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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9223
Philo Of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 143-149


nanAnd it is an especial property of law and of instruction to distinguish what is profane from what is holy, and what is unclean from what is clean; as, on the other hand, it is the effect of lawlessness and ignorance to combine things that are at variance with one another by force, and to throw everything into disorder and confusion. XXXVI. On this account the greatest of the kings and prophets, Samuel, as the sacred scriptures tell us, drank no wine or intoxicating liquors to the day of his death; for he is enrolled among the ranks of the divine army which he will never leave in consequence of the prudence of the wise captain.


nanBut Samuel was perhaps in reality a man, but he is looked upon not as a compound animal, but as mind rejoicing only in the service and ministrations of God. For the name Samuel, being interpreted, means "appointed to God;" because he looked upon all such actions as are done in accordance with vain and empty opinions to be shameful irregularity.


nanHe was born of a human mother, whose name when interpreted means "grace." For without divine grace it is impossible either to abandon the ranks of mortal things, or to remain steadily and constantly with those which are imperishable.


nanBut whatever soul is filled with grace is at once in a state of exultation, and delight, and dancing; for it becomes full of triumph, so that it would appear to many of the uninitiated to be intoxicated, and agitated, and to be beside itself. On which account it was said to it by a young boy, and that not by one only but by every one who was old enough for juvenile sauciness and for a readiness to mock at what is good, "How long will you be drunk? Put an end to your wine-bibbing.


nanFor in the case of those who are under the influence of divine inspiration, not only is the soul accustomed to be excited, and as it were to become frenzied, but also the body is accustomed to become reddish and of a fiery complexion, the joy which is internally diffused and which is exulting, secretly spreading its affections even to the exterior parts, by which many foolish people are deceived, and have fancied that sober persons were intoxicated.


nanAnd yet indeed those sober people are in a manner intoxicated, having drunk deep of all good things, and having received pledges from perfect virtue. But those are intoxicated with that drunkenness which proceeds form wine, who pass their whole lives without ever having tasted wisdom, though they have a continued hunger and desire for it.


