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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9223
Philo Of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 210-217


nanNow there are three companions of and servants of the intemperate and incontinent soul, the chief baker, the chief cook, and the chief butler, whom the admirable Moses mentions in these words, "And Pharaoh was angry with the two eunuchs, with the chief butler, and with the chief baker, and he put them in prison with the chief cook;" and the chief cook is eunuch; for he says in another place, "And Joseph was brought down to Egypt, and a eunuch became his master, Pharaoh's chief Cook


nanand again, they sold Joseph to Pharaoh's eunuch, the chief cook; and why is it that the aforesaid offices are absolutely committed to one who is neither man nor woman? Is it because men are by nature calculated to sow seed, and woman to receive it, and that the meeting of the two together is the cause of the generation, and also of the duration of all animals? But it belongs to an unproductive and barren soil, or one may rather say to one which has been made a eunuch, to delight in costly meats and drinks, and in superfluous extravagant preparations of delicacies, since it is unable to reality either to scatter the masculine seeds of virtue, or to receive and nourish them after they have been shed upon it; but, like a rough and stony field, only to destroy those things which ought to have lived for ever.


nanAnd it is laid down as a doctrine of the most general applicability and usefulness, that every author of pleasure is unproductive of wisdom, being neither male nor female, because it is incompetent either to give or to receive the seeds which have a tendency to incorruptibility, but is able only to study the most disgraceful habits of life, to destroy what ought to be indestructible, and to extinguish the torches of wisdom, which ought to be enduring and inextinguishable.


nanNone of such persons does Moses permit to come into the assembly of God; for he says that, "A man who is bruised or castrated shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord." LII. For what advantage is there, from the hearing of the sacred scriptures, to a man who is destitute of wisdom, whose faith has been eradicated, and who is unable to preserve that deposit of doctrines most advantageous to all human life?


nanNow, there are three persons who contribute to the conviviality of the human race, --the chief baker, the cup-bearer, and the maker of delicacies: very naturally, since we desire the use and enjoyment of three things--meat, confections, and drink. But some men only desire that indispensable food which we use of necessity for the sake of our health, and in order to avoid living in an illiberal manner. Others again desire immoderate and exceedingly extravagant luxuries, which, breaking through the appetites, and weighing down, and overwhelming the channels of the body by their number, usually become the parents of all sorts of terrible diseases.


nanThose, therefore, who are inexperienced in pleasure and the indulgence of the appetites and diseases, like the common people in cities, living a life free alike from hatred and from annoyances, as frugal people, have no need of all kinds of various ministers of refined skill, being contented with ordinary cooks, and cup-bearers, and confectioners.


nanBut they who think that the most important and royal object of life is to live pleasantly, and who refer everything, whether of great or small importance, to this object, desire to avail themselves of the services of chief cooks and chief cupbearers, and chief confectioners, that is to say, of men possessed of the highest degree of skill in the arts which they profess.


