Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9229
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Change Of Names, 60-76


nanfor it is said in the scripture, "Thy name shall not be called Abram, but Abraham shall thy name be." Some, then, of those persons who are fond of disputes, and who are always eager to affix a stain upon what is irreproachable, on things as well as bodies, and who wage an implacable war against sacred things, while they calumniate everything which does not appear to preserve strict decorum in speech, being the symbols of nature which is always fond of being concealed, perverting it all so as to give it a worse appearance after a very accurate investigation, do especially find fault with the changes of names.


nanAnd it is only lately that I heard an ungodly and impious man mocking and ridiculing these things, who ventured to say, "Surely they are great and exceeding gifts which Moses says that the Ruler of the universe offers, who, by the addition of one element, the one letter alpha, a superfluous element; and then again adding another element, the letter rho, appears to have bestowed upon men a most marvellous and great benefit; for he has called the wife of Abram Sarrah instead of Sarah, doubling the Rho," and connecting a number of similar arguments without drawing breath, and joking and mocking, he went through many instances.


nanBut at no distant period he suffered a suitable punishment for his insane, wickedness; for on a very slight and ordinary provocation he hanged himself, in order that so polluted and impure a person might not die by a pure and unpolluted death. IX. But we may justly, in order to prevent any one else from falling into the same error, eradicate the erroneous notions which have been formed on the subject, arguing the matter on the principle of natural philosophy, and proving that these things which are here said are worthy of all attention.


nanGod does not bestow on men mutes and vowels, or, in short, nouns and verbs; since when he created plants and animals, he summoned them before man as their governor, that he might give each of them their appropriate names by a reference to the knowledge which he had of all things; for, says the scripture, "Whatever Adam called any thing, that was the name Thereof.


nanTherefore since God did not think fit to take upon himself even the active imposition of the names, but entrusted the task to a wise man, the author of the whole race of mankind, it is reasonable to suppose that he himself gave and arranged the different parts, and syllables, and letters of nouns, disposing not only the vowels, but even the mutes, and that he did this too to make a show of liberality and exceeding beneficence? It is impossible to say so.


nanBut such things as these are the characteristic marks of different powers; small marks of great powers, marks perceptible by the outward senses of powers which are indistinct; and the powers themselves are discerned in most excellent doctrines, in true and pure conceptions, in the improvement of souls. And it is easy to see a proof of this if we make a beginning with the man who is here spoken of as having his name changed;


nanfor the name Abram, being interpreted, means "sublime father," but Abraham means the "elect father of sound;" and how these names differ from one another we shall know more clearly if we first of all read what is exhibited under each of them.


nanNow using allegorical language, we call that man sublime who raises himself from the earth to a height, and who devotes himself to the inspection of high things; and we also call him a haunter of high regions, and a meteorologist, inquiring what is the magnitude of the sun, what are his motions, how he influences the seasons of the year, advancing as he does and retreating back again, with revolutions of equal speed, and investigating as he does the subjects of the radiance of the moon, of its shape, of its waning, of its increase, and of the motion of the other stars, whether fixed or wandering;


nanfor the inquiry into these matters belongs not to an ill-conditioned or barren soul, but to one which is eminently endowed by nature, and which is able to produce an entire and perfect offspring; on which account the scripture calls the meteorologist, "father," inasmuch as he is not unproductive of wisdom. X.


nanNow the symbols represented by the name of Abram are thus accurately defined; those conveyed under the name of Abraham are such as we shall proceed to demonstrate. The meanings now are three, "the father," and "elect," and "of sound." Now by the word "sound" here, we mean uttered speech; for the sounding organ of the living animal is the organ of speech. Of this faculty we say that the father is the mind, for it is from the mind, as from a fountain, that the stream of speech proceeds. The word "elect" belongs to the mind of the wise man, for whatever is most excellent is found in him;


nantherefore the man devoted to learning and occupied in the contemplation of sublime subjects, was sketched out according to the former characteristic marks, but the philosopher, or I should rather say the wise man, was exhibited in accordance with those of which we have just given an outline. Think not, then, any longer that the Deity bestows a change of names, but consider that what he gives is a correction of the moral character by means of symbols;


