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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9223
Philo Of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 169-170


nanAccordingly we must, on these accounts, remind the man who gives himself airs by reason of his power of deliberating, or of wisely choosing one kind of objects and avoiding others, that if the same unalterable perceptions of the same things always occurred to us, it might perhaps be requisite to admire the two faculties of judging which are implanted in us by nature, namely, the outward senses and the intellect, as unerring and incorruptible, and never to doubt or hesitate about anything, but trusting in every first appearance to choose one kind of thing and to reject the contrary kind.


nanBut since we are found to be influenced in different manners by the same things at different times, we should have nothing positive to assert about anything, inasmuch as what appears has no settled or stationary existence, but is subject to various, and multiform, and ever-recurring changes. XLII. For it follows of necessity, since the imagination is unstable, that the judgment formed by it must be unstable likewise;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.20, 27.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.43. וְעַתָּה בְנִי שְׁמַע בְּקֹלִי וְקוּם בְּרַח־לְךָ אֶל־לָבָן אָחִי חָרָנָה׃ 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 27.43. Now therefore, my son, hearken to my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother to Haran;"
2. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 166, 170-202, 204, 46, 164 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

164. These are the offences of which Lot, the father of daughters, appears to me to be especially guilty, not being able to nourish a masculine and perfect plant in his soul; for he had two daughters by his wife, who was afterwards turned to stone, whom, using an appropriate appellation, one may call habit, a nature at variance with truth, and always, whenever any one tries to lead it on, lagging behind and looking round upon its ancient and customary ways, and remaining in the midst of them like a lifeless pillar.
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 177, 175 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

175. and the two daughters of Lot, the man who was subdued and overthrown by the weakness of the soul, namely, intention and agreement, desire to become pregt by the mind, that is to say, by their father, acting in opposition to him who said, "God has raised up for me ..." For that which the living God did for him, this they affirm that the mind is able to do for them, introducing the doctrine of an intoxicated and frenzied soul. It is indeed the act of sober reason, both to confess that God is the Creator and the Father of the universe; and the conduct of one utterly fallen in intoxication and drunkenness, to fancy that he himself is the bringer about of each of human affairs.
4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.53, 2.55-2.58 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.53. on which account those men who have had unbounded prosperity bestowed upon them, and all things tending to the production of health of body, and riches, and glory, and all other external parts of good fortune, but who have rejected virtue, and have chosen crafty wickedness, and all others kinds of vice, not through compulsion, but of their own spontaneous free will, looking upon that which is the greatest of all evils as the greatest possible advantage, he looks upon as enemies not of mankind only, but of the entire heaven and world, and says that they are awaiting, not any ordinary punishments, but new and extraordinary ones, which that constant assessor of God, justice, who detests wickedness, invents and inflicts terribly upon them, turning against them the most powerful elements of the universe, water and fire, so that at appointed times some are destroyed by deluges, others are burnt with fire, and perish in that manner. 2.55. and when at a subsequent period the race of mankind had again increased from those who had been spared, and had become very numerous, since the succeeding generations did not take the calamities which had befallen their ancestors as a lesson to teach themselves wisdom and moderation, but turned to acts of intemperance and became studiers of evil practices, God determined to destroy them with fire. 2.56. Therefore on this occasion, as the holy scriptures tell us, thunderbolts fell from heaven, and burnt up those wicked men and their cities; and even to this day there are seen in Syria monuments of the unprecedented destruction that fell upon them, in the ruins, and ashes, and sulphur, and smoke, and dusky flame which still is sent up from the ground as of a fire smouldering beneath; 2.57. and in this way it came to pass that those wicked men were punished with the aforesaid chastisements, while those who were eminent for virtue and piety were well off, receiving rewards worthy of their virtue. 2.58. But when the whole of that district was thus burnt, inhabitants and all, by the impetuous rush of the heavenly fire, one single man in the country, a sojourner, was preserved by the providence of God because he had never shared in the transgressions of the natives, though sojourners in general were in the habit of adopting the customs of the foreign nations, among which they might be settled, for the sake of their own safety, since, if they despised them, they might be in danger from the inhabitants of the land. And yet this man had not attained to any perfection of wisdom, so as to be thought worthy of such an honour by reason of the perfect excellence of his nature; but he was spared only because he did not join the multitude who were inclined to luxury and effeminacy, and who pursued every kind of pleasure and indulged every kind of appetite, gratifying them abundantly, and inflaming them as one might inflame fire by heaping upon it plenty of rough fuel.
5. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.23, 4.25, 4.31, 4.42, 4.51-4.52, 4.55-4.57 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 3.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 9.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 1.35-1.86, 1.91, 1.100, 1.118, 1.121-1.124, 1.128, 1.134-1.140, 1.144, 1.163 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 9.78-9.88 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.79. They showed, then, on the basis of that which is contrary to what induces belief, that the probabilities on both sides are equal. Perplexities arise from the agreements between appearances or judgements, and these perplexities they distinguished under ten different modes in which the subjects in question appeared to vary. The following are the ten modes laid down.The first mode relates to the differences between living creatures in respect of those things which give them pleasure or pain, or are useful or harmful to them. By this it is inferred that they do not receive the same impressions from the same things, with the result that such a conflict necessarily leads to suspension of judgement. For some creatures multiply without intercourse, for example, creatures that live in fire, the Arabian phoenix and worms; others by union, such as man and the rest. 9.80. Some are distinguished in one way, some in another, and for this reason they differ in their senses also, hawks for instance being most keen-sighted, and dogs having a most acute sense of smell. It is natural that if the senses, e.g. eyes, of animals differ, so also will the impressions produced upon them; so to the goat vine-shoots are good to eat, to man they are bitter; the quail thrives on hemlock, which is fatal to man; the pig will eat ordure, the horse will not.The second mode has reference to the natures and idiosyncrasies of men; for instance, Demophon, Alexander's butler, used to get warm in the shade and shiver in the sun. 9.81. Andron of Argos is reported by Aristotle to have travelled across the waterless deserts of Libya without drinking. Moreover, one man fancies the profession of medicine, another farming, and another commerce; and the same ways of life are injurious to one man but beneficial to another; from which it follows that judgement must be suspended.The third mode depends on the differences between the sense-channels in different cases, for an apple gives the impression of being pale yellow in colour to the sight, sweet in taste and fragrant in smell. An object of the same shape is made to appear different by differences in the mirrors reflecting it. Thus it follows that what appears is no more such and such a thing than something different. 9.82. The fourth mode is that due to differences of condition and to changes in general; for instance, health, illness, sleep, waking, joy, sorrow, youth, old age, courage, fear, want, fullness, hate, love, heat, cold, to say nothing of breathing freely and having the passages obstructed. The impressions received thus appear to vary according to the nature of the conditions. Nay, even the state of madmen is not contrary to nature; for why should their state be so more than ours? Even to our view the sun has the appearance of standing still. And Theon of Tithorea used to go to bed and walk in his sleep, while Pericles' slave did the same on the housetop. 9.83. The fifth mode is derived from customs, laws, belief in myths, compacts between nations and dogmatic assumptions. This class includes considerations with regard to things beautiful and ugly, true and false, good and bad, with regard to the gods, and with regard to the coming into being and the passing away of the world of phenomena. Obviously the same thing is regarded by some as just and by others as unjust, or as good by some and bad by others. Persians think it not unnatural for a man to marry his daughter; to Greeks it is unlawful. The Massagetae, according to Eudoxus in the first book of his Voyage round the World, have their wives in common; the Greeks have not. The Cilicians used to delight in piracy; not so the Greeks. 9.84. Different people believe in different gods; some in providence, others not. In burying their dead, the Egyptians embalm them; the Romans burn them; the Paeonians throw them into lakes. As to what is true, then, let suspension of judgement be our practice.The sixth mode relates to mixtures and participations, by virtue of which nothing appears pure in and by itself, but only in combination with air, light, moisture, solidity, heat, cold, movement, exhalations and other forces. For purple shows different tints in sunlight, moonlight, and lamplight; and our own complexion does not appear the same at noon and when the sun is low. 9.85. Again, a rock which in air takes two men to lift is easily moved about in water, either because, being in reality heavy, it is lifted by the water or because, being light, it is made heavy by the air. of its own inherent property we know nothing, any more than of the constituent oils in an ointment.The seventh mode has reference to distances, positions, places and the occupants of the places. In this mode things which are thought to be large appear small, square things round; flat things appear to have projections, straight things to be bent, and colourless coloured. So the sun, on account of its distance, appears small, mountains when far away appear misty and smooth, but when near at hand rugged. 9.86. Furthermore, the sun at its rising has a certain appearance, but has a dissimilar appearance when in mid-heaven, and the same body one appearance in a wood and another in open country. The image again varies according to the position of the object, and a dove's neck according to the way it is turned. Since, then, it is not possible to observe these things apart from places and positions, their real nature is unknowable.The eighth mode is concerned with quantities and qualities of things, say heat or cold, swiftness or slowness, colourlessness or variety of colours. Thus wine taken in moderation strengthens the body, but too much of it is weakening; and so with food and other things. 