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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9229
Philo Of Alexandria, On The Change Of Names, 33-38


nanFor the athletes of vigorous health and high spirit have erected their servile bodies as a sort of fortification against the soul, but those men who have been devoted to the pursuit of instruction, and who are pale, and weak, and emaciated, having overloaded the vigour of the body with the power of the soul, and if one must tell the plain truth, being entirely dissolved into one species of soul, have through the energy of their minds become quite disentangled from the body.


nanTherefore that which is earthly is very naturally destroyed and overwhelmed when the entire mind resolves in every particular to make itself acceptable to God. But the race of these persons is rare and scarcely to be found, and one may almost say is unable to exist; and the following oracle, which is given with respect to Enoch, proves this: "Enoch pleased God, and he was not Found;


nanfor by what kind of contemplation could a man attain to this good thing? What seas must he cross over? What islands, or what continents, must he visit? Must he dwell among Greeks or among the barbarians?


nanAre there not even to the present day some of those persons who have attained to perfection in philosophy, who say that there is no such thing as wisdom in the world, since there is also no such thing as a wise man? for that from the very beginning of the creation of mankind up to the present moment, there has never been any one who could be considered entirely blameless, for that it is impossible for a man who is bound up in a mortal body to be entirely and altogether happy.


nanNow whether these things are said correctly we will consider at the proper time: but at present let us stick to the subject before us, and follow the scripture, and say that there is such a thing as wisdom existing, and that he who loves wisdom is wise. But though the wise man has thus an actual existence he has escaped the notice of us who are wicked: for what is good will not unite with what is bad.


nanOn this account it is that "the disposition which pleased God was not found;" as if in truth it has a real existence, but was concealed and had fled away to avoid any meeting in the same place with us, since it is said to have been translated; the meaning of which expression is that it emigrated and departed from its sojourn in this mortal life, to an abode in immortal life. V.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, a b c d\n0 "15.25" "15.25" "15 25" (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "5.24" "5.24" "5 24"\n1 6.1 6.1 6 1 \n2 6.2 6.2 6 2 \n3 6.3 6.3 6 3 \n4 6.4 6.4 6 4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Anon., Jubilees, 4.17-4.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.17. And in the second week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dînâh, the daughter of Barâkî’êl the daughter of his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared; 4.18. for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 4.19. And in the eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Bâraka, the daughter of Râsûjâl, a daughter of his father's brother, in the fourth week of this jubilee
4. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 9.1, 10.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.1. And I believe that there will be also evil-doings among you, from the words of Enoch the righteous: that ye shall commit fornication with the fornication of Sodom, and shall perish, all save a few, and shall renew wanton deeds with women; and the kingdom of the Lord shall not be among, you, for straightway He shall take it away. 10.6. For all these things they gave us for an inheritance, saying: Keep the commandments of God, until the Lord shall reveal His salvation to all Gentiles.
5. Anon., Testament of Dan, 5.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.6. [For I have read in the book of Enoch, the righteous, that your prince is Satan, and that all the spirits of wickedness and pride will conspire to attend constantly on the sons of Levi, to cause them to sin before the Lord.
6. Anon., Testament of Levi, 10.5, 14.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.5. For the house which the Lord shall choose shall be called Jerusalem, as is contained in the book of Enoch the righteous. 14.1. Therefore, my children, I have learnt that at the end of the ages ye will transgress against the Lord, stretching out hands to wickedness [against Him]; and to all the Gentiles shall ye become a scorn.
7. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 4.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. These things I say unto you, my children, for I have read in the writing of Enoch that ye yourselves also shall depart from the Lord, walking according to all the lawlessness of the Gentiles, and ye shall do according to all the wickedness of Sodom.
8. Anon., Testament of Simeon, 5.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.4. For I have seen it inscribed in the writing of Enoch that your sons shall be corrupted in fornication, and shall do harm to the sons of Levi with the sword.
9. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44.16, 49.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