nanfor having invited the nature of heaven, and whom some call a mathematician, to a participation in virtue, he made him wise and called him so. For having given an appropriate name to his transformed disposition, he named him, as the Hebrews would call it, "Abraham," but in the language of the Greeks, "the elect father of sound;


nanfor says he, On what account dost thou investigate the motions and periods of the stars? and why hast thou bounded up so high from the earth to the heavens? Is it merely that you may indulge your curiosity with respect to those matters? And what advantage could accrue to you from all this curiosity? What destruction of pleasure would is cause? What defeat of appetite? What dissolution of pain or fear? What eradication of the passions which disturb and agitate the soul?


nanFor as there is no advantage in trees unless they are productive of fruit, so in the same way there is no use in the study of natural philosophy unless it is likely to confer upon a man the acquisition of virtue, for that is its proper fruit.


nanOn which account some of the ancients have compared the discussion and consideration of philosophy to a field, and have likened the physical portion of it to the plants, the logical part to the hedges and fences, the moral part to the fruit


nanthinking that the walls which are built around for the sake of protecting the fruit have been erected by the possessors of the land, and that the plants have been created for the sake of the production of fruit; thus, therefore, they said that in philosophy it is requisite for the consideration of the physical and the logical part of philosophy to be referred to the moral part, by which the moral character is improved, which as a desire at the same time for both the acquisition and the use of virtue.


nanThis is the lesson which we have been taught concerning the man who in word indeed had his name changed, but who in reality changed his nature from the consideration of natural to that of moral philosophy, and who abandoned the contemplation of the world itself for the knowledge of the Being who created the world; by which knowledge he acquired piety, the most excellent of all possessions. XI.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.31, 21.22-21.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.31. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כֵן לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי כָּל־תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר שָׂנֵא עָשׂוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי גַם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 21.22. וְכִי־יִהְיֶה בְאִישׁ חֵטְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָוֶת וְהוּמָת וְתָלִיתָ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֵץ׃ 21.23. לֹא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 12.31. Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God; for every abomination to the LORD, which He hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters do they burn in the fire to their gods." 21.22. And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree;" 21.23. his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.15" "17.15" "17 15"\n1 1.1 1.1 1 1 \n2 1.10 1.10 1 10 \n3 1.11 1.11 1 11 \n4 1.12 1.12 1 12 \n5 1.13 1.13 1 13 \n6 1.14 1.14 1 14 \n7 1.15 1.15 1 15 \n8 1.16 1.16 1 16 \n9 1.17 1.17 1 17 \n10 1.18 1.18 1 18 \n11 1.19 1.19 1 19 \n12 1.2 1.2 1 2 \n13 1.20 1.20 1 20 \n14 1.21 1.21 1 21 \n15 1.22 1.22 1 22 \n16 1.23 1.23 1 23 \n17 1.24 1.24 1 24 \n18 1.25 1.25 1 25 \n19 1.26 1.26 1 26 \n20 1.27 1.27 1 27 \n21 1.28 1.28 1 28 \n22 1.29 1.29 1 29 \n23 1.3 1.3 1 3 \n24 1.30 1.30 1 30 \n25 1.31 1.31 1 31 \n26 1.4 1.4 1 4 \n27 1.5 1.5 1 5 \n28 1.6 1.6 1 6 \n29 1.7 1.7 1 7 \n30 1.8 1.8 1 8 \n31 1.9 1.9 1 9 \n32 12.1 12.1 12 1 \n33 12.7 12.7 12 7 \n34 15.6 15.6 15 6 \n35 17.1 17.1 17 1 \n36 17.15 17.15 17 15 \n37 17.5 17.5 17 5 \n38 2.1 2.1 2 1 \n39 2.10 2.10 2 10 \n40 2.11 2.11 2 11 \n41 2.12 2.12 2 12 \n42 2.13 2.13 2 13 \n43 2.14 2.14 2 14 \n44 2.15 2.15 2 15 \n45 2.16 2.16 2 16 \n46 2.17 2.17 2 17 \n47 2.2 2.2 2 2 \n48 2.3 2.3 2 3 \n49 2.4 2.4 2 4 \n50 2.5 2.5 2 5 \n51 2.6 2.6 2 6 \n52 2.7 2.7 2 7 \n53 2.8 2.8 2 8 \n54 2.9 2.9 2 9 \n55 27.43 27.43 27 43 \n56 28.10 28.10 28 10 \n57 28.13 28.13 28 13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.1-1.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 178 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