9.87. The ninth mode has to do with perpetuity, strangeness, or rarity. Thus earthquakes are no surprise to those among whom they constantly take place; nor is the sun, for it is seen every day. This ninth mode is put eighth by Favorinus and tenth by Sextus and Aenesidemus; moreover the tenth is put eighth by Sextus and ninth by Favorinus.The tenth mode rests on inter-relation, e.g. between light and heavy, strong and weak, greater and less, up and down. Thus that which is on the right is not so by nature, but is so understood in virtue of its position with respect to something else; for, if that change its position, the thing is no longer on the right. 9.88. Similarly father and brother are relative terms, day is relative to the sun, and all things relative to our mind. Thus relative terms are in and by themselves unknowable. These, then, are the ten modes of perplexity.But Agrippa and his school add to them five other modes, resulting respectively from disagreement, extension ad infinitum, relativity, hypothesis and reciprocal inference. The mode arising from disagreement proves, with regard to any inquiry whether in philosophy or in everyday life, that it is full of the utmost contentiousness and confusion. The mode which involves extension ad infinitum refuses to admit that what is sought to be proved is firmly established, because one thing furnishes the ground for belief in another, and so on ad infinitum.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
academy Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
aenesidemus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30, 137; Russell and Nesselrath, On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis (2014) 183; Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
appearances Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 179
aristotle Russell and Nesselrath, On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis (2014) 183
arithmology Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30
belief Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
body Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
chrysippus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
confusion Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
criterion of truth Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
deceit Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
delusion Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
democritus Russell and Nesselrath, On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis (2014) 183
diogenes laertius Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61, 179
discrepancy Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
dreams Russell and Nesselrath, On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis (2014) 183
epicurus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30; Russell and Nesselrath, On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis (2014) 183
esau Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
figures of speech, tricolon Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
happiness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
haran Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
homosexual behavior, as the sin of sodom Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
homosexual behavior, pederasty and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
homosexual behavior, punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
homosexual behavior, reproduction and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
imagination Russell and Nesselrath, On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis (2014) 183
jacob Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
jethro Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
laban Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
lot, incest of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
monimos Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
moses, all-wise Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
motion Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
negative dogmatism Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
neo-pythagoreanism Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30
nikephoros gregoras Russell and Nesselrath, On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis (2014) 183
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30, 137
pederasty Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
philo Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30
plato Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
ps.aristotle, de mundo Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30
punishment, fitting the crime Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
pyrrho Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
reproduction, sodomites disdain for and failure in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
scepticism Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30
segor (tsoʿar) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
sense-perception Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
senses Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
sextus empiricus Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
sin, homosexual behavior as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
skeptical language Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
skepticism, pyrrhonian skepticism Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
skepticism Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
skeptics Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
sodom, homosexual behavior and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
sodom, homosexuality as sin of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
sodom, literal and ethical interpretations of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
sodom, philos influence concerning Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
sodom, segor escaping Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
sodom, sodomite cities, destruction of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 289
sophists Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30
soul' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 137
soul Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30
suspension of judgment Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 61
winter, bruce Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 30