering of the morning, and according to the drink-offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.42. It shall be a continual burnt-offering throughout your generations at the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD, where I will meet with you, to speak there unto thee." 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 10.2-10.3, 10.10, 15.37-15.41, 28.1-28.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.2. עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרֹת כֶּסֶף מִקְשָׁה תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם וְהָיוּ לְךָ לְמִקְרָא הָעֵדָה וּלְמַסַּע אֶת־הַמַּחֲנוֹת׃ 10.2. וְעַל־צְבָא מַטֵּה בְנֵי־גָד אֶלְיָסָף בֶּן־דְּעוּאֵל׃ 10.3. וְתָקְעוּ בָּהֵן וְנוֹעֲדוּ אֵלֶיךָ כָּל־הָעֵדָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 10.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לֹא אֵלֵךְ כִּי אִם־אֶל־אַרְצִי וְאֶל־מוֹלַדְתִּי אֵלֵךְ׃ 15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 28.1. עֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 28.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ לָהֶם זֶה הָאִשֶּׁה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה תְמִימִם שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם עֹלָה תָמִיד׃ 28.3. שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם׃ 28.4. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 28.5. וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה סֹלֶת לְמִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בְּשֶׁמֶן כָּתִית רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃ 28.6. עֹלַת תָּמִיד הָעֲשֻׂיָה בְּהַר סִינַי לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 28.7. וְנִסְכּוֹ רְבִיעִת הַהִין לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הַסֵּךְ נֶסֶךְ שֵׁכָר לַיהוָה׃ 28.8. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכּוֹ תַּעֲשֶׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 10.2. ’Make thee two trumpets of silver; of beaten work shalt thou make them; and they shall be unto thee for the calling of the congregation, and for causing the camps to set forward." 10.3. And when they shall blow with them, all the congregation shall gather themselves unto thee at the door of the tent of meeting." 10.10. Also in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed seasons, and in your new moons, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; and they shall be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 28.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season." 28.3. And thou shalt say unto them: This is the offering made by fire which ye shall bring unto the LORD: he-lambs of the first year without blemish, two day by day, for a continual burnt-offering." 28.4. The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at dusk;" 28.5. and the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering, mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil." 28.6. It is a continual burnt-offering, which was offered in mount Sinai, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 28.7. And the drink-offering thereof shall be the fourth part of a hin for the one lamb; in the holy place shalt thou pour out a drink-offering of strong drink unto the LORD." 28.8. And the other lamb shalt thou present at dusk; as the meal-offering of the morning, and as the drink-offering thereof, thou shalt present it, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 6.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.5. וְדָוִד וְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מְשַׂחֲקִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בְּכֹל עֲצֵי בְרוֹשִׁים וּבְכִנֹּרוֹת וּבִנְבָלִים וּבְתֻפִּים וּבִמְנַעַנְעִים וּבְצֶלְצֶלִים׃ 6.5. And David and all the house of Yisra᾽el played before the Lord on all manner of instruments made of cypress wood, on lyres, and on lutes, and on timbrels, and on rattles, and on cymbals."
5. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.16. וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 8.16. And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east."
6. Anon., Jubilees, 6.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh
7. Anon., Testament of Levi, 2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.3. And when I was feeding the flocks in Abel-Maul, the spirit of understanding of the Lord came upon me, and I saw all men corrupting their way, and that unrighteousness had built for itself walls, and lawlessness sat upon towers.
8. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 14.12-14.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q503, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.2-3.9, 10.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime."
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 26.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13. Septuagint, Judith, 12.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

12.8. When she came up from the spring she prayed the Lord God of Israel to direct her way for the raising up of her people.