178. But to those who are fond of reviling and disparaging everything, and who are by their invariable habits accustomed to prefer blaming to praising the action which Abraham was enjoined to perform, it will not appear a great and admirable deed, as we imagine it to have been.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 3-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 11-14, 2-4, 48, 5-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. But this precaution does not appear to have turned out of any use; for since that time, though men have been separated into different nations, and have no longer used one language, nevertheless, land and sea have been repeatedly filled with unspeakable evils. For it was not the languages which were the causes of men's uniting for evil objects, but the emulation and rivalry of their souls in wrong-doing.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 94 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

94. for by the demonstration "this," they show that they have other sons likewise, some of whom obey one of them, and others of whom obey them both, being well-disposed reasonings, of whom Reuben is an example; others again, who are fond of hearing and learning, of whom Simeon is a specimen, for his name, being interpreted, means "hearing;" others, people who fly to and become suppliants of God, this is the company of the Levites; others singing a song of gratitude, not so much with a loud voice as with the mind, of whom Judah is the leaders; others, who have been thought worthy of rewards and presents, on account of their voluntary acquisition of virtue through labour, like Issachar; others, persons who have abandoned the Chaldaean meteorological speculations, and passed over to the contemplation of the uncreate God, like Abraham; some, who have attained to self-taught and spontaneous virtue, like Isaac; some, full of wisdom and strength, and beloved by God, like the most perfect Moses. XXIV.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 5, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. for the means of life being given to a bad man, inflate and raise up to great height the mind which is devoid of wisdom, which is called the Syrian; but if they are bestowed on a lover of instruction, then they make the mind inclined to abide by the steady and solid doctrines of virtue and excellence. This is the brother of Rebekkah, that is to say, of perseverance, and he dwells in Charran, which name, being interpreted, means "holes," a symbol of the external senses; for he who is still moving about in mortal life has need of the organs of the external senses.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 63-64, 62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

62. Accordingly, Abraham, as long as he was abiding in the land of the Chaldaeans, that is to say, in opinion, before he received his new name, and while he was still called Abram, was a man born of heaven, investigating the sublime nature of things on high, and all that took place in these regions, and the causes of them, and studying everything of that kind in the true spirit of philosophy; on which account he received an appellation corresponding to the pursuits to which he devoted himself: for the name Abram, being interpreted, signifies the sublime father, and is a name very fitting for the paternal mind, which in every direction contemplates sublime and heavenly things: for the mind is the father of our composite being, reaching as high as the sky and even farther.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 226 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 177-207, 176 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

176. And "Abraham," says Moses, "was seventy-five years of age, when he departed out of Charren." Now concerning the number of seventy-five years (for this contains a calculation corresponding to what has been previously advanced,) we will enter into an accurate examination hereafter. But first of all we will examine what Charran is, and what is meant by the departure from this country to go and live in another.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 122, 15-17, 61-80, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. Thus much we have thought fit to say on this subject. But, moreover, Moses also changes the name of Hosea into that of Joshua; displaying by his new name the distinctive qualities of his character;
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 149-150, 148 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

148. And with great beauty Moses has attributed the giving of names to the different animals to the first created man, for it is a work of wisdom and indicative of royal authority, and man was full of intuitive wisdom and self-taught, having been created by the grace of God, and, moreover, was a king. And it is proper for a ruler to give names to each of his subjects. And, as was very natural, the power of domination was excessive in that first-created man, whom God formed with great care and thought worthy of the second rank in the creation, making him his own viceroy and the ruler of all other creatures. Since even those who have been born so many generations afterwards, when the race is becoming weakened by reason of the long intervals of time that have elapsed since the beginning of the world, do still exert the same power over the irrational beasts, preserving as it were a spark of the dominion and power which has been handed down to them by succession from their first ancestor.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 58, 152 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

