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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9238
Philo Of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.109


nanOn which account the scripture adds, "This is the only covering of his nakedness;" for what can so becomingly overshadow and conceal the reproaches and disgraces of life, as speech? For ignorance is a disgrace akin to irrational nature, but education is the brother of speech, and an ornament properly belonging to man.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "35.18" "35.18" "35 18"\n1 1.16 1.16 1 16 \n2 1.17 1.17 1 17 \n3 1.18 1.18 1 18 \n4 35.16 35.16 35 16 \n5 35.17 35.17 35 17 \n6 35.18 35.18 35 18 \n7 35.19 35.19 35 19 \n8 37.15 37.15 37 15 \n9 9.20 9.20 9 20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 257 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

257. And the advice was this; not to afflict himself beyond all measure, as if he were stricken down with a novel and unprecedented calamity; nor, on the other hand, to give way to indifference, as if nothing had happened calculated to give him sorrow. But rather to choose the middle way in preference to either extreme; and to endeavour to grieve in a moderate degree; not being indigt at nature for having reclaimed what belonged to her as her due; and bearing what had befallen him with a mild and gentle spirit.
3. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 11, 6, 8-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. By means of this husbandry, all the trees of the passions and vices, which soot forth and grow up to a height, bringing forth pernicious fruits, are rooted up, and cut down, and cleared away, so that not even the smallest fragment of them is left, from which any new shoots of evil actions can subsequently spring up.
4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 26-27, 25 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. And each of these has a different appearance and a different nature. For instance, of the two citizen wives, one is a most healthy and well established and peaceful motion, whom from the circumstances the historians called Leah: and the other resembles a whetstone and is called Rachel, in the pursuit of whom the mind, which is fond of labour and fond of exercises, is much sharpened and excited; and the name, being interpreted, means the "sight of profanation;" not because she sees profanely, but, on the contrary, because she thinks the things which are seen and which are the objects of the external senses, not brilliant but common and profane in comparison of the pure and untainted nature of those things which are invisible and which are only discernible by the intellect.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

