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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9233
Philo Of Alexandria, On Curses, 29-48


nanIn this passage, therefore, he commands another being to stand with him: but in another place he says, "I will go down with thee to Egypt, and I will conduct thee to the End." He does not say, Thou shalt go down with me. Why not? Because calmness and stability are the especial attributes of God; but a liability to change one's place, and every kind of motion which has a tendency to change the place, is incident to a created being. When, therefore, he invites the man to his own peculiar good, he says, "Stand thou with me:" not "I will stand with thee." For "will stand," cannot be said of God, who always stands still.


nanBut when he comes to that which is the peculiar attribute of the creature, he says, with the most perfect correctness, "I will go down with you;" for change of place is adapted to you: so that no one shall go down with me, for in me there is no changing; but whatever is consistent with me, that is to say, with rest, shall stand. And with those who go down in such a manner as to change their place (for change of place is akin to and closely connected with them), I will go down also, not indeed changing my situation as to its actual place, inasmuch as I fill every place with myself.


nanAnd this, too, I do through the pity which exists in rational nature, in order that it may be raised from the hell of the passions to the heavenly region of virtue; I being the guide, who also have made the road which leads to heaven, so that it may be a plain road for suppliant souls, and have shown it to them all, in order that they may not foolishly wander out of the way. X.


nanHaving, therefore, now pointed out each variety, the tranquillity of the good man, and the state of agitation in which the bad man lives, let us now consider what follows the statement which we have hitherto been examining. For Moses says that Nod, which name, being interpreted, means the tumult into which the soul has migrated, is opposite to Eden. Now Eden is a symbolical expression for correct and divine reason, on which account its interpretation is luxury; because divine reason is, above all other things, delighted with and exults among unmingled and pure, and also well filled up and complete pleasure, God, the giver of all good things, raising his virgin and undying graces upon it. But by its own intrinsic nature, the bad is always striving with the good, the unjust with the just, the wise with the foolish, and all the different species of virtue with all the different species of vice. Something like this is the meaning of the statement that Nod is opposite to Eden. XI.


nanAfter he had said this he proceeds to say, "And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bare Enoch; and he built a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch." Is it not here reasonable to raise the question, why Cain knew his wife? for there had been no birth of any one other woman since that of Eve who was formed out of the side of the man, until the woman who is here mentioned;


nanand if any one says that Cain took his sister to wife, putting the impiety of such a connection out of the question, he will speak falsely; for Moses represents the daughters of Adam as born late. What then are we to say? As I imagine, Moses here calls his wife opinion of impious reason which it forms about things, as crowds of those who have studied philosophy do: some of them introducing the same opinions into human life, and others introducing such as are wholly at variance with one another.


nanWhat then is the position of the impious man? Why, that the human mind is the measure of all things; which also they say that one of the ancient philosophers, Protagoras, used to employ, being a descendant of the folly of Cain. And from thence I conjecture that his wife, being known to him, brought forth Enoch; and the name Enoch being interpreted means, thy grace.


nanFor if man is the measure of all things, then, also, all things are a grace and a free gift of the mind; so that we refer to the eye the grace of sight, to the ears that of hearing, and to each of the other external senses their appropriate object, and also to the speech and utterance do we attribute the power of speaking. And if we judge in this manner of these things, so also do we with respect to intelligence, in which ten thousand things are comprised, such as thoughts, perceptions, designs, meditations, conceptions, sciences, arts, dispositions, and a number of other faculties almost incalculable.


nanWhat is it then that the gravest philosophers, who have talked in the most grandiloquent manner about divine law and the honour due to God, have determined both to say and to allow to be said, If ye have in ye a mind which is equal to God, which regulating by its own power all the good and bad things which exist among men, occasionally mingles both in certain persons, and sometimes distributes both good and bad to some in an unalloyed state;


nanand if any one accuses you of impiety, make your defence with a good courage, saying that you have been brought up very admirably by your guide and teacher, Cain, who recommended you to honour the powers that are nearest in preference to that cause which was afar off, to whom you ought to attend for many other reasons, and most especially because he showed the power of his doctrine by very evident works, having conquered Abel the expounder of the opposite doctrine, and having removed and destroyed his doctrine as well as himself.