152. So that they are marvellously simple people who have ever had an idea of coming to the end of any branch of knowledge whatever. For that which has seemed to be near and within reach is nevertheless a long way distant from the end; since no created being is perfect in any department of learning, but falls as far short of it as a thoroughly infant child just beginning to learn does, in comparison of a man who both by age and skill is qualified to be a master. XLV.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.41, 1.46-1.60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.41. We will now investigate what comes next, and inquire what Charran is, and why the man who went up from the well came to it. Charran then, as it appears to me, is a sort of metropolis of the outward senses: and it is interpreted at one time a pit dug, at another time holes; one fact being intimated by both these names; 1.46. therefore his mother, perseverance, that is Rebecca, says to him, "Rise up and flee to Laban, my brother, to Charran, and dwell with him certain Days." Do you not perceive then that the practiser of virtue will not endure to live permanently in the country of the outward senses, but only to remain there a few days and a short time, on account of the necessities of the body to which he is bound? But a longer time and an entire life is allotted to him in the city which is appreciable only by the intellect. IX. 1.47. In reference to which fact, also, it appears to me to be that his grandfather also, by name Abraham, so called from his knowledge, would not endure to remain any great length of time in Charran, for it is said in the scriptures that "Abraham was seventy-five years old when he departed from Charran;" although his father Terah, which name being interpreted means, "the investigation of a smell," lived there till the day of is Death. 1.48. Therefore it is expressly stated in the sacred scriptures that "Terah died in Charran," for he was only a reconnoitrer of virtue, not a citizen. And he availed himself of smells, and not of the enjoyments of food, as he was not able as yet to fill himself with wisdom, nor indeed even to get a taste of it, but only to smell it; 1.49. for as it is said that those dogs which are calculated for hunting can by exerting their faculty of smell, find out the lurking places of their game at a great distance, being by nature rendered wonderfully acute as to the outward sense of smell; so in the same manner the lover of instruction tracks out the sweet breeze which is given forth by justice, and by any other virtue, and is eager to watch those qualities from which this most admirable source of delight proceeds, and while he is unable to do so he moves his head all round in a circle, smelling out nothing else, but seeking only for that most sacred scent of excellence and food, for he does not deny that he is eager for knowledge and wisdom. 1.50. Blessed therefore are they to whom it has happened to enjoy the delights of wisdom, and to feast upon its speculations and doctrines, and even of the being cheered by them still to thirst for more, feeling an insatiable and increasing desire for knowledge. 1.51. And those will obtain the second place who are not allured indeed to enjoy the sacred table, but who nevertheless refresh their souls with its odours; for they will be excited by the fragrances of virtue like those languid invalids who, because they are not as yet able to take solid food, nevertheless feed on the smell of such viands as the sons of the physicians prepare as a sort of remedy for their impotency. X. 1.52. Therefore, having left the land of the Chaldaeans, Terah is said to have migrated to Charran; bringing with him his son Abraham and the rest of his household who agreed with him in opinion, not in order that we might read in the account of the historical chronicles that some men had become emigrants, leaving their native country and becoming inhabitants of a foreign land as if it were their own country, but in order that a lesson of the greatest importance to life and full of wisdom, and adapted to man alone, might not be neglected. 1.53. And what is the lesson? The Chaldaeans are great astronomers, and the inhabitants of Charran occupy themselves with the topics relating to the external senses. Therefore the sacred account says to the investigator of the things of nature, why are you inquiring about the sun, and asking whether he is a foot broad, whether he is greater than the whole earth put together, or whether he is even many times as large? And why are you investigating the causes of the light of the moon, and whether it has a borrowed light, or one which proceeds solely from itself? Why, again, do you seek to understand the nature of the rest of the stars, of their motion, of their sympathy with one another, and even with earthly things? 1.54. And why, while walking upon the earth do you soar above the clouds? And why, while rooted in the solid land, do you affirm that you can reach the things in the sky? And why do you endeavour to form conjectures about matters which cannot be ascertained by conjecture? And why do you busy yourself about sublime subjects which you ought not to meddle with? And why do you extend your desire to make discoveries in mathematical science as far as the heaven? And why do you devote yourself to astronomy, and talk about nothing but high subjects? My good man, do not trouble your head about things beyond the ocean, but attend only to what is near you; and be content rather to examine yourself without flattery. 1.55. How, then, will you find out what you want, even if you are successful? Go with full exercise of your intellect to Charran, that is, to the trench which is dug, into the holes and caverns of the body, and investigate the eyes, the ears, the nostrils, and the other organs of the external senses; and if you wish to be a philosopher, study philosophically that branch which is the most indispensable and at the same time the most becoming to a man, and inquire what the faculty of sight is, what hearing is, what taste, what smell, what touch is, in a word, what is external sense; then seek to understand what it is to see, and how you see; what it is to hear, and how you hear; what it is to smell, or to taste, or to touch, and how each of these operations is ordinarily effected. 1.56. But it is not the very extravagance of insane folly to seek to comprehend the dwelling of the universe, before your own private dwelling is accurately known to you? But I do not as yet lay the more important and extensive injunction upon you to make yourself acquainted with your own soul and mind, of the knowledge of which you are so proud; for in reality you will never be able to comprehend it. 1.57. Mount up then to heaven, and talk arrogantly about the things which exist there, before you are as yet able to comprehend, according to the words of the poet, "All the good and all the evil Which thy own abode contains;" and, bringing down that messenger of yours from heaven, and dragging him down from his search into matters existing there, become acquainted with yourself, and carefully and diligently labour to arrive at such happiness as is permitted to man. 1.58. Now this disposition the Hebrews called Terah, and the Greeks Socrates; for they say also that the latter grew old in the most accurate study by which he could hope to know himself, never once directing his philosophical speculations to the subjects beyond himself. But he was really a man; but Terah is the principle itself which is proposed to every one, according to which each man should know himself, like a tree full of good branches, in order that these persons who are fond of virtue might without difficulty gather the fruit of pure morality, and thus become filled with the most delightful and saving food. 1.59. Such, then, are those men who reconnoitre the quarters of wisdom for us; but those who are actually her athletes, and who practise her exercises, are more perfect. For these men think fit to learn with complete accuracy the whole question connected with the external senses, and after having done so, then to proceed to another and more important speculation, leaving all consideration of the holes of the body which they call Charran. 1.60. of the number of these men is Abraham, who attained to great progress and improvement in the comprehension of complete knowledge; for when he knew most, then he most completely renounced himself in order to attain to the accurate knowledge of him who was the truly living God. And, indeed, this is a very natural course of events; for he who completely understands himself does also very much, because of his thorough appreciation of it, renounce the universal nothingness of the creature; and he who renounces himself learns to comprehend the living God. XI.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.241, 4.182 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.241. Therefore the law does not permit the sacrifice to be brought out of the temple, with the intent that, if the man who repents has committed any previous offence also, he may not now be overwhelmed by envious and malicious men, with foolish dispositions and unbridled tongues, always lying in wait for reproach and false accusation; but it must be eaten in the sacred precincts, within which the purification has taken place.XLIV. 4.182. Let not any one then think that nobility of birth is a perfect good, and therefore neglect virtuous actions, considering that that man deserves greater anger who, after he has been born of virtuous parents, brings disgrace on his parents by reason of the wickedness of his disposition and conduct; for if he has domestic examples of goodness which he may imitate, and yet never copies them, so as to correct his own life, and to render it healthy and virtuous, he deserves reproach.XXXV.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 182, 212-216, 34, 141 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