47. Now, the irrational impulses of the mind, I mean those faculties which are developed in a misuse of that reason which should direct the choice, the sons of Laban, "when they had departed three days' Journey," paid great regard to; being thus under a symbol cut off from virtue for the whole period of their life; for time is capable of being divided into three parts, consisting of the past, and the present, and the future. But these animals which are irrational in the second sense, and which are destitute not only of right reason but of all reason whatever, under which class the brute beasts are reckoned, the practiser of contemplation will think worthy of all his care, considering that their errors have proceeded, not so much from deliberate wickedness as form ignorance, which was devoid of a guide.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.72-1.73, 1.75, 1.79-1.80, 1.86, 1.88-1.89, 1.93-1.94, 1.102-1.103, 1.112, 1.114, 1.118-1.119, 2.40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.72. And he subsequently alleges a reason why he "met the place;" for, says he, "the sun was Set." Not meaning the sun which appears to us, but the most brilliant and radiant light of the invisible and Almighty God. When this light shines upon the mind, the inferior beams of words (that is of angels) set. And much more are all the places perceptible by the external senses overshadowed; but when he departs in a different direction, then they all rise and shine. 1.73. And do not wonder if, according to the rules of allegorical description, the sun is likened to the Father and Governor of the universe; for in reality nothing is like unto God; but those things which by the vain opinion of men are thought to be so, are only two things, one invisible and the other visible; the soul being the invisible thing, and the sun the visible one. 1.75. And it is easy otherwise by means of argument to perceive this, since God is the first light, "For the Lord is my light and my Saviour," is the language of the Psalms; and not only the light, but he is also the archetypal pattern of every other light, or rather he is more ancient and more sublime than even the archetypal model, though he is spoken of as the model; for the real model was his own most perfect word, the light, and he himself is like to no created thing. 1.79. And, using symbolical language, he calls the outward sense a second sun, inasmuch as it shows all the objects of which it is able to form a judgment to the intellect, concerning which he speaks thus, "The sun rose upon him when he passed by the appearance of God." For in real truth, when we are no longer able to endure to pass all our time with the most sacred appearances, and as it were with incorporeal images, but when we turn aside in another direction, and forsake them, we use another light, that, namely, in accordance with the external sense, which is real truth, is in no respect different from darkness 1.80. which, after it has arisen, arouses as if from sleep the senses of seeing, and of hearing, and also of taste, and of touch, and of smell, and sends to sleep the intellectual qualities of prudence, and justice, and knowledge, and wisdom, which were all awake. 1.86. For the word of God, when it reaches to our earthly constitution, assists and protects those who are akin to virtue, or whose inclinations lead them to virtue; so that it provides them with a complete refuge and salvation, but upon their enemies it sends irremediable overthrow and destruction. 1.88. In reference to which faculty of his it is that he drags those persons who are living dissolutely as regards their souls, and who are in a debauched and intemperate manner, cohabiting with the daughters of the mind the outward senses, as prostitutes and harlots, to the light of the sun, in order to display their true characters; 1.89. for the scripture says, "And the people abode in Shittim;" now the meaning of the name Shittim is, "the thorns of passion;" which sting and wound the soul. "And the people was polluted, and began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab," and those who are called daughters are the outward senses, for the name Moab is interpreted, "of a father;" and the scripture adds, "Take all the chiefs of the people, and make an example of them unto the Lord in the face of the sun, and the anger of the Lord shall be turned from Israel. 1.93. Is it not natural that those who fancy that the lawgiver displays such earnestness about a garment should, if they do not reproach him, at least make a suggestion, saying, "What are ye saying, my good men? Do ye affirm that the Creator and ruler of the world calls himself merciful with respect to so trivial a matter, as that of a garment not being restored to the borrower by the lender? 1.102. These things then, and other things of the same kind, may be urged in reply to those assertors of the literal sense of a passage; and who superciliously reject all other explanations. We will now, in accordance with the usual laws of allegorical speaking, say what is becoming with respect to these subjects. We say, therefore, that a garment here is spoken of symbolically, to signify speech; for clothes keep off the injuries which are wont to visit the body, from cold and heat, and they also conceal the unmentionable parts of nature, and moreover, a cloak is a fitting garment for the body. 1.103. In much the same manner, speech has been given to man by God, as the most excellent of gifts; for in the first place, it is a defensive weapon against those who would attack him with innovations. For as nature has fortified all other animals with their own appropriate and peculiar means of defence, by which they are able to repel those who attempt to injure them, so also has it bestowed upon man that greatest defence and most impregnable protection of speech, with which, as with a panoply, every one who is completely clothed, will have a domestic and most appropriate bodyguard; and employing it as a champion, will be able to ward off all the injuries which can be brought against him by his enemies. 1.112. for he does not display a half-complete power, but one which is perfect in every part. Inasmuch, as even if it were to fail in his endeavour, and in any conceptions which may have been formed, or efforts which may have been made, it still can have recourse to the third species of assistance, namely, consolation. For speech is, as it were, a medicine for the wounds of the soul, and a saving remedy for its passions, which, "even before the setting of the sun," the lawgiver says one must restore: that is to say, before the all-brilliant beams of the almighty and all-glorious God are obscured, which he, out of pity for our race, sends down from heaven upon the human mind. 1.114. Moreover, while God pours upon you the light of his beams, do you hasten in the light of day to restore his pledge to the Lord; for when the sun has set, then you, like the whole land of Egypt, will have an everlasting darkness which may be felt, and being stricken with blindness and ignorance, you will be deprived of all those things of which you thought that you had certain possession, by that sharp-sighted Israel, whose pledges you hold, having made one who was by nature exempt from slavery a slave to necessity. XIX. 1.118. But some persons--supposing that what is meant here by the figurative expression of the sun is the external sense and the mind, which are looked upon as the things which have the power of judging; and that which is meant by place is the divine word--understand the allegory in this manner: the practiser of virtue met with the divine word, after the mortal and human light had set; 1.119. for as long as the mind thinks that it attains to a firm comprehension of the objects of the intellect, and the outward sense conceives that it has a similar understanding of its appropriate objects, and that it dwells amid sublime objects, the divine word stands aloof at a distance; but when each of these comes to confess its own weakness, and sets in a manner while availing itself of concealment, then immediately the right reason of a soul well-practised in virtue comes in a welcome manner to their assistance, when they have begun to despair of their own strength, and await the aid which is invisibly coming to them from without. XX. 2.40. he who, in something of a piratical fashion, lays ambuscades against those who counterplot against him, takes up deceit, cajolery, trickery, sophistry, pretence, and hypocrisy, which being in their own nature blamable, are nevertheless praised when employed against the enemy; he who studies to be rich in the riches of nature takes up temperance and frugality; he who loves peace takes up obedience to law, a good reputation, freedom from pride, and equality. VI.
7. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.49, 1.105, 1.107, 2.99, 3.36, 3.131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.49. But the selfish and atheistical mind, thinking itself equal with God while it appears to be doing something, is found in reality to be rather suffering. And though God sows and plants good things in the soul, the mind which says, "I plant," is acting impiously. You shall not plant therefore where God is planting: but if, O mind, you fix plants in the soul, take care to plant only such trees as bear fruit, and not a grove; for in a grove there are trees of a character to bear cultivation, and also wild trees. But to plant vice, which is unproductive in the soul, along with cultivated and fertile virtue, is the act of a doublenatured and confused leprosy. 1.105. Accordingly God says, "In the day in which ye eat of it ye shall die the death." And yet, though they have eaten of it, they not only do not die, but they even beget children, and are the causes of life to other beings besides themselves. What, then, are we to say? Surely that death is of two kinds; the one being the death of the man, the other the peculiar death of the soul--now the death of the man is the separation of his soul from his body, but the death of the soul is the destruction of virtue and the admission of vice; 1.107. When, therefore, God says, "to die the death," you must remark that he is speaking of that death which is inflicted as punishment, and not of that which exists by the original ordice of nature. The natural death is that one by which the soul is separated from the body. But the one which is inflicted as a punishment, is when the soul dies according to the life of virtue, and lives only according to the life of vice.
8. Heraclitus, Allegoriae, 70



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
abraham, wise Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
allegory/allegoresis Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302, 305
arithmology, five Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
arithmology, ten Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
benjamin Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302, 305
caleb Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
demosthenes Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
desire Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
diogenes laertius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
ephraim Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
etymology, hebrew Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
euripides Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
evil Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
excellence, (moral) Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
faith and knowledge Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 230
foolishness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
free will Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
happiness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
heraclitus, allegorist Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
homer Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
human nature Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
ignorance Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
imagery, bearing fruit Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
imagery, sowing/planting Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
intellect, as charioteer Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
joseph Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302, 305; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
joshua Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
leah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
leprosy Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
lucretius, male and female Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
manasseh Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
metaphorical language, use of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
mosaic law, for ordinary people Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
name Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 230
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302, 305
names, proper Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
odysseus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
passions, freedom of/impassibility Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
passions, struggle against Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
passions, trees of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
physis, as nature of things and persons Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 70
plato, phaedrus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
plato Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
pleasure Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
progress, moral Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
rachel Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302, 305
rebirth Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 230
reinsman Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
reuben Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
secret Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 230
sense-perception Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
simeon Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 302
soul, death of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
soul, rational and irrational Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
soul Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
stoa/stoic/stoicism, apatheia Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
time Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305
vices' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 170
vices Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 305