nanFor those who are skilful in the making of confections and luxuries invent the most various possible kinds of cheese-cakes, and honey cakes, and of innumerable other sweetmeats, varying from one another, not merely in the difference of their material, but also in the manner in which they are made, and in their shape, in such a way as not only to please the taste, but also to beguile the eye.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.7, 2.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 2.10. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall and their fresh droppings fell into my open eyes and white films formed on my eyes. I went to physicians, but they did not help me. Ahikar, however, took care of me until he went to Elymais.
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.1-1.8, 1.10, 1.12-1.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּטוֹב לֵב־הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּיָּיִן אָמַר לִמְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָא חַרְבוֹנָא בִּגְתָא וַאֲבַגְתָא זֵתַר וְכַרְכַּס שִׁבְעַת הַסָּרִיסִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הַמֹּלֵךְ מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה׃ 1.2. וְנִשְׁמַע פִּתְגָם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ כִּי רַבָּה הִיא וְכָל־הַנָּשִׁים יִתְּנוּ יְקָר לְבַעְלֵיהֶן לְמִגָּדוֹל וְעַד־קָטָן׃ 1.2. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם כְּשֶׁבֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ עַל כִּסֵּא מַלְכוּתוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה׃ 1.3. בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמָלְכוֹ עָשָׂה מִשְׁתֶּה לְכָל־שָׂרָיו וַעֲבָדָיו חֵיל פָּרַס וּמָדַי הַפַּרְתְּמִים וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת לְפָנָיו׃ 1.4. בְּהַרְאֹתוֹ אֶת־עֹשֶׁר כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ וְאֶת־יְקָר תִּפְאֶרֶת גְּדוּלָּתוֹ יָמִים רַבִּים שְׁמוֹנִים וּמְאַת יוֹם׃ 1.5. וּבִמְלוֹאת הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ לְכָל־הָעָם הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה לְמִגָּדוֹל וְעַד־קָטָן מִשְׁתֶּה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּחֲצַר גִּנַּת בִּיתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. חוּר כַּרְפַּס וּתְכֵלֶת אָחוּז בְּחַבְלֵי־בוּץ וְאַרְגָּמָן עַל־גְּלִילֵי כֶסֶף וְעַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מִטּוֹת זָהָב וָכֶסֶף עַל רִצְפַת בַּהַט־וָשֵׁשׁ וְדַר וְסֹחָרֶת׃ 1.7. וְהַשְׁקוֹת בִּכְלֵי זָהָב וְכֵלִים מִכֵּלִים שׁוֹנִים וְיֵין מַלְכוּת רָב כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.8. וְהַשְּׁתִיָּה כַדָּת אֵין אֹנֵס כִּי־כֵן יִסַּד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל כָּל־רַב בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כִּרְצוֹן אִישׁ־וָאִישׁ׃ 1.12. וַתְּמָאֵן הַמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי לָבוֹא בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ מְאֹד וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ׃ 1.13. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לַחֲכָמִים יֹדְעֵי הָעִתִּים כִּי־כֵן דְּבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לִפְנֵי כָּל־יֹדְעֵי דָּת וָדִין׃ 1.1. NOW IT came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus—this is Ahasuerus who reigned, from India to Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces—" 1.2. that in those days, when the king Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the castle," 1.3. in the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the army of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him;" 1.4. when he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty, many days, even a hundred and fourscore days." 1.5. And when these days were fulfilled, the king made a feast unto all the people that were present in Shushan the castle, both great and small, seven days, in the court of the garden of the king’s palace;" 1.6. there were hangings of white, fine cotton, and blue, bordered with cords of fine linen and purple, upon silver rods and pillars of marble; the couches were of gold and silver, upon a pavement of green, and white, and shell, and onyx marble." 1.7. And they gave them drink in vessels of gold—the vessels being diverse one from another—and royal wine in abundance, according to the bounty of the king." 1.8. And the drinking was according to the law; none did compel; for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man’s pleasure." 1.10. On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Bizzetha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains that ministered in the presence of Ahasuerus the king," 1.12. But the queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s commandment by the chamberlains; therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him." 1.13. Then the king said to the wise men, who knew the times—for so was the king’s manner toward all that knew law and judgment;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.20, 39.1, 39.20-39.21, 39.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

39.1. וְיוֹסֵף הוּרַד מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּקְנֵהוּ פּוֹטִיפַר סְרִיס פַּרְעֹה שַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים אִישׁ מִצְרִי מִיַּד הַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִדֻהוּ שָׁמָּה׃ 39.1. וַיְהִי כְּדַבְּרָהּ אֶל־יוֹסֵף יוֹם יוֹם וְלֹא־שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ לִשְׁכַּב אֶצְלָהּ לִהְיוֹת עִמָּהּ׃ 39.21. וַיְהִי יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹסֵף וַיֵּט אֵלָיו חָסֶד וַיִּתֵּן חִנּוֹ בְּעֵינֵי שַׂר בֵּית־הַסֹּהַר׃ 39.23. אֵין שַׂר בֵּית־הַסֹּהַר רֹאֶה אֶת־כָּל־מְאוּמָה בְּיָדוֹ בַּאֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ וַאֲשֶׁר־הוּא עֹשֶׂה יְהוָה מַצְלִיחַ׃ 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 39.1. And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’s, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hand of the Ishmaelites, that had brought him down thither." 39.20. And Joseph’s master took him, and put him into the prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were bound; and he was there in the prison." 39.21. But the LORD was with Joseph, and showed kindness unto him, and gave him favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison." 39.23. The keeper of the prison looked not to any thing that was under his hand, because the LORD was with him; and that which he did, the LORD made it to prosper."
4. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 2.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.17. בְּנֵי בֵצָי שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה׃ 2.17. The children of Bezai, three hundred twenty and three."
5. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.7, 2.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 2.10. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall and their fresh droppings fell into my open eyes and white films formed on my eyes. I went to physicians, but they did not help me. Ahikar, however, took care of me until he went to Elymais.
6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 38.1-38.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

38.1. Honor the physician with the honor due him,according to your need of him, for the Lord created him; 38.1. Give up your faults and direct your hands aright,and cleanse your heart from all sin. 38.2. for healing comes from the Most High,and he will receive a gift from the king. 38.2. Do not give your heart to sorrow;drive it away, remembering the end of life. 38.3. The skill of the physician lifts up his head,and in the presence of great men he is admired. 38.3. He moulds the clay with his arm and makes it pliable with his feet;he sets his heart to finish the glazing,and he is careful to clean the furnace. 38.4. The Lord created medicines from the earth,and a sensible man will not despise them. 38.5. Was not water made sweet with a tree in order that his power might be known? 38.6. And he gave skill to men that he might be glorified in his marvelous works. 38.7. By them he heals and takes away pain; 38.8. the pharmacist makes of them a compound. His works will never be finished;and from him health is upon the face of the earth.
7. Septuagint, Judith, 11.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

11.17. For your servant is religious, and serves the God of heaven day and night; therefore, my lord, I will remain with you, and every night your servant will go out into the valley, and I will pray to God and he will tell me when they have committed their sins.
8. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.12. For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 105 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