141. Moreover, let wicked sycophants calumniate the whole nation as one given to inhumanity, and our laws as enjoining unsociable and inhuman observances, while the laws do thus openly show compassion on even the herds of cattle, and while the whole nation from its earliest youth is, as far as the disobedient nature of their souls will admit of, brought over by the honest admonitions of the law to a peaceable disposition.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.23, 1.248 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. Accordingly he speedily learnt arithmetic, and geometry, and the whole science of rhythm and harmony and metre, and the whole of music, by means of the use of musical instruments, and by lectures on the different arts, and by explanations of each topic; and lessons on these subjects were given him by Egyptian philosophers, who also taught him the philosophy which is contained in symbols, which they exhibit in those sacred characters of hieroglyphics, as they are called, and also that philosophy which is conversant about that respect which they pay to animals which they invest with the honours due to God. And all the other branches of the encyclical education he learnt from Greeks; and the philosophers from the adjacent countries taught him Assyrian literature and the knowledge of the heavenly bodies so much studied by the Chaldaeans. 1.248. for they had already related to their neighbours, as to persons in accordance with themselves, and cherishing the same thoughts, all the misfortunes and also all the agreeable pieces of good fortune which had happened to them, not knowing that they had proceeded to a great degree of iniquity, and that they were full of unfriendly, and hostile, and malicious thoughts towards them, so that they were like to grieve at their good fortune, but to rejoice at any thing of a contrary tendency.
19. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 52, 141 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