44.16. Enoch pleased the Lord, and was taken up;he was an example of repentance to all generations. 49.14. No one like Enoch has been created on earth,for he was taken up from the earth.
10. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.10-4.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.10. There was one who pleased God and was loved by him,and while living among sinners he was taken up. 4.11. He was caught up lest evil change his understanding or guile deceive his soul. 4.12. For the fascination of wickedness obscures what is good,and roving desire perverts the innocent mind. 4.13. Being perfected in a short time, he fulfilled long years; 4.14. for his soul was pleasing to the Lord,therefore he took him quickly from the midst of wickedness. 4.15. Yet the peoples saw and did not understand,nor take such a thing to heart,that Gods grace and mercy are with his elect,and he watches over his holy ones.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 18-19, 17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. That which is placed in the next rank after hope is repentance for errors committed, and improvement; in reference to which principle Moses mentions next in order to Enos, the man who changed from a worse system of life to a better, who is called among the Hebrews Enoch, but as the Greeks would say, "gracious," of whom the following statement is made, "that Enoch pleased God, and was not found, because God transported Him.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 205, 208-209, 30, 34-38, 203 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 135, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

134. After this, Moses says that "God made man, having taken clay from the earth, and he breathed into his face the breath of life." And by this expression he shows most clearly that there is a vast difference between man as generated now, and the first man who was made according to the image of God. For man as formed now is perceptible to the external senses, partaking of qualities, consisting of body and soul, man or woman, by nature mortal. But man, made according to the image of God, was an idea, or a genus, or a seal, perceptible only by the intellect, incorporeal, neither male nor female, imperishable by nature.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 42-43, 41 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

41. We must therefore be aware that each of the aforesaid names, being interpreted, has a double signification; for Enoch, being interpreted, means, as I have already said, "thy grace," and Methusaleh means, the sending forth of death. Lamech, again means, humiliation. Now the expression, "Thy grace," is by some persons referred to the mind that is in us; and by more learned and sounder interpreters it is referred to the mind of other persons.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 11-27, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Accordingly God banished Adam; but Cain went forth from his presence of his own accord; Moses here showing to us the manner of each sort of absence from God, both the voluntary and the involuntary sort; but the involuntary sort as not existing in consequence of any intention on our part, will subsequently have such a remedy applied to it as the case admits of; for God will raise up another offspring in the place of Abel, whom Cain slew, a male offspring for the soul which has not turned by its own intention, by name Seth, which name being interpreted means irrigation;
16. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV. 1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement.
17. Anon., Testament of Abraham A, 11.3-11.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.85, 9.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.85. He lived nine hundred and sixty-two years; and then his son Enoch succeeded him, who was born when his father was one hundred and sixty-two years old. Now he, when he had lived three hundred and sixty-five years, departed and went to God; whence it is that they have not written down his death. 9.28. Now at this time it was that Elijah disappeared from among men, and no one knows of his death to this very day; but he left behind him his disciple Elisha, as we have formerly declared. And indeed, as to Elijah, and as to Enoch, who was before the deluge, it is written in the sacred books that they disappeared, but so that nobody knew that they died. 9.28. So the ten tribes of the Israelites were removed out of Judea nine hundred and forty-seven years after their forefathers were come out of the land of Egypt, and possessed themselves of the country, but eight hundred years after Joshua had been their leader, and, as I have already observed, two hundred and forty years, seven months, and seven days after they had revolted from Rehoboam, the grandson of David, and had given the kingdom to Jeroboam.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abram/abraham, prayer for ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 519
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183
alexandria Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 519
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186, 187
allegory/allegoresis, cosmological Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
allegory/allegoresis, ethical/moral Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183
allegory/allegoresis Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
arithmology, one Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183
body Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 186
book of the watchers, readers of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 186, 187
diaspora judaism Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
enoch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 187, 519
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
enochic literary tradition, place of epistle of enoch in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
eschatology Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183
etymology, greek Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 187
etymology, hebrew Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 187
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
grace Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 183, 187
homer Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 519
homonymy Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 187
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 187
israel, land of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 187
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
lawgiver Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
logos Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 186
moses, gods human being Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 186
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 183, 519
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 519
pharaoh Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
platonism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 519
promises, divine Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
qge Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186, 519
relation (category) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179
reuben Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 519
sons of god, as angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82
sophists Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 187
soul, as ship' Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 519
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 82