nanBut in my opinion and in that of my friends, death in the company of the pious would be preferable to life with the impious; for those who die in the company of the pious everlasting life will receive, but everlasting death will be the portion of those who live in the other way. XII.


nanBut as after Cain had begotten Enoch, one of the posterity of Seth is also subsequently called Enoch, it may be well to consider, whether the two namesakes were men of different or of similar dispositions and characters. And at the same time that we examine this question let us also investigate the differences between other persons bearing the same name. For as Enoch was, so also Methusaleh and Lamech were both descendants of Cain, and they were no less the descendants of Seth also.


nanWe must therefore be aware that each of the aforesaid names, being interpreted, has a double signification; for Enoch, being interpreted, means, as I have already said, "thy grace," and Methusaleh means, the sending forth of death. Lamech, again means, humiliation. Now the expression, "Thy grace," is by some persons referred to the mind that is in us; and by more learned and sounder interpreters it is referred to the mind of other persons.


nanThey therefore who say that all thinking, and feeling, and speaking, are the free gifts of their own soul, utter an impious and ungodly opinion, and deserve to be classed among the race of Cain, who, though he was not able to master himself, yet dared to assert that he had absolute possession of all other things; but as for those persons who do not claim all the things in creation as their own, but who ascribe them to the divine grace, being men really noble and sprung out of those who were rich long ago, but of those who love virtue and piety, they may be classed under Seth as the author of their race.


nanThe race of these men is difficult to trace, since they show a life of plotting, and cunning, and wickedness, and dissoluteness, full of passion and wickednesses, as such a life must be. For all those whom God, since they pleased him well, has caused to quit their original abode, and has transformed from the race of perishable beings to that of immortals, are no longer found among the common multitude. XIII.


nanHaving, therefore, thus distinguished the indications intended to be afforded by the name of Enoch, let us now proceed in regular order to the name of Methuselah; and this name is interpreted, a sending forth of death. Now there are two meanings contained in this word; one, that according to which death is sent to any one, and the other, that according to which it is sent away from any one. He, therefore, to whom it is sent, immediately dies, but he, from whom it is sent, lives and survives.


nanAccordingly, he who receives death is akin to Cain, who is dying as to the life in accordance with virtue; but he from whom death is sent away and kept at a distance, is most nearly related to Seth, for the good man enjoys real life.


nanAnd again, the name Lamech, which means humiliation, is a name of ambiguous meaning; for we are humiliated either when the vigour of our soul is relaxed, according to the diseases and infirmities which arise from the irrational passions, or in respect of our love for virtue, when we seek to restrain ourselves from swelling selfopinions.


nanNow the former kind of humiliation arises out of weakness, being a species of that multiform disease of many changes, leprosy. "For when his appearance seems more Humble," being broken as to its level and fresh face, than the lawgiver says that that humble disease leprosy exists.


nanBut the second kind of humiliation arises from the strength of perseverance, which is followed by propitiation, according to the perfect number of the decade; for the people are enjoined to humble their souls on the tenth day of the month, and this means to put away all high boasting, the putting away of which works the rejection of all offences, both voluntary and involuntary. Accordingly, the Lamech who is humbled in this sense, is the descendant of Seth, and the father of the just Noah; but he who is humbled in the former manner is the descendant of Cain. XIV.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 "32.4" "32.4" "32 4" (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14-3.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 3.15. וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃ 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 3.15. And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.17" "17.17" "17 17"\n1 12.7 12.7 12 7 \n2 15.4 15.4 15 4 \n3 15.5 15.5 15 5 \n4 15.6 15.6 15 6 \n5 18.10 18.10 18 10 \n6 18.14 18.14 18 14 \n7 19.20 19.20 19 20 \n8 19.24 19.24 19 24 \n9 22.16 22.16 22 16 \n10 24.1 24.1 24 1 \n11 26.5 26.5 26 5 \n12 32.25 32.25 32 25 \n13 32.26 32.26 32 26 \n14 32.27 32.27 32 27 \n15 32.28 32.28 32 28 \n16 32.29 32.29 32 29 \n17 32.30 32.30 32 30 \n18 32.31 32.31 32 31 \n19 32.32 32.32 32 32 \n20 32.33 32.33 32 33 \n21 5.24 5.24 5 24 \n22 6.9 6.9 6 9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Plato, Laws, 10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 263-274, 262 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 120-121, 119 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