141. And when every one, as was very natural, was indigt at this, and when the city was mightily offended, that the folly of some individuals should attach to it so as to dim its reputation, Flaccus determined to send for some of the most honourable men of the people, and, on the next day to bring forward before them those who had distributed the bribes, that he might investigate the truth about Isidorus, and also that he might make a defence of his own system of government, and prove that he had been unjustly calumniated; and when they heard the proclamation there came not only the magistrates but also the whole city, except that portion which was about to be convicted of having been the agents of corruption or the corrupted. And they who had been employed in this honourable service, being raised up on the platform
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 241, 215 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

215. Was it not, then, a most perilous undertaking to draw upon himself such innumerable multitudes of enemies? And was there not danger of allies and friends from all quarters arriving to their assistance? It would be a result of very formidable danger and difficulty, besides the fact that the inhabitants of Judaea are infinite in numbers, and a nation of great stature and personal strength, and of great courage and spirit, and men who are willing to die in defence of their national customs and laws with unshrinking bravery, so that some of those who calumniate them say that their courage (as indeed is perfectly true) is beyond that of any barbarian nation, being the spirit of free and nobly born men.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.14-2.15, 3.43, 3.83-3.84, 3.244-3.245 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 3.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 159 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

159. Do you not see in the case of Abraham that, "when he had left his country, and his kindred, and his father's House," that is to say, the body, the outward senses, and reason, he then began to become acquainted with the powers of the living God? for when he had secretly departed from all his house, the law says that, "God appeared unto Him," showing that he is seen clearly by him who has put off mortal things, and who has taken refuge from this body in the incorporeal soul;
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.333, 2.91, 20.100 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.333. He also commanded him to be called Israel, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that struggled with the divine angel. These promises were made at the prayer of Jacob; for when he perceived him to be the angel of God, he desired he would signify to him what should befall him hereafter. And when the angel had said what is before related, he disappeared; 2.91. 1. Joseph was now grown up to thirty years of age, and enjoyed great honors from the king, who called him Psothom Phanech, out of regard to his prodigious degree of wisdom; for that name denotes the revealer of secrets. He also married a wife of very high quality; for he married the daughter of Petephres, one of the priests of Heliopolis; she was a virgin, and her name was Asenath.
25. Vettius Valens, Anthologies, 2.28 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Alexander of Lycopolis, Tractatus De Placitis Manichaeorum, 24 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

