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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Philo Of Alexandria, On Planting, 19
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1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 31.2-31.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.2. רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן־אוּרִי בֶן־חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃ 31.3. וָאֲמַלֵּא אֹתוֹ רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים בְּחָכְמָה וּבִתְבוּנָה וּבְדַעַת וּבְכָל־מְלָאכָה׃ 31.2. ’See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah;" 31.3. and I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.2, 1.26-1.27, 2.7, 9.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard."
3. Cicero, On Divination, 2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.38. Quid? cum pluribus deis immolatur, qui tandem evenit, ut litetur aliis, aliis non litetur? quae autem inconstantia deorum est, ut primis minentur extis, bene promittant secundis? aut tanta inter eos dissensio, saepe etiam inter proxumos, ut Apollinis exta bona sint, Dianae non bona? Quid est tam perspicuum quam, cum fortuito hostiae adducantur, talia cuique exta esse, qualis cuique obtigerit hostia? At enim id ipsum habet aliquid divini, quae cuique hostia obtingat, tamquam in sortibus, quae cui ducatur. Mox de sortibus; quamquam tu quidem non hostiarum causam confirmas sortium similitudine, sed infirmas sortis conlatione hostiarum. 2.38. Again, when sacrifices are offered to more than one god at the same time, how does it happen that the auspices are favourable in one case and unfavourable in another? Is it not strange fickleness in the gods to threaten disaster in the first set of entrails and to promise a blessing in the next? Or is there such discord among the gods — often even among those who are nearest of kin — that the entrails of the sacrifice you offer to Apollo, for example, are favourable and of those you offer at the same time to Diana are unfavourable? When victims for the sacrifice are brought up at haphazard it is perfectly clear that the character of entrails that you will receive will depend on the victim chance may bring. Oh! but someone will say, The choice itself is a matter of divine guidance, just as in the case of lots the drawing is directed by the gods! I shall speak of lots presently; although you really do not strengthen the cause of sacrifices by comparing them to lots; but you do weaken the cause of lots by comparing them with sacrifices.
4. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.38. The world on the contrary, since it embraces all things and since nothing exists which is not within it, is entirely perfect; how then can it fail to possess that which is the best? but there is nothing better than intelligence and reason; the world therefore cannot fail to possess them. Chrysippus therefore also well shows by the aid of illustrations that in the perfect and mature specimen of its kind everything is better than in the imperfect, for instance in a horse than in a foal, in a dog than in a puppy, in a man than in a boy; and that similarly a perfect and complete being is bound to possess that which is the best thing in all the world;
5. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.'
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 125 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

125. But we must now proceed to consider the question which we postponed till the present time. What sort of a part of the earth is that, that we may begin from this, whether it is greater or less, that is not dissolved by time? Do not the very hardest and strongest stones become hard and decayed through the weakness of their conformation (and this conformation is a sort of course of a highly strained spirit, a bond not indissoluble, but only very difficult to unloose), in consequence of which they are broken up and made fluid, so that they are dissolved first of all into a thin dust, and afterwards are wholly wasted away and destroyed? Again, if the water were never agitated by the winds, but were left immoveable for ever, would it not from inaction and tranquillity become dead? at all events it is changed by such stagnation, and becomes very foetid and foul-smelling, like an animal deprived of life.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 92, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Now the first example of an enemy placed directly in front of one is derived from what is said in the case of Cain, that "he went out from the face of God, and dwelt in the land of Nod, in the front of Eden." Now Nod being interpreted means commotion, and Eden means delight. The one therefore is a symbol of wickedness agitating the soul, and the other of virtue which creates for the soul a state of tranquillity and happiness, not meaning by happiness that effeminate luxury which is derived from the indulgence of the irrational passion of pleasure, but a joy free from toil and free from hardship, which is enjoyed with great tranquillity. 12. in this manner those who are skilful in the art of medicine, save their patients; for they do not think it advisable to give food before they have removed the causes of their diseases; for while the diseases remain, food is useless, being the pernicious materials of their sufferings. III.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 101 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

101. But the divine word which is above these does not come into any visible appearance, inasmuch as it is not like to any of the things that come under the external senses, but is itself an image of God, the most ancient of all the objects of intellect in the whole world, and that which is placed in the closest proximity to the only truly existing God, without any partition or distance being interposed between them: for it is said, "I will speak unto thee from above the mercyseat, in the midst, between the two Cherubim." So that the word is, as it were, the charioteer of the powers, and he who utters it is the rider, who directs the charioteer how to proceed with a view to the proper guidance of the universe.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 19-31, 33, 35, 43-45, 47-49, 52-56, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Since what shall we say? Must we not say that these animals which are terrestrial or aquatic live in air and spirit? What? Are not pestilential afflictions accustomed to exist when the air is tainted or corrupted, as if that were the cause of all such assuming vitality? Again, when the air is free from all taint and innocent, such as it is especially wont to be when the north wind prevails, does not the imbibing of a purer air tend to a more vigorous and more lasting duration of life?