119. Therefore the Olympian contest is the only one that justly deserves to be called sacred; meaning by this, not that which the inhabitants of Elis celebrate, but that which is instituted for the acquisition of the divine, and Olympian, and genuine virtues. Now, as competitors in this contest, all those have their names inscribed who are very weak in their bodies, but very vigorous in their souls; and then, having stripped off their clothes, and smeared themselves in the dust, they do all those actions which belong to skill and to power, omitting nothing which may conduce to their gaining the victory.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Do you not see that our bodies do not use solid and costly food before they have first, in their age of infancy, used such as had no variety, and consisted merely of milk? And, in the same way, think also that infantine food is prepared for the soul, namely the encyclical sciences, and the contemplations which are directed to each of them; but that the more perfect and becoming food, namely the virtues, is prepared for those who are really full-grown men. V.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 150-153, 149 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

149. Nor does he, who is sent forth to search for that virtue which is invincible and embittered against the ridiculous pursuits of men, by name Tamar, find her. And this failure of his is strictly in accordance with nature; for we read in the scripture, "And Judah sent a kid in the hands of his shepherd, the Adullamite, to receive back his pledge from the woman, and he found her not: and he asked the men of the place, Where is the harlot who was in Ae by the wayside? and they said, There is no harlot in this place. And he returned back to Judah, and said unto him, I have not found her, and the men of the place say that there is no harlot there. And Judah said, Let her keep the things, only let me not be made a laughing-stock, I because I have sent the kid, and you because you have not found Her." Oh, the admirable trial! oh, the temptation becoming sacred things!
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. for being kept in a state of suspense and eagerness by good hope, and thinking that even what was not present would beyond all question be present immediately, on account of its most certain faith in him who had promised, it found a reward, the perfect good; for in another passage it is said that Abraham believed in God. And in the same way, God, when showing Moses all the land, says that, "I have show it to thy eyes, but thou shalt not enter Therein.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 12, 14, 180, 184-185, 189-190, 11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. It was, therefore, quite consistent with reason that no proper name could with propriety be assigned to him who is in truth the living God. Do you not see that to the prophet who is really desirous of making an honest inquiry after the truth, and who asks what answer he is to give to those who question him as to the name of him who has sent him, he says, "I am that I Am," which is equivalent to saying, "It is my nature to be, not to be described by name:
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. But the great Moses, thinking that a thing which has not been uncreated is as alien as possible from that which is visible before our eyes (for everything which is the subject of our senses exists in birth and in changes, and is not always in the same condition), has attributed eternity to that which is invisible and discerned only by our intellect as a kinsman and a brother, while of that which is the object of our external senses he had predicated generation as an appropriate description. Since, then, this world is visible and the object of our external senses, it follows of necessity that it must have been created; on which account it was not without a wise purpose that he recorded its creation, giving a very venerable account of God. III.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 10-16, 165, 168, 17-28, 30-39, 4, 40-48, 5, 51, 57-58, 6, 61-62, 65, 7, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And Cain went out from before the face of God, and dwelt in the land of Nod, opposite to Eden." Now we may raise the question whether we are to take the expressions which occur in the books that have been handed down to us by Moses and to interpret them in a somewhat metaphorical sense, while the ideas which readily present themselves as derived from the names are very deficient in truth.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 17, 16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. Moses moreover represents two persons as leaders of these two companies. The leader of the noble and good company is the self-taught and self-instructed Isaac; for he records that he was weaned, not choosing to avail himself at all of tender, and milk-like, and childish, and infantine food, but only of such as was vigorous and perfect, inasmuch as he was formed by nature, from his very infancy, for acts of virtue, and was always in the prime and vigour of youth and energy. But the leader of the company, which yields and which is inclined to softer measures, is Joseph;
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.7, 1.13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. The fourth, and most important, is that which relates to the provision thus made for prolificness; for it is said that the seminal fluid proceeds in its path easily, neither being at all scattered, nor flowing on its passage into what may be called the bags of the prepuce. On which account those nations which practise circumcision are the most prolific and the most populous.II. 1.13. Some persons have conceived that the sun, and the moon, and the other stars are independent gods, to whom they have attributed the causes of all things that exist. But Moses was well aware that the world was created, and was like a very large city, having rulers and subjects in it; the rulers being all the bodies which are in heaven, such as planets and fixed stars;
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 213-219, 212 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