24. Christ, too, they do not acknowledge; yet they speak of Christ, but they take some other element, and giving to the Word, designating His sacred person, some other signification than that in which it is rightly received, they say that He is mind. But if, when they speak of Him as that which is known, and that which knows, and wisdom as having the same meaning, they are found to agree with those things which the Church doctors say of Him, how comes it then that they reject all that is called ancient history? But let us see whether they make Him to be something adventitious and new, and which has come on from without, and by accident, as the opinion of some is. For they who hold this opinion say, as seems very plausible, that the seventh year, when the powers of perception became distinct, He made His entrance into the body. But if Christ be mind, as they imagine, then will He be both Christ and not Christ. For before that mind and sense entered, He was not. But if Christ, as they will have it, be mind, then into Him already existing does the mind make its entrance, and thus, again, according to their opinion, will it be mind. Christ, therefore, is and is not at the same time. But if, according to the more approved sect of them, mind is all things which are, since they assume matter to be not produced, and coeval so to speak with God, this first mind and matter they hold to be Christ; if, indeed, Christ be the mind, which is all things, and matter is one of those things which are, and is itself not produced. They say it was by way of appearance, and in this manner, that the divine virtue in matter was affixed to the cross; and that He Himself did not undergo this punishment, since it was impossible that He should suffer this; which assertion Manichaeus himself has taken in hand to teach in a book written upon the subject, that the divine virtue was enclosed in matter, and again departs from it. the mode of this they invent. That it should be said, indeed, in the doctrine of the Church, that He gave Himself up for the remission of sins, obtains credit from the vulgar, and appears likewise in the Greek histories, which say that some surrendered themselves to death in order to ensure safety to their countrymen. And of this doctrine the Jewish history has an example, which prepares the son of Abraham as a sacrifice to God. But to subject Christ to His passion merely for the sake of display, betrays great ignorance, for the Word is God's representative, to teach and inform us of actual verities.
27. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

28. Julian (Emperor), Against The Galileans, 354 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

29. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Al. Sev., 29.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30. Alexander Polyhistor, Ap. Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 9.19

31. Artapanus, Apud Eusebius, 9.18.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, criticism of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316, 317
abraham, defense of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316, 317
abraham, references to in pagan authors Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 266
abraham, vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225, 226, 317
abraham Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 154
abram/abraham, change of name Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 1, 247, 249, 250, 263, 269
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 1, 9, 247, 250, 263; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126, 154
allegory/allegoresis, etymology in/vs. Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
allegory/allegoresis, present tense in Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
allegory/allegoresis Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 263
astrology Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
audience, of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316
binding of isaac Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126
blame and praise Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 317
chaldeans, abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
child sacrifice, greek Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 317
child sacrifice Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316, 317
chodollogomor, chosen father of sound Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 562
commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
criticism of abraham, from apostates Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 316
criticism of abraham, from jews Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316, 317
criticism of abraham, from non-jews Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 317
criticism of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316, 317
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
cycle, patriarchal, adamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
cycle, patriarchal, noahic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
egyptians Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126
elemental processes Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 20
epicharmus Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 20
etymologies, of abraham and abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225, 226
etymologies, of harran Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
etymology, hebrew Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 247, 250, 262
god, love of, for humanity Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
god Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 20
hannah, hebrew, knowledge of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 262
harmonia Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 20
harran, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
hearing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
heraclitus Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 20
historical analysis Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126
hoshea Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
humanity, god loving Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
iphigenia Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 317
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 249
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9, 249
jews and jewish tradition, rebelliousness toward Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 316
joseph Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
joshua Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
judaism, rabbinic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 247
judaism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 249
law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 263
lemma, main/primary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
literal sense Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126
logos, lord god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
love, of god for humanity Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
migrations of abraham, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225, 226
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225, 226
moses, chaldean beliefs and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 154
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 1, 247, 249, 250, 262, 263, 269
names, divine (lack of) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 247
names, philosophy of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 249
nature Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 20
onomasticon Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 262
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 1, 247
perception of god, by abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225, 226
perception of god, god aiding Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
philo, first-person references made by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 317
philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126, 154
philolaus Harte, Rereading Ancient Philosophy: Old Chestnuts and Sacred Cows (2017) 20
philos colleagues Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126, 154
platonism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
polemic Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126, 154
powers of god, ruling Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
praise and blame Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 317
prophets Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 263
qge Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 263
quarrelsome exegetes Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 247, 249, 262, 263
questions and answers Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 154
reader, of philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126, 154
reader Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 154
rhetoric Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
rome Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 1
sacrifice, cities saved by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 317
sacrifice, voluntary vs. involuntary Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315
sacrifice of isaac, ethical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316, 317
sacrifice of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316, 317
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 262; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 154
scholarship, biblical Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 154
scholarship, text-critical Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 154
self-knowledge Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
socrates, abraham surpassing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
sound, chosen father of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
stars Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
stoicism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 249, 250
symbol' Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 126
terah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 225
the cosmos, contemplation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226
tiberius julius alexander Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 316
tower of babel Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 154
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 250
νόμος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 316
φιλαπεχθήμων Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 315, 316, 317
ἱεροὶ νόμοι Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 316
ὤφθη Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 226