14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 16.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.28. to make it known that one must rise before the sun to give thee thanks,and must pray to thee at the dawning of the light;
15. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.573, 3.591-3.594, 4.163-4.170 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.573. O sign of Cyprus, may an earthquake waste 3.591. But when from Italy shall come a man 3.592. A spoiler, then, Laodicea, thou 3.593. Beautiful city of the Carian 3.594. By Lycus's wondrous water, falling prone 4.163. Who having burned the temple of Solyma 4.164. And having slaughtered many of the Jews 4.165. 165 Shall destruction on their great broad land. 4.166. And then too shall an earthquake overthrow 4.167. Both Salamis and Paphos, when dark water 4.168. Shall dash o'er Cyprus washed by many a wave. 4.169. But when from deep cleft of Italian land 4.170. 170 Fire shall come flashing forth in the broad heaven
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 53, 52 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

52. This then is what appears to be said of these holy men; and it is indicative of a nature more remote from our knowledge than, and much superior to, that which exists in the objects of outward sense; for the sacred word appears thoroughly to investigate and to describe the different dispositions of the soul, being all of them good, the one aiming at what is good by means of instruction, the second by nature, the last by practice; for the first, who is named Abraham, is a symbol of that virtue which is derived from instruction; the intermediate Isaac is an emblem of natural virtue; the third, Jacob, of that virtue which is devoted to and derived from practice.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 80, 79 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

79. and, indeed, in the same manner as the encyclical branches of education contribute to the proper comprehension of philosophy, so also does philosophy aid in the acquisition of wisdom; for philosophy is an attentive study of wisdom, and wisdom is the knowledge of all divine and human things, and of the respective causes of them. Therefore, just as encyclical accomplishments are the handmaidens of philosophy, so also is philosophy the handmaiden of wisdom;
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 223 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

223. and in effect, those which he has received are countless; his birth, his life, his soul, his food, his outward senses, his imagination, his inclinations, his reason; and reason is a very short word, but a most perfect and admirable thing, a fragment of the soul of the universe, or, as it is more pious to say for those who study philosophy according to Moses, a very faithful copy of the divine image. XL.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. But Moses, who had early reached the very summits of philosophy, and who had learnt from the oracles of God the most numerous and important of the principles of nature, was well aware that it is indispensable that in all existing things there must be an active cause, and a passive subject; and that the active cause is the intellect of the universe, thoroughly unadulterated and thoroughly unmixed, superior to virtue and superior to science, superior even to abstract good or abstract beauty;
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 43-44, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. But when he comes to that which is the peculiar attribute of the creature, he says, with the most perfect correctness, "I will go down with you;" for change of place is adapted to you: so that no one shall go down with me, for in me there is no changing; but whatever is consistent with me, that is to say, with rest, shall stand. And with those who go down in such a manner as to change their place (for change of place is akin to and closely connected with them), I will go down also, not indeed changing my situation as to its actual place, inasmuch as I fill every place with myself.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.56, 2.58, 2.61-2.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.56. But after this continued and uninterrupted festival which thus lasts through all time, there is another celebrated, namely, that of the sacred seventh day after each recurring interval of six days, which some have denominated the virgin, looking at its exceeding sanctity and purity. And others have called the motherless, as being produced by the Father of the universe alone, as a specimen of the male kind unconnected with the sex of women; for the number seven is a most brave and valiant number, well adapted by nature for government and authority. Some, again, have called it the occasion, forming their conjectures of that part of its essence which is appreciable only by the intellect, from the objects intelligible to their outward senses. 2.58. But Moses, from a most honourable cause, called it consummation and perfection; attributing to the number six the origination of all the parts of the world, and to the number seven their perfection; for the number six is an oddeven number, being composed of twice three, having the odd number for the male and the even number for the female, from the union of which, production takes place in accordance with the unalterable laws of nature. 2.61. And the works meant are those enjoined by precepts and doctrines in accordance with virtue. And in the day he exhorts us to apply ourselves to philosophy, improving our souls and the domit part of us, our mind. 2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 12-18, 2, 21-26, 28-90, 11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. But the therapeutic sect of mankind, being continually taught to see without interruption, may well aim at obtaining a sight of the living God, and may pass by the sun, which is visible to the outward sense, and never leave this order which conducts to perfect happiness.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.211-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses. 2.212. But, giving up their time wholly to the study of philosophy, not of that sort of philosophy which wordcatchers and sophists, seek to reduce to a system, selling doctrines and reasonings as they would any other vendible thing in the market. Men who (O you earth and sun! 2.213. Now some one disregarding this injunction, even while he yet had the sacred words of God respecting the holy seventh day still ringing in his ears, which God had uttered without the intervention of the prophet, and, what is the most wonderful thing of all, by a visible voice which affected the eyes of those who were present even more than their ears, went forth through the middle of the camp to pick up sticks, well knowing that all the people in the camp were perfectly quiet and doing nothing, and even while he was committing the iniquity was seen and detected, all disguise being impossible; 2.214. for some persons, having gone forth out of the gates to some quiet spot, that they might pray in some retired and peaceful place, seeing a most unholy spectacle, namely this man carrying a faggot of sticks, and being very indigt, were about to put him to death; but reasoning with themselves they restrained the violence of their wrath, that they might not appear, as they were only private persons, to chastise any one rather than the magistrates, and that too uncondemned; though indeed in other respects the transgression was manifest and undeniable, wishing also that no pollution arising from an execution, even though most righteously inflicted, should defile the sacred day. But they apprehended him, and led him away to the magistrate, with whom the priests were sitting as assessors; and the whole multitude collected together to hear the trial; 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
24. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 43, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. And when they heard of the arrest that had taken place, and that Flaccus was now within the toils, stretching up their hands to heaven, they sang a hymn, and began a song of praise to God, who presides over all the affairs of men, saying, "We are not delighted, O Master, at the punishment of our enemy, being taught by the sacred laws to submit to all the vicissitudes of human life, but we justly give thanks to thee, who hast had mercy and compassion upon us, and who hast thus relieved our continual and incessant oppressions.
25. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.100-3.102 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 139 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

139. On which account Moses, after he had previously mentioned with respect to Enos that "he hoped to call upon the name of the Lord his God," adds in express words, "This is the book of the generation of Men;" speaking with perfect correctness: for it is written in the book of God that man is the only creature with a good hope. So that arguing by contraries, he who has no good hope is not a man. The definition, therefore, of our concrete being is that it is a living rational mortal being; but the definition of man, according to Moses, is a disposition of the soul hoping in the truly living God.
27. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.196, 4.207, 4.209-4.213, 12.106, 14.65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.196. 4. Accordingly, I shall now first describe this form of government which was agreeable to the dignity and virtue of Moses; and shall thereby inform those that read these Antiquities, what our original settlements were, and shall then proceed to the remaining histories. Now those settlements are all still in writing, as he left them; and we shall add nothing by way of ornament, nor any thing besides what Moses left us; 4.207. 10. Let no one blaspheme those gods which other cities esteem such; nor may any one steal what belongs to strange temples, nor take away the gifts that are dedicated to any god. 4.209. 12. When the multitude are assembled together unto the holy city for sacrificing every seventh year, at the feast of tabernacles, let the high priest stand upon a high desk, whence he may be heard, and let him read the laws to all the people; and let neither the women nor the children be hindered from hearing, no, nor the servants neither; 4.211. that so there may always be within their minds that intention of the laws which they have despised and broken, and have thereby been the causes of their own mischief. Let the children also learn the laws, as the first thing they are taught, which will be the best thing they can be taught, and will be the cause of their future felicity. 4.212. 13. Let every one commemorate before God the benefits which he bestowed upon them at their deliverance out of the land of Egypt, and this twice every day, both when the day begins and when the hour of sleep comes on, gratitude being in its own nature a just thing, and serving not only by way of return for past, but also by way of invitation of future favors. 4.213. They are also to inscribe the principal blessings they have received from God upon their doors, and show the same remembrance of them upon their arms; as also they are to bear on their forehead and their arm those wonders which declare the power of God, and his good-will towards them, that God’s readiness to bless them may appear every where conspicuous about them. 12.106. But in the morning they came to the court and saluted Ptolemy, and then went away to their former place, where, when they had washed their hands, and purified themselves, they betook themselves to the interpretation of the laws. 14.65. And any one may hence learn how very great piety we exercise towards God, and the observance of his laws, since the priests were not at all hindered from their sacred ministrations by their fear during this siege, but did still twice a day, in the morning and about the ninth hour, offer their sacrifices on the altar; nor did they omit those sacrifices, if any melancholy accident happened by the stones that were thrown among them;
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128, 7.420-7.436 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 7.421. who having in suspicion the restless temper of the Jews for innovation, and being afraid lest they should get together again, and persuade some others to join with them, gave orders to Lupus to demolish that Jewish temple which was in the region called Onion 7.422. and was in Egypt, which was built and had its denomination from the occasion following: 7.423. Onias, the son of Simon, one of the Jewish high priests, fled from Antiochus the king of Syria, when he made war with the Jews, and came to Alexandria; and as Ptolemy received him very kindly, on account of his hatred to Antiochus, he assured him, that if he would comply with his proposal, he would bring all the Jews to his assistance; 7.424. and when the king agreed to do it so far as he was able, he desired him to give him leave to build a temple somewhere in Egypt, and to worship God according to the customs of his own country; 7.425. for that the Jews would then be so much readier to fight against Antiochus who had laid waste the temple at Jerusalem, and that they would then come to him with greater goodwill; and that, by granting them liberty of conscience, very many of them would come over to him. 7.426. 