105. Therefore men in general have paid honours to these nine portions, and to the world which is compounded of them. But the perfect man honours only that being who is above the nine, and who is their creator, being the tenth portion, namely God. For having examined into the whole of his works, he has felt a love for the creator of them, and he has become anxious to be his suppliant and servant. On this account the priest offers up a tenth every day to the tenth, the only and everlasting God.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 212-217, 219, 69, 87, 211 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

211. and again, they sold Joseph to Pharaoh's eunuch, the chief cook; and why is it that the aforesaid offices are absolutely committed to one who is neither man nor woman? Is it because men are by nature calculated to sow seed, and woman to receive it, and that the meeting of the two together is the cause of the generation, and also of the duration of all animals? But it belongs to an unproductive and barren soil, or one may rather say to one which has been made a eunuch, to delight in costly meats and drinks, and in superfluous extravagant preparations of delicacies, since it is unable to reality either to scatter the masculine seeds of virtue, or to receive and nourish them after they have been shed upon it; but, like a rough and stony field, only to destroy those things which ought to have lived for ever.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 91 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

91. For by the following means alone can that which is most excellent within us become adapted for and inclined to the service of him who is the most excellent of all existing beings. In the first place, if a man be resolved into soul, the body, which is akin to it as a brother, being separated and cut off from it, and also all its insatiable desires; and in the second place when the soul has, as I have already said, cast off the irrational part, which is the neighbour of the rational part; for this, like a torrent, being divided into five channels, excites the impetuosity of the passions through all the external senses, as so many aqueducts.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 36, 58-60, 69, 35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 14-20, 76-81, 124 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

124. Let us therefore pray that the mind may be in the soul like a pillar in a house, and, in like manner, that the just man may be firmly established in the human race for the relief of all diseases; for while he is in vigorous health, one must not abandon all hope of complete safety, as through the medium of him, I imagine God the Saviour extending his all-healing medicine, that is to say, his propitious and merciful power to his suppliants and worshippers, bids them employ it for the salvation of those who are sick; spreading it like a salve over the wounds of the soul, which folly, and injustice, and all the other multitude of vices, being sharpened up, have grievously inflicted upon it.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

127. In this way he also says, "The cities of the Levites are ransomed for ever, because the minister of God enjoys eternal freedom, according to the continuous revolutions of the ever-moving soul," and he admits incessant healing applications; for when he calls them ransomed, not once, but for ever, as he says, he means to convey such a meaning as this, that they are always in a state of revolution, and always in a state of freedom, the state of revolution being implanted in them because of their natural mortality, but their freedom coming to them because of their ministration to God. XXXVIII.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 186, 185 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

185. It is a very beautiful exchange and recompense for this choice on the part of man thus displaying anxiety to serve God, when God thus without any delay takes the suppliant to himself as his own, and goes forth to meet the intentions of the man who, in a genuine and sincere spirit of piety and truth, hastens to do him service. But the true servant and suppliant of God, even if by himself he be reckoned and classed as a man, still in power, as has been said in another place, is the whole people, inasmuch as he is equal in value to a whole people. And this is naturally the case in other matters also;
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 97 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

97. Very often, also, he would clothe himself with a breastplate, and march forth sword in hand, with a helmet on his head and a shield on his left arm, calling himself Mars, and on each side of him there marched with him the attendants of this new and unknown Mars, a troop of murderers and executioners who had already performed him all kinds of wicked services when he was raging and thirsting for human blood;
18. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.135, 3.236-3.242 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 111 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

111. But another mind attached to the body and the slave of the passions, having been sold as slave to the chief cook, 27 that is to say to the pleasure of our compound being, and being castrated and mutilated of all the masculine and generative parts of the soul, being afflicted with a want of all good practices, and being incapable of receiving the divine voice, being also separated and cut off from the sacred assembly, in which conferences and discussions about virtue are continually being brought up, is conducted into the prison of the passions, and finds grace, (a grace more inglorious than dishonour), with the keeper of the prison.28
20. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

60. For, behold, here again, he uses the expression, "the portion and inheritance of God," meaning that disposition which is capable of seeing him, and which sincerely worships him; and he says that the children of the earth, whom he calls the sons of Adam, were scattered and dispersed, and brought together again, and that a company was formed of them, since they were unable to use right reason as their guide. For, in real truth, virtue is the cause of harmony and unity, and the opposite disposition is the cause of dissolution and disagreement.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440; Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 53
abraham Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162
eunuch Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162
exposition of the law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440
gaius caligula Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
genesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
happiness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162
jacobs sons Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162
jeremiah, jeremiah, letter of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
joseph Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440
joy Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440
law of nature Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162
levite Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440
levites Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
mars Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
memphibosthe Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162
pharaoh Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162
philo of alexandria, and cities Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philo of alexandria Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philos essenes, and the temple sacrificial system Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philos essenes, lifestyle of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philos essenes, piety and holiness of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philos essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
plato Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
potiphar Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440
priest Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 440
sophocles Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162
soul' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 162