nanVery naturally therefore is answer made to the man who acts with the impetuosity of youth, and thinks to produce laughter at the venerable and austere mode of life of prudence, "My good man I am a hard woman, a severe day, and I drink no wine or strong drink, and I pour out my soul before the Lord." Very great is the freedom of speech of that soul which is filled with the graces of God.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 13.1, 18.9-18.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.1. אֵת כָּל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם אֹתוֹ תִשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת לֹא־תֹסֵף עָלָיו וְלֹא תִגְרַע מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 13.1. כִּי הָרֹג תַּהַרְגֶנּוּ יָדְךָ תִּהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל־הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה׃ 18.9. כִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תִלְמַד לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם׃ 18.11. וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃ 18.12. כִּי־תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה וּבִגְלַל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישׁ אוֹתָם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 18.13. תָּמִים תִּהְיֶה עִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 18.14. כִּי הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה יוֹרֵשׁ אוֹתָם אֶל־מְעֹנְנִים וְאֶל־קֹסְמִים יִשְׁמָעוּ וְאַתָּה לֹא כֵן נָתַן לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 18.16. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁאַלְתָּ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּחֹרֵב בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל לֵאמֹר לֹא אֹסֵף לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי וְאֶת־הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת לֹא־אֶרְאֶה עוֹד וְלֹא אָמוּת׃ 18.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָי הֵיטִיבוּ אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ׃ 18.18. נָבִיא אָקִים לָהֶם מִקֶּרֶב אֲחֵיהֶם כָּמוֹךָ וְנָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיו וְדִבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּנּוּ׃ 18.19. וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִשְׁמַע אֶל־דְּבָרַי אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר בִּשְׁמִי אָנֹכִי אֶדְרֹשׁ מֵעִמּוֹ׃ 18.21. וְכִי תֹאמַר בִּלְבָבֶךָ אֵיכָה נֵדַע אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־דִבְּרוֹ יְהוָה׃ 18.22. אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר הַנָּבִיא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה הַדָּבָר וְלֹא יָבוֹא הוּא הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־דִבְּרוֹ יְהוָה בְּזָדוֹן דִּבְּרוֹ הַנָּבִיא לֹא תָגוּר מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 13.1. All this word which I command you, that shall ye observe to do; thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it." 18.9. When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations." 18.10. There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer," 18.11. or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer." 18.12. For whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD; and because of these abominations the LORD thy God is driving them out from before thee." 18.13. Thou shalt be whole-hearted with the LORD thy God." 18.14. For these nations, that thou art to dispossess, hearken unto soothsayers, and unto diviners; but as for thee, the LORD thy God hath not suffered thee so to do." 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 18.16. according to all that thou didst desire of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying: ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.’" 18.17. And the LORD said unto me: ‘They have well said that which they have spoken." 18.18. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." 18.19. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto My words which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him." 18.20. But the prophet, that shall speak a word presumptuously in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die.’" 18.21. And if thou say in thy heart: ‘How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken?’" 18.22. When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD hath not spoken; the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously, thou shalt not be afraid of him."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "11.30" "11.30" "11 30"\n1 20.7 20.7 20 7 \n2 26.8 26.8 26 8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12, 11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 10.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.10. And when they came there to the hill, behold, a company of prophets met him; and the spirit of God came upon him, and he prophesied among them."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 11.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.1. וַיְהִי לִתְשׁוּבַת הַשָּׁנָה לְעֵת צֵאת הַמַּלְאכִים וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶת־יוֹאָב וְאֶת־עֲבָדָיו עִמּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּשְׁחִתוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וַיָּצֻרוּ עַל־רַבָּה וְדָוִד יוֹשֵׁב בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 11.1. וַיַּגִּדוּ לְדָוִד לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָרַד אוּרִיָּה אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אוּרִיָּה הֲלוֹא מִדֶּרֶךְ אַתָּה בָא מַדּוּעַ לֹא־יָרַדְתָּ אֶל־בֵּיתֶךָ׃ 11.1. And it came to pass, at the return of the year, at the time when kings go out to battle, that David sent Yo᾽av, and his servants with him, and all Yisra᾽el, and they ravaged the children of ῾Ammon, and besieged Rabba. But David tarried still at Yerushalayim."
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 113 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

113. then for the first time he appears to me to have begun to entertain a different opinion of his guests from that which he conceived at first, and to have imagined that they were either some of the prophets or of the angels who had changed their spiritual and soul-like essence, and assumed the appearance of men. XXIII.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 50 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 49, 17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. And therefore it is enjoined to the priest and prophet, that is to say to reason, "to place the soul in front of God, with the head Uncovered," that is to say the soul must be laid bare as to its principal design, and the sentiments which it nourished must be revealed, in order that being brought before the judgment seat of the most accurate vision of the incorruptible God, it may be thoroughly examined as to all its concealed disguises, like a base coin, or, on the other hand, if it be found to be free from all participation in any kind of wickedness, it may wash away all the calumnies that have been uttered against its bringing him for a testimony to its purity, who is alone able to behold the soul naked. VI. 17. for they would see that he, who had given them a sufficiency of the means of life was now also giving them a means which should contribute to their living well; accordingly, to live at all required meat and drink which they found, though they had never prepared them; and towards living well, and in accordance with nature and decorum, they required laws and enactments, by which they were likely to be improved in their minds. V.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 145-152, 144 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

144. But Samuel was perhaps in reality a man, but he is looked upon not as a compound animal, but as mind rejoicing only in the service and ministrations of God. For the name Samuel, being interpreted, means "appointed to God;" because he looked upon all such actions as are done in accordance with vain and empty opinions to be shameful irregularity.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 38, 84, 169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 144, 143 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