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 131, 134-135, 137, 14, 140-141, 15-16, 164, 17-35, 69, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. And he says that the world was made in six days, not because the Creator stood in need of a length of time (for it is natural that God should do everything at once, not merely by uttering a command, but by even thinking of it); but because the things created required arrangement; and number is akin to arrangement; and, of all numbers, six is, by the laws of nature, the most productive: for of all the numbers, from the unit upwards, it is the first perfect one, being made equal to its parts, and being made complete by them; the number three being half of it, and the number two a third of it, and the unit a sixth of it, and, so to say, it is formed so as to be both male and female, and is made up of the power of both natures; for in existing things the odd number is the male, and the even number is the female; accordingly, of odd numbers the first is the number three, and of even numbers the first is two, and the two numbers multiplied together make six.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 20, 22-24, 44, 6, 8, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 181 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

181. Should I not say to this man, If you have a regard to your own advantage you will destroy everything that is excellent, and that too without deriving any advantage therefrom? You will put an end to the honour due to parents, the attention of a wife, the education of children, the blameless services of servants, the management of a house, the government of a city, the firm establishment of laws, the guardianship of morals, reverence to one's elders, the habit of speaking well of the dead, good fellowship with the living, piety towards God as shown both in words and in deeds: for you are overturning and throwing into confusion all these things, sowing seed for yourself alone, and nursing up pleasure, that gluttonous intemperate origin of all evil. LIV.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.30-1.33 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. Now then is the fourth element which exists within us, the domit mind, comprehensible to us in the same manner as these other divisions? Certainly not; for what do we think it to be in its essence? Do we look upon it as spirit, or as blood, or, in short, as any bodily substance! But it is not a substance, but must be pronounced incorporeal. Is it then a limit, or a species, or a number, or a continued act, or a harmony, or any existing thing whatever? 1.31. Is it, the very first moment that we are born, infused into us from without, or is it some warm nature in us which is cooled by the air which is diffused around us, like a piece of iron which has been heated at a forge, and then being plunged into cold water, is by that process tempered and hardened? (And perhaps it is from the cooling process [psyxis] to which it is thus submitted that the soul [heµ psycheµ] derives its name.) What more shall we say? When we die, is it extinguished and destroyed together with our bodies? or does it continue to live a long time? or, thirdly, is it wholly incorruptible and immortal? 1.32. Again, where, in what part does this mind lie hid? Has it received any settled habitation? For some men have dedicated it to our head, as the principal citadel, around which all the outward senses have their lairs; thinking it natural that its body-guards should be stationed near it, as near the palace of a mighty king. Some again contend earnestly in favour of the position which they assign it, believing that it is enshrined like a statue in the heart. 1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures?