3. So Ptolemy complied with his proposals, and gave him a place one hundred and eighty furlongs distant from Memphis. That Nomos was called the Nomos of Heliopoli 7.427. where Onias built a fortress and a temple, not like to that at Jerusalem, but such as resembled a tower. He built it of large stones to the height of sixty cubits; 7.428. he made the structure of the altar in imitation of that in our own country, and in like manner adorned with gifts, excepting the make of the candlestick 7.429. for he did not make a candlestick, but had a [single] lamp hammered out of a piece of gold, which illuminated the place with its rays, and which he hung by a chain of gold; 7.431. Yet did not Onias do this out of a sober disposition, but he had a mind to contend with the Jews at Jerusalem, and could not forget the indignation he had for being banished thence. Accordingly, he thought that by building this temple he should draw away a great number from them to himself. 7.432. There had been also a certain ancient prediction made by [a prophet] whose name was Isaiah, about six hundred years before, that this temple should be built by a man that was a Jew in Egypt. And this is the history of the building of that temple. 7.433. 4. And now Lupus, the governor of Alexandria, upon the receipt of Caesar’s letter, came to the temple, and carried out of it some of the donations dedicated thereto, and shut up the temple itself. 7.434. And as Lupus died a little afterward, Paulinus succeeded him. This man left none of those donations there, and threatened the priests severely if they did not bring them all out; nor did he permit any who were desirous of worshipping God there so much as to come near the whole sacred place; 7.435. but when he had shut up the gates, he made it entirely inaccessible, insomuch that there remained no longer the least footsteps of any Divine worship that had been in that place. 7.436. Now the duration of the time from the building of this temple till it was shut up again was three hundred and forty-three years.
29. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.1-1.2, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. From what time may one recite the Shema in the evening? From the time that the priests enter [their houses] in order to eat their terumah until the end of the first watch, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say: until midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: until dawn. Once it happened that his sons came home [late] from a wedding feast and they said to him: we have not yet recited the [evening] Shema. He said to them: if it is not yet dawn you are still obligated to recite. And not in respect to this alone did they so decide, but wherever the sages say “until midnight,” the mitzvah may be performed until dawn. The burning of the fat and the pieces may be performed till dawn. Similarly, all [the offerings] that are to be eaten within one day may be eaten till dawn. Why then did the sages say “until midnight”? In order to keep a man far from transgression." 1.2. From what time may one recite the Shema in the morning?From the time that one can distinguish between blue and white. Rabbi Eliezer says: between blue and green. And he must finish it by sunrise. Rabbi Joshua says: until the third hour of the day, for such is the custom of the children of kings, to rise at the third hour. If one recites the Shema later he loses nothing, like one who reads in the Torah." 4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour."
30. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The [afternoon] tamid is slaughtered at eight and a half hours and is offered at nine and a half hours. On the eve of Pesah it is slaughtered at seven and a half hours and offered at eight and a half hours, whether it is a weekday or Shabbat. If the eve of Pesah fell on the eve of Shabbat it is slaughtered at six and a half hours and offered at seven and a half hours, and the pesah offering after it."
31. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. bAnyone who prolongs his prayer and expects itto be answered, bwill ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are:Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an binclined wallthat is about to collapse, bexpecting prayerto be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, band passing a case against another to Heaven,as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult. This,where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one bexpectshis prayer to be accepted, bwhile this,where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does bnot expecthis prayer to be accepted. bHow does heprolong his prayer? By bincreasinghis bsupplication. /b,As for the virtue of bprolonging one’smealtime at the btable,which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: bPerhaps a poor person will comeduring the meal and the host will be in a position to bgive himfood immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, bas it is written: “The altar, three cubits highand the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), band it is writtenin the continuation of that verse: b“And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.”The language of this verse is difficult, as it bbegins with the altar and concludes with the table.Rather, bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’stransgressions. bNowthat it is destroyed, ba person’s table atones for histransgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of bone who prolongshis time bin the bathroom,the Gemara asks: bIs that a virtue? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTen things bring a person tosuffer from bhemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal,as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, bthe spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay,the materials from which earthenware is made, band one who wipes himself with a stone with which anotherperson bwiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well.This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraita /i, which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where bone prolongshis time there band suspendshimself, while bthisstatement of Rav Yehuda refers to where bone prolongshis time there band does not suspendhimself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. bLike thatincident bwhen a matron [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face isfat and full, blikethe faces of bpig farmers and usurerswho do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. bHe said to her: Honestly, those twooccupations bare prohibited to me; rather,why is it that my face is nice? Because bthere are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk Istop and bexamine myself in all of them. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who isinvited and bgiven the Torah scroll to read and he does not read,one who is given ba cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority. /b,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the bTorah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is writtenof the Torah: b“It is your life and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bA cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you”(Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. bAndwith regard to bone who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers,as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? bBecause he conducted himself withan air of bsuperiority,and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Threematters brequirea plea for bmercyto bring them about: bA good king, a good year, and a good dream.These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bA good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses:He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A bgood year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year”(Deuteronomy 11:12). And a bgood dream, as it is written:“O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore bYou will recover me [ ivataḥlimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word itaḥlimeniis interpreted as deriving from the word iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader.The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bFamine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine;and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). bPlenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you”(Ezekiel 36:29). And ba good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the communityand they agree to the appointment, bas it is stated:“And Moses said unto the children of Israel: bSee, the Lord has called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). bThe Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalela bsuitableappointment in byoureyes? Moses bsaid to Him: Master of the universe, if he isa bsuitableappointment in bYoureyes, bthen all the more soin bmyeyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: Nevertheless, go and tellIsrael and ask their opinion. Moses bwent and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitablein byoureyes? bThey said to him: If he is suitablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, andin byoureyes, ball the more sohe is suitable in boureyes., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was calledby that name bon account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 31:7–11), bMoses went and reversedthe order band toldBezalel: b“Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle”(see Exodus 25–26). bHe said toMoses: bMoses, our teacher, thestandard bpracticethroughout the bworldis that ba person builds a house andonly bafterward places the vesselsin the house, band you sayto me: bMake an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle.If I do so in the order you have commanded, bthe vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 36). Moses bsaid toBezalel: bPerhaps you were in God’s shadow [ ibetzel El /i], and you knewprecisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Bezalel knewhow bto jointhe bletters with which heaven and earth were created.From where do we derive this? bIt is written herein praise of Bezalel: b“And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge,and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); band it is written therewith regard to creation of heaven and earth: b“The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens”(Proverbs 3:19), band it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew”(Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one whoalready bpossesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding”(Daniel 2:21). bRav Taḥalifa, from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bheardthis band repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: You learnedproof for this idea bfrom there; we learn it from here: As it is writtenin praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b“And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom”(Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. bRav Ḥisda said:One should see bany dream, and not a fast.In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read.As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream,as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him.This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, bRav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it.Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him”(Ecclesiastes 3:14), band Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dreamthat causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b“The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: bWhat do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grainto grow bwithout straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters.Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, bRabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do wederive this? bFromthe story of bJoseph’sdream, bas it is written:“And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: band, behold, the sun and the moon /b
32. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.6-4.8 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.6. 6.Chaeremon the Stoic, therefore, in his narration of the Egyptian priests, who, he says, were considered by the Egyptians as philosophers, informs us, that they chose temples, as the places in which they might philosophize. For to dwell with the statues of the Gods is a thing allied to the whole desire, by which the soul tends to the contemplation of their divinities. And from the divine veneration indeed, which was paid to them through dwelling in temples, they obtained security, all men honouring these philosophers, as if they were certain sacred animals. They also led a solitary life, as they only mingled with other men in solemn sacrifices and festivals. But at other times the priests were almost inaccessible to any one who wished to converse with them. For it was requisite that he who approached to them should be first purified, and abstain from many things; and this is as it were a common sacred law respecting the Egyptian priests. But these [philosophic priests], |116 having relinquished every other employment, and human labours,7 gave up the whole of their life to the contemplation and worship of divine natures and to divine inspiration; through the latter, indeed, procuring for themselves, honour, security, and piety; but through contemplation, science; and through both, a certain occult exercise of manners, worthy of antiquity8. For to be always conversant with divine knowledge and inspiration, removes those who are so from all avarice, suppresses the passions, and excites to an intellectual life. But they were studious of frugality in their diet and apparel, and also of continence and endurance, and in all things were attentive to justice and equity. They likewise were rendered venerable, through rarely mingling with other men. For during the time of what are called purifications, they scarcely mingled with their nearest kindred, and those of their own order, nor were they to be seen by anyone, unless it was requisite for the necessary purposes of purification. For the sanctuary was inaccessible to those who were not purified, and they dwelt in holy places for the purpose of performing divine works; but at all other times they associated more freely with those who lived like themselves. They did not, however, associate with any one who was not a religious character. But they were always seen near to the Gods, or the statues of the Gods, the latter of which they were beheld either carrying, or preceding in a sacred procession, or disposing in an orderly manner, with modesty and gravity; each of which operations was not the effect of pride, but an indication of some physical reason. Their venerable gravity also was apparent from their manners. For their walking was orderly, and their aspect sedate; and they were so studious of preserving this gravity of countece, that they did not even wink, when at any time they were unwilling to do so; and they seldom laughed, and when they did, their laughter proceeded no farther than to a smile. But they always kept their hands within their garments. Each likewise bore about him a symbol indicative of the order which he was allotted in sacred concerns; for there were many orders of priests. Their diet also was slender and simple. For, with respect to wine, some of them did not at all drink it, but others drank very little of it, on account of its being injurious to the |117 nerves, oppressive to the head, an impediment to invention, and an incentive to venereal desires. In many other things also they conducted themselves with caution; neither using bread at all in purifications, and at those times in which they were not employed in purifying themselves, they were accustomed to eat bread with hyssop, cut into small pieces. For it is said, that hyssop very much purifies the power of bread. But they, for the most part, abstained from oil, the greater number of them entirely; and if at any time they used it with pot-herbs, they took very little of it, and only as much as was sufficient to mitigate the taste of the herbs. SPAN 4.7. 7.It was not lawful for them therefore to meddle with the esculent and potable substances, which were produced out of Egypt, and this contributed much to the exclusion of luxury from these priests. But they abstained from all the fish that was caught in Egypt, and from such quadrupeds as had solid, or many-fissured hoofs, and from such as were not horned; and likewise from all such birds as were carnivorous. Many of them, however, entirely abstained from all animals; and in purifications this abstinence was adopted by all of them, for then they did not even eat an egg. Moreover, they also rejected other things, without being calumniated for so doing. Thus, for instance, of oxen, they rejected the females, and also such of the males as were twins, or were speckled, or of a different colour, or alternately varied in their form, or which were now tamed, as having been already consecrated to labours, and resembled animals that are honoured, or which were the images of any thing [that is divine], or those that had but one eye, or those that verged to a similitude of the human form. There are also innumerable other observations pertaining to the art of those who are called mosxofragistai, or who stamp calves with a seal, and of which books have been composed. But these observations are still more curious respecting birds; as, for instance, that a turtle should not be eaten; for it is said that a hawk frequently dismisses this bird after he has seized it, and preserves its life, as a reward for having had connexion with it. The Egyptian priests, therefore, that they might not ignorantly meddle with a turtle of this kind, avoided the whole species of those birds. And these indeed were certain common religious ceremonies; but there were different ceremonies, which varied according to the class of the priests that used them, and were adapted to the several divinities. But chastity and purifications were common to all the priests. When also the time arrived in which they were to perform something pertaining to the sacred rites of religion, they spent some days in preparatory ceremonies, some indeed forty-two, but others a greater, and |118 others a less number of days; yet never less than seven days; and during this time they abstained from all animals, and likewise from all pot-herbs and leguminous substances, and, above all, from a venereal connexion with women; for they never at any time had connexion with males. They likewise washed themselves with cold water thrice every day; viz. when they rose from their bed, before dinner, and when they betook themselves to sleep. But if they happened to be polluted in their sleep by the emission of the seed, they immediately purified their body in a bath. They also used cold bathing at other times, but not so frequently as on the above occasion. Their bed was woven from the branches of the palm tree, which they call bais; and their bolster was a smooth semi-cylindric piece of wood. But they exercised themselves in the endurance of hunger and thirst, and were accustomed to paucity of food through the whole of their life. SPAN 4.8. 