143. and to those who ask, whether she who is barren has an offspring (for the holy scriptures, which some time ago represented Sarrah as barren, now confess that she will become a mother); this answer must be given, that a woman who is barren cannot, in the course of nature, bring forth an offspring, just as a blind man cannot see, nor a deaf man hear; but that the soul, which is barren of bad things, and which is unproductive of immoderate license of the passions and vices, is alone very nearly attaining to a happy delivery, bringing forth objects worthy of love, namely, the number seven, according to the hymn which is sung by Grace, that is, by Hannah, who says, "she who was barren hath born seven, and she who had many children has become weak:
12. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.254 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.254. and there is an evidence in favour of my argument, in the conduct of the prophetess, and mother of a prophet, Hannah, whose name being translated, signifies grace; for she says that she gives her son, "Samuel, as a gift to the Holy One," not dedicating him more as a human being, than as a disposition full of inspiration, and possessed by a divinely sent impulse; and the name Samuel being interpreted means, "appointed to God.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.65, 1.315, 4.49 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.65. but that some other Prophet{8}{this prophecy, #De 18:18, is always looked upon as one of the most remarkable of the early prophecies of our Saviour.} will appear to them on a sudden, inspired like himself, who will preach and prophesy among them, saying nothing of his own (for he who is truly possessed and inspired, even when he speaks, is unable to comprehend what he is himself saying 1.315. And if, indeed, any one assuming the name and appearance of a prophet, {47}{#de 13:1.} appearing to be inspired and possessed by the Holy Spirit, were to seek to lead the people to the worship of those who are accounted gods in the different cities, it would not be fitting for the people to attend to him being deceived by the name of a prophet. For such an one is an impostor and not a prophet, since he has been inventing speeches and oracles full of falsehood 4.49. for a prophet does not utter anything whatever of his own, but is only an interpreter, another Being suggesting to him all that he utters, while he is speaking under inspiration, being in ignorance that his own reasoning powers are departed, and have quitted the citadel of his soul; while the divine spirit has entered in and taken up its abode there, and is operating upon all the organization of his voice, and making it sound to the distinct manifestation of all the prophecies which he is delivering.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 218 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