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.81, 1.171, 2.52, 3.83, 4.102, 4.123 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made. 1.171. Moreover, the most fragrant of all incenses are offered up twice every day in the fire, being burnt within the veil, both when the sun rises and sets, before the morning and after the evening sacrifice, so that the sacrifices of blood display our gratitude for ourselves as being composed of blood, but the offerings of incense show our thankfulness for the domit part within us, our rational spirit, which was fashioned after the archetypal model of the divine image. 2.52. In considering the melancholy and fearful condition of the human race, and how full it is of innumerable evils, which the covetousness of the soul begets, which the defects of the body produce, and which all the inequalities of the soul inflict upon us, and which the retaliations of those among whom we live, both doing and suffering innumerable evils, are continually causing us, he then wondered whether any one being tossed about in such a sea of troubles, some brought on deliberately and others unintentionally, and never being able to rest in peace nor to cast anchor in the safe haven of a life free from danger, could by any possibility really keep a feast, not one in name, but one which should really be so, enjoying himself and being happy in the contemplation of the world and all the things in it, and in obedience to nature, and in a perfect harmony between his words and his actions, between his actions and his words. 3.83. The name of homicide is that affixed to him who has slain a man; but in real truth it is a sacrilege, and the very greatest of all sacrileges, because, of all the possessions and sacred treasures in the whole world, there is nothing more holy in appearance, nor more godlike than man, the all-beautiful copy of an all-beautiful model, a representation admirably made after an archetypal rational idea. 4.102. at the same time not approving of unnecessary rigour, like the lawgiver of Lacedaemon, nor undue effeminacy, like the man who taught the Ionians and the Sybarites lessons of luxury and license, but keeping a middle path between the two courses, so that he has relaxed what was over strict, and tightened what was too loose, mingling the excesses which are found at each extremity with moderation, which lies between the two, so as to produce an irreproachable harmony and consistency of life, on which account he has laid down not carelessly, but with minute particularity, what we are to use and what to avoid. 4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{#le 3:17.} The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.CONCERNING THE SOUL OR LIFE OF MANXXIV. For the essence of the soul of man is the breath of God, especially if we follow the account of Moses, who, in his history of the creation of the world, says that God breathed into the first man, the founder of our race, the breath of life; breathing it into the principal part of his body, namely the face, where the outward senses are established, the body-guards of the mind, as if it were the great king. And that which was thus breathed into his face was manifestly the breath of the air, or whatever else there may be which is even more excellent than the breath of the air, as being a ray emitted from the blessed and thricehappy nature of God.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 99, 67 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

67. but he was filled with unrestrained joy because there was secured to the nation a governor who was in all respects excellent (for he was sure that the man who was pleasing to God must be virtuous and pious); and accordingly, taking him by the right hand, he led him forth to the assembled multitude, not being at all alarmed at the idea of his own impending death, but feeling that he had received a new cause of joy in addition to his former reasons for cheerfulness, not only from the recollection of his former happiness, in which he had passed his life abundantly in every species of virtue, but from the hope also that he was now about to become immortal, changing from this corruptible to an incorruptible life; and accordingly, with a cheerful look proceeding from the joy which he felt in his soul, he spoke to them with joy and exultation in the following manner, and said:
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb
18. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 71 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

71. and then when they were dead they raged no less against them with interminable hostility, and inflicted still heavier insults on their persons, dragging them, I had almost said, though all the alleys and lanes of the city, until the corpse, being lacerated in all its skin, and flesh, and muscles from the inequality and roughness of the ground, all the previously united portions of his composition being torn asunder and separated from one another, was actually torn to pieces.
19. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.33-1.43, 1.45, 1.64, 3.96, 3.161 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV. 1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement. 1.45. God therefore sows and implants terrestrial virtue in the human race, being an imitation and representation of the heavenly virtue. For, pitying our race, and seeing that it is exposed to abundant and innumerable evils, he firmly planted terrestrial virtue as an assistant against and warderoff of the diseases of the soul; being, as I have said before, an imitation of the heavenly and archetypal wisdom which he calls by various names. Now virtue is called a paradise metaphorically, and the appropriate place for the paradise is Eden; and this means luxury: and the most appropriate field for virtue is peace, and ease, and joy; in which real luxury especially consists. 1.64. Generic virtue, therefore, derives its beginning from Eden, which is the wisdom of God; which rejoices and exults, and triumphs, being delighted at and honoured on account of nothing else, except its Father, God, and the four particular virtues, are branches from the generic virtue, which like a river waters all the good actions of each, with an abundant stream of benefits.
20. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 55-57, 232 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

232. But by nature our mind is indivisible; for the Creator, having divided the irrational part of the soul into six portions, has made six divisions of it, namely, sight, taste, hearing, smelling, touch, and voice; but the rational part, which is called the mind he has left undivided, according to the likeness of the entire heaven.
21. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. for in many places of the law as given by Moses, he pronounces the blood to be the essence of the soul or of life, saying distinctly, "For the life of all flesh is the blood Thereof." And when the Creator of all living things first began to make man, after the creation of the heaven and the earth, and all the things which are between the two, Moses says, "And he breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul," showing again by this expression that it is the breath which is the essence of the life.
22. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 20, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. For, says Moses, "God breathed into man's face the breath of Life," so that it follows of necessity, that he that received the breath must be fashioned after the model of him who sent it forth. On which account it is said too, that "Man was made after the image of God," and not after the image of any created being.
23. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.14.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15-1.20, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator
25. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;
26. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.143 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.143. It is a living thing in the sense of an animate substance endowed with sensation; for animal is better than non-animal, and nothing is better than the world, ergo the world is a living being. And it is endowed with soul, as is clear from our several souls being each a fragment of it. Boethus, however, denies that the world is a living thing. The unity of the world is maintained by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius in the first book of his Physical Discourse. By the totality of things, the All, is meant, according to Apollodorus, (1) the world, and in another sense (2) the system composed of the world and the void outside it. The world then is finite, the void infinite.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75, 108; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
allegory, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
anthropology Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75
apollodorus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218, 219
body Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
capability (human) Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
charismatic endowment Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
chrysippus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
cicero Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
cosmic christology Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
cosmology Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75
creation, story of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
creator Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75
death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
divine, judgment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
eden Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 390
eternal life Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
fire Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
firstborn Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
god, breath/inbreathing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
god, image of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
god, seal of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
god, sending of/by Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
heavenly person Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
hebrew Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
historiography, roman Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 390
human, existence Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75, 108; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
imago dei Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75, 108
immortal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
jew/jewish, literature/ authors' "151.0_147.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
judaism, moses as sophos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 218
judaism, nous Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218, 219
judaism, pneuma (spirit) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218, 219
judaism, pneuma and wisdom Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 218
judaism, soul, creation of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 218, 219
judaism, spirit of god, divine spirit Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218, 219
judaism in egypt, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218, 219
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218, 219
judgment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
law, god's" '151.0_148.0@law, torah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
logos Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
metaphysical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
molded Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75
mortality/immortality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
moses Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
nephesh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
obedience Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
of material Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75, 108
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
peace, beneficial Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 390
philo judaeus Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 390; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218, 219
plato/platonic/platonism/neo-platonism Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
platonic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75
pleasure Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 390
posidonius Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
septuagint Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 390
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 75, 108
spirit, characterizations as, aether Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
spirit, characterizations as, and the shadow of death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
spirit, characterizations as, fire Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
spirit, characterizations as, stoic pneuma Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
spirit, effects of, creation Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
spirit, effects of, life itself Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
spirit, effects of, mind enlightened Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
spirit, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218, 219
stoicism Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147, 148
toil Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 390
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 108
tradition/ religion/beliefs Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 148
uncreated Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
virtue Gorman, Gorman, Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature (2014) 390
wisdom Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 157
word of god' Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147
zedekiah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 147