8.This also is a testimony of their continence, that, though they neither exercised themselves in walking or riding, yet they lived free from disease, and were sufficiently strong for the endurance of modern labours. They bore therefore many burdens in the performance of sacred operations, and accomplished many ministrant works, which required more than common strength. But they divided the night into the observation of the celestial bodies, and sometimes devoted a part of it to offices of purification; and they distributed the day into the worship of the Gods, according to which they celebrated them with hymns thrice or four times, viz. in the morning and evening, when the sun is at his meridian altitude, and when he is declining to the west. The rest of their time they devoted to arithmetical and geometrical speculations, always labouring to effect something, and to make some new discovery, and, in short, continually exercising their skill. In winter nights also they were occupied in the same employments, being vigilantly engaged in literary pursuits, as paying no attention to the acquisition of externals, and being liberated from the servitude of that bad master, excessive expense. Hence their unwearied and incessant labour testifies their endurance, but their continence is manifested by their liberation from the desire of external good. To sail from Egypt likewise, [i.e. to quit Egypt,] was considered by them to be one of the most unholy things, in consequence of their being careful to avoid foreign luxury and pursuits; for this appeared to them to be alone lawful to those who were compelled to do so by regal necessities. Indeed, they were very anxious to continue in the observance of the institutes of their country, and those who were found to have violated them, though but in a small degree were expelled [from the college of the priests]. The |119 true method of philosophizing, likewise, was preserved by the prophets, by the hierostolistae 9, and the sacred scribes, and also by the horologi, or calculators of nativities. But the rest of the priests, and of the pastophori 10, curators of temples, and ministers of the Gods, were similarly studious of purity, yet not so accurately, and with such great continence, as the priests of whom we have been speaking. And such are the particulars which are narrated of the Egyptians, by a man who was a lover of truth, and an accurate writer, and who among the Stoics strenuously and solidly philosophized. SPAN
33. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 305-306, 160

160. fear of God. He bids men also, when lying down to sleep and rising up again, to meditate upon the works of God, not only in word, but by observing distinctly the change and impression produced upon them, when they are going to sleep, and also their waking, how divine and incomprehensible


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
anaxagoras Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 39
aristophanes Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 216
art, interpretation of symbols Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 942
art, need for explanation Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 942
art Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 942
artemidorus daldianus Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 216
athena Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 270
augustus (octavian) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
chaeremon, description of egyptian priests Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 160
chaeremon Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 160
chaeremon the stoic, on the egyptian priests Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 14, 181, 204, 276, 282
chaeremon the stoic Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 14
community, borders of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
daily prayer Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46
demons in second temple judaism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
diaspora (jewish) Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
edfu (= apollinopolis magna) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
egyptian priests, and jewish therapeutae Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 160
egyptian priests, chaeremonss image of Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 160
faith Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
foreigners, impurity of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
godlikeness Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
hierarchies, social Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
hours of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181
ḥullin Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
in the morning Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 84
initiation Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
josephus Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 58
knowledge Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
law Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46
leontopolis Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
meals, communal, purity requirements for Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
mithra Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 942
mystery cult Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
names (as ethnic-religious markers) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
observance Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
oedipus Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 942
onias iv, land of onias Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
onias iv, temple of onias (leontopolis) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
ostraca arabic, greek Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
papyri, as evidence for jews in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
papyri, greek Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
philo, description of therapeutae Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 160
philo Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 58
philo of alexandria Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
philosophia, meaning of Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 58
pleasure Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
practices Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
prayer times Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46
psychology Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 942
purity systems, categorization of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
qumran Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 84
religion Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
revelation Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
rites/rituals Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
sacrifice Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46
second temple judaism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
shema Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46
singing Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 84
soul Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
sphinx Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 942
symbol Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
symbolism, religious Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 942
tephillah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181
therapeutae Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181; Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 326
tolerated defilements Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
vision of god, purification before Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
washing before eating Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
washing before prayer Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
washing initiatory' Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 44
wisdom Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 103
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181