218. Would not any one, then, be quite correct to say that this man who thus left his native land, who thus forsook all his relations and all his friends, was the most nobly related of all men, as aiming at making himself a kinsman of God, and labouring by every means in his power to become his disciple and friend? And that he was deservedly ranked in the very highest class among the prophets, because he trusted in no created being in preference to the uncreated God, the Father of all? And being honoured as king, as I have said before, by those who received him among them, not as having obtained his authority by warlike arms, or by armed hosts, as some persons have done, but having received his appointment from the all-righteous God, who honours the lovers of piety with independent authority, to the great advantage of all who are associated with them.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 87, 25 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. And in every house there is a sacred shrine which is called the holy place, and the monastery in which they retire by themselves and perform all the mysteries of a holy life, bringing in nothing, neither meat, nor drink, nor anything else which is indispensable towards supplying the necessities of the body, but studying in that place the laws and the sacred oracles of God enunciated by the holy prophets, and hymns, and psalms, and all kinds of other things by reason of which knowledge and piety are increased and brought to perfection.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.266, 2.190-2.192, 2.268, 2.288, 2.291 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.266. So this man, Balak, now sent some of his companions, entreating him to come to him, and he gave him some presents at once, and he promised to give him others also, explaining to him the necessity which he was in, on account of which he had sent for him. But he did not treat the messengers with any noble or consistent disposition, but with great courtesy and civility evaded their request, as if he were one of the most celebrated prophets, and as such was accustomed to do nothing whatever without first consulting the oracle, and so he declined, saying that the Deity would not permit him to go with them. 2.190. The second class have a sort of admixture and communication in them, the prophet asking information on the subjects as to which he is in difficulty, and God answering him and instructing him. The third sort are attributed to the lawgiver, God having given him a share of his prescient power, by means of which he will be able to foretell the future. 2.191. Therefore, we must for the present pass by the first; for they are too great to be adequately praised by any man, as, indeed, they could scarcely be panegyrised worthily by the heaven itself and the nature of the universe; and they are also uttered by the mouth, as it were, of an interpreter. But interpretation and prophecy differ from one another. And concerning the second kind I will at once endeavour to explain the truth, connecting with them the third species also, in which the inspired character of the speaker is shown, according to which it is that he is most especially and appropriately looked upon as a prophet. 2.192. And we must here begin with the promise. There are four places where the oracles are given by way of question and answer, being contained in the exposition of the law, and having a mixed character. For, first, the prophet feels inspiration and asks questions, and then the father prophesies to him, giving him a share of his discourse and replies. And the first case where this occurs is one which would have irritated, not only Moses, who was the most holy and pious man that ever lived, but even any one who had only had a slight taste of piety. 2.268. After this he delivered to the people a third oracle of the most marvellous nature, namely that on the seventh day the air would not afford the accustomed food, and that not the very slightest portion would fall upon the earth, as it did on other days; 2.288. And some time afterwards, when he was about to depart from hence to heaven, to take up his abode there, and leaving this mortal life to become immortal, having been summoned by the Father, who now changed him, having previously been a double being, composed of soul and body, into the nature of a single body, transforming him wholly and entirely into a most sun-like mind; he then, being wholly possessed by inspiration, does not seem any longer to have prophesied comprehensively to the whole nation altogether, but to have predicted to each tribe separately what would happen to each of them, and to their future generations, some of which things have already come to pass, and some are still expected, because the accomplishment of those predictions which have been fulfilled is the clearest testimony to the future. 2.291. For when he was now on the point of being taken away, and was standing at the very starting-place, as it were, that he might fly away and complete his journey to heaven, he was once more inspired and filled with the Holy Spirit, and while still alive, he prophesied admirably what should happen to himself after his death, relating, that is, how he had died when he was not as yet dead, and how he was buried without any one being present so as to know of his tomb, because in fact he was entombed not by mortal hands, but by immortal powers, so that he was not placed in the tomb of his forefathers, having met with particular grace which no man ever saw; and mentioning further how the whole nation mourned for him with tears a whole month, displaying the individual and general sorrow on account of his unspeakable benevolence towards each individual and towards the whole collective host, and of the wisdom with which he had ruled them.
17. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.103 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 259, 262, 266, 78, 258 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

258. An instance of the fourth kind of trance is the one which we are now considering: "And about the setting of the sun a trance fell upon Abraham," he being thrown into a state of enthusiasm and inspired by the Deity. But this is not the only thing which shows him to have been a prophet, but also the express words which are engraven in the sacred scriptures as on a pillar. When some one endeavored to separate Sarah, that is, the virtue which is derived from nature, from him, as if she had not been the peculiar property of the wise man alone, but had also belonged to every one who made any pretence to wisdom, God said, "Give the man back his wife, because he is a prophet, and he will pray for thee, and thou shalt Live;
19. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 40, 39 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