212. The most ancient person of the Jewish nation was a Chaldaean by birth, born of a father who was very skilful in astronomy, and famous among those men who pass their lives in the study of mathematics, who look upon the stars as gods, and worship the whole heaven and the whole world; thinking, that from them do all good and all evil proceed, to every individual among men; as they do not conceive that there is any cause whatever, except such as are included among the objects of the outward senses.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.75-1.76, 1.162, 2.47-2.65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.75. And God said, "At first say unto them, I am that I am, that when they have learnt that there is a difference between him that is and him that is not, they may be further taught that there is no name whatever that can properly be assigned to me, who am the only being to whom existence belongs. 1.76. And if, inasmuch as they are weak in their natural abilities, they shall inquire further about my appellation, tell them not only this one fact that I am God, but also that I am the God of those men who have derived their names from virtue, that I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, one of whom is the rule of that wisdom which is derived from teaching, another of natural wisdom, and the third of that which is derived from practice. And if they are still distrustful they shall be taught by these tokens, and then they shall change their dispositions, seeing such signs as no man has hitherto either seen or heard. 1.162. but, perhaps, since Moses was also destined to be the lawgiver of his nation, he was himself long previously, through the providence of God, a living and reasonable law, since that providence appointed him to the lawgiver, when as yet he knew nothing of his appointment. 2.47. Again, the historical part may be subdivided into the account of the creation of the world, and the genealogical part. And the genealogical part, or the history of the different families, may be divided into the accounts of the punishment of the wicked, and of the honours bestowed on the just; we must also explain on what account it was that he began his history of the giving of the law with these particulars, and placed the commandments and prohibitions in the second order; 2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words. 2.49. Now of all other lawgivers, some the moment that they have promulgated positive commands as to what it is right to do and what it is right not to do, proceed to appoint punishments for those who transgress those laws; but others, who appear to have proceeded on a better plan, have not begun in this manner, but, having first of all built and established their city in accordance with reason, have then adapted to this city which they have built, that constitution which they have considered the best adapted and most akin to it, and have confirmed this constitution by the giving of laws. 2.50. But he, thinking the first of the two courses above mentioned to be tyrannical and despotic, as indeed it is, namely, that of laying positive commands on persons as if they were not free men but slaves, without offering them any alleviation; and that the second course was better indeed, but was not entirely to be commended, must appear to all judges to be superior in each of the above considerations. 2.51. For both in his commandments and also in his prohibitions he suggests and recommends rather than commands, endeavouring with many prefaces and perorations to suggest the greater part of the precepts that he desires to enforce, desiring rather to allure men to virtue than to drive them to it, and looking upon the foundation and beginning of a city made with hands, which he has made the commencement of his work a commencement beneath the dignity of his laws, looking rather with the most accurate eye of his mind at the importance and beauty of his whole