39. And he will not go to Egypt, nor will he descend into the arena to strive against the sophists who contend in it, till he has thoroughly studied and practised the art of argumentative reasoning; God himself showing to him all the ideas which belong to such elocution, and making him perfect in them by the election of Aaron who was the brother of Moses, and whom he was accustomed to call his mouth-piece, and interpreter, and Prophet.
20. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 11-13, 136, 138, 14-15, 5-8, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Now the most evident sign of a soul devoted to God is that song in which that expression occurs, "She that was barren has borne seven children, and she that had many children has become weak."7
21. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. שברי לוחות שמונחים בארון ואי ס"ד ס"ת הקיפו ו' טפחים מכדי כל שיש בהקיפו שלשה טפחים יש בו רוחב טפח וכיון דלאמצעיתו נגלל נפיש ליה מתרי טפחא רווחא דביני ביני בתרי פושכי היכי יתיב,אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ספר עזרה לתחלתו הוא נגלל ואכתי תרי בתרי היכי יתיב אמר רב אשי דכריך ביה פורתא וכרכיה לעיל,ור' יהודה מקמי דליתי ארגז ספר תורה היכי הוה יתיב דפא הוה נפיק מיניה ויתיב עילוה ספר תורה ור"מ האי מצד ארון מאי עביד ליה ההוא מיבעי ליה דמתנח ליה מצד ולא מתנח ביני לוחי ולעולם בגויה מן הצד,ור"מ עמודין היכא הוו קיימי מבראי ור"מ שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב ו, ב) אשר נקרא שם שם ה' צבאות יושב הכרובים עליו מלמד שלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחים בארון,ואידך ההוא מבעי ליה לכדרבי יוחנן ד"ר יוחנן א"ר שמעון בן יוחאי מלמד שהשם וכל כינויו מונחין בארון,ואידך נמי מיבעי ליה להכי אין הכי נמי אלא שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדתני רב יוסף דתני רב יוסף (דברים י, ב) אשר שברת ושמתם מלמד שהלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחין בארון,ואידך ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדריש לקיש דאמר ר"ל אשר שברת אמר לו הקב"ה למשה יישר כחך ששברת:,תנו רבנן סדרן של נביאים יהושע ושופטים שמואל ומלכים ירמיה ויחזקאל ישעיה ושנים עשר מכדי הושע קדים דכתיב (הושע א, ב) תחלת דבר ה' בהושע וכי עם הושע דבר תחלה והלא ממשה ועד הושע כמה נביאים היו וא"ר יוחנן שהיה תחלה לארבעה נביאים שנתנבאו באותו הפרק ואלו הן הושע וישעיה עמוס ומיכה וליקדמיה להושע ברישא,כיון דכתיב נבואתיה גבי חגי זכריה ומלאכי וחגי זכריה ומלאכי סוף נביאים הוו חשיב ליה בהדייהו וליכתביה לחודיה וליקדמיה איידי דזוטר מירכס,מכדי ישעיה קדים מירמיה ויחזקאל ליקדמיה לישעיה ברישא כיון דמלכים סופיה חורבנא וירמיה כוליה חורבנא ויחזקאל רישיה חורבנא וסיפיה נחמתא וישעיה כוליה נחמתא סמכינן חורבנא לחורבנא ונחמתא לנחמתא:,סידרן של כתובים רות וספר תהלים ואיוב ומשלי קהלת שיר השירים וקינות דניאל ומגילת אסתר עזרא ודברי הימים ולמאן דאמר איוב בימי משה היה ליקדמיה לאיוב ברישא אתחולי בפורענותא לא מתחלינן רות נמי פורענות היא פורענות דאית ליה אחרית דאמר רבי יוחנן למה נקרא שמה רות שיצא ממנה דוד שריוהו להקב"ה בשירות ותושבחות,ומי כתבן משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב יהושע כתב ספרו ושמונה פסוקים שבתורה שמואל כתב ספרו ושופטים ורות דוד כתב ספר תהלים על ידי עשרה זקנים ע"י אדם הראשון על ידי מלכי צדק ועל ידי אברהם וע"י משה ועל ידי הימן וע"י ידותון ועל ידי אסף 14b. bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets, which were placed in the Ark.Having cited the ibaraita /i, the Gemara now presents its objection to what was taught earlier with regard to the dimensions of a Torah scroll: bAnd if it should enter your mindto say, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi held, that bthe circumference of a Torah scroll is six handbreadths, now since anycylindrical object bhaving a circumference of three handbreadths has a diameter of one handbreadth,a Torah scroll with a circumference of six handbreadths has a diameter of two handbreadths. bAnd sincea Torah scroll bis wound to the middle,since it is rolled from both sides, bitmust take up bmore than two handbreadthsdue to bthe space betweenthe sheets of parchment and the double rolling. According to Rabbi Meir, who says that the Torah scroll was placed inside the ark, bhow didthe scroll bfit inthe remaining btwo handbreadths [ ipushkei /i]of space in the Ark?, bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: The scroll of theTemple bcourtyard,which was kept in the Ark, bwas wound to its beginning,i.e., it had only a single pole, so that its circumference was only two handbreadths. The Gemara asks: bBut still, how doesan item bthat is twohandbreadths wide bfit intoa space that is precisely btwohandbreadths? It would be impossible to fit it in. bRav Ashi said: A small sectionof the scroll bwas woundseparately bandthen bplaced on topof the scroll.,Having concluded its current discussion, the Gemara now addresses the details of the aforementioned ibaraitaand asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Yehuda,who says that the Torah scroll rested on the chest that came from the Philistines, bwhere was the Torah scroll placed before the chest arrived?The Gemara answers: bA shelf protruded fromthe Ark band the Torah scroll rested on it.The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Meir,who says that the Torah scroll rested inside the Ark, bwhat does he do with thisverse: “Take this Torah scroll and put it bat the side of the Ark”(Deuteronomy 31:26)? The Gemara answers: bHe requiresthat verse to teach bthatthe Torah scroll bwas placed at the sideof the tablets, band that it was not placed betweenthe two btablets, butit was bactuallyplaced binsidethe Ark bat the sideof the tablets.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Meir, where were thesilver bcolumns placed?The Gemara answers: bOutsidethe Ark. The Gemara further asks: bAnd from where does Rabbi Meirderive that bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark,as the verse from which Rabbi Yehuda learns this: “There was nothing in the Ark except” (I Kings 8:9), is needed by Rabbi Meir to teach that the Torah scroll was placed there? The Gemara answers: bHe derivesthis point bfrom what Rav Hunaexpounded, bas Rav Huna says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“The Ark of God, bwhereupon is called the Name, the name of the Lord of hosts that sits upon the cherubs”(II Samuel 6:2)? The phrase “the name, the name of the Lord” bteaches thatboth bthesecond btablets and the broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhat does bthe otherSage, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda, derive from this verse? The Gemara responds: bHe requiresthat text bforthat bwhich Rabbi Yoḥasays, bas Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says:This bteaches that theineffable bnameof God band all of His appellations were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara inquires: bAnddoesn’t bthe otherSage, Rabbi Meir, balso require it for that?The Gemara answers: bYes,it bis indeed so. Rather, from where does hederive that bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark?The Gemara expounds: bHe derivesthis bfromthat bwhich Rav Yosef taught, as Rav Yosef taughta ibaraita /i: The verses state: “At that time the Lord said to me: Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first…and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, bwhich you broke, and you shall put themin the Ark” (Deuteronomy 10:1–2). bThis teaches thatboth bthesecond set of btablets and the broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhat does bthe otherone, Rabbi Yehuda, learn from this verse? The Gemara answers: bHe requires it forthat bwhich Reish Lakishteaches, bas Reish Lakish says:What is the meaning of that which is stated: “The first tablets, bwhich you broke [ iasher shibbarta /i]”?These words allude to the fact that God approved of Moses’ action, as if bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be straight [ iyishar koḥakha /i] because you brokethem.,§ bThe Sages taught: The order of thebooks of the bProphetswhen they are attached together is as follows: bJoshua and Judges, Samuel and Kings, Jeremiah and Ezekiel,and bIsaiah and the TwelveProphets. The Gemara asks: bConsider: Hosea precededsome of the other prophets whose books are included in the Bible, bas it is written: “The Lord spoke first to Hosea”(Hosea 1:2). At first glance this verse is difficult: bBut did God speak first with Hosea,and not with any other prophet before him? bWeren’t there many prophets between Moses and Hosea? And Rabbi Yoḥa says: He was the first of four prophets who prophesied in that period, and they were: Hosea and Isaiah, Amos and Micah.Accordingly, Hosea preceded those three prophets; bandthe book of bHoseaas well bshould precedethe books of those prophets.,The Gemara answers: bSince his prophecy is written together withthose of bHaggai, Zechariah, and Malachiin one book of the Twelve Prophets, band Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were the last of the prophets, he is counted with them.The Gemara inquires: bBut letthe book of Hosea bbe written separately and let it precedethe others. The Gemara answers: Were it written separately, bsince it is small it would be lost. /b,The Gemara further asks: bConsider: Isaiah preceded Jeremiah and Ezekiel; letthe book of bIsaiah precedethe books of those other prophets. The Gemara answers: bSincethe book of bKings ends with the destructionof the Temple, bandthe book of bJeremiahdeals bentirely withprophecies of bthe destruction, andthe book of bEzekiel begins with the destructionof the Temple bbut ends with consolationand the rebuilding of the Temple, band Isaiahdeals bentirely with consolation,as most of his prophecies refer to the redemption, bwe juxtapose destruction to destruction and consolation to consolation.This accounts for the order: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah.,The ibaraitacontinues: bThe order of the Writingsis: bRuth and the book of Psalms, and Job and Proverbs; Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Lamentations; Daniel and the Scroll of Esther;and bEzra and Chronicles.The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who saysthat bJoblived bin the time of Moses, letthe book of bJob precedethe others. The Gemara answers: bWe do not begin with suffering,i.e., it is inappropriate to start the Writings with a book that deals so extensively with suffering. The Gemara asks: But the book of bRuth,with which the Writings opens, bis alsoabout bsuffering,since it describes the tragedies that befell the family of Elimelech. The Gemara answers: This is bsuffering which has a futureof hope and redemption. bAs Rabbi Yoḥa says: Why was she named Ruth,spelled ireish /i, ivav /i, itav /i? Because there bdescended from her David who sated,a word with the root ireish /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, with songs and praises. /b,The ibaraitanow considers the authors of the biblical books: bAnd who wrotethe books of the Bible? bMoses wrote his own book,i.e., the Torah, band the portion of Balaamin the Torah, bandthe book of bJob. Joshua wrote his own book and eight verses in the Torah,which describe the death of Moses. bSamuel wrote his own book,the book of bJudges, andthe book of bRuth. David wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten eldersof previous generations, assembling a collection that included compositions of others along with his own. He included psalms authored bby Adam the firstman, bby Melchizedekking of Salem, band by Abraham, and by Moses, and by Heman, and by Jeduthun, and by Asaph, /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
abraham DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 395
alexander the great Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 395
arithmology, seven Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 395
balaam DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
cosmos, indestructibility of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 262
david DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
didyma Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
dominus Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
drunkenness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
ecstasy Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
education Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254, 262
elijah, in the books of kings DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
emotions, good Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
epicurus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 262
etymology, hebrew Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
figures of speech, metaphor Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
god, as mother Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 184
grace Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
gutzwiller, k.j. Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
hadrian, emperor Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
hagar Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 395
hannah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
hosea DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
inebriation, sober Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
inebriation Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254, 262
intellect Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 262
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 395; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
isaiah DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
julian, emperor Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
keturah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 395
kingship Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
madness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 262
mainoles Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 262
metaphorical language, use of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
midian Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
miriam DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
moses, portrayal in early jewish sources DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
music Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
noah, drunken Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
noah, just Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
onomasticon Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
prophecy, and fulfillment DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
prophecy, as prediction DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
prophecy, genealogical model of DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
prophet, as designation DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
prophetic succession DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287
prophets Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 395
rachel Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
rebecca Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
rex Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
samuel DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 287; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393, 395
soul, eight-part Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393
symbolic interpretation, of wine' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 254
symbolic interpretation, of wine Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 262
trajan, emperor Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
triumpho Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
uinco Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 201
virtue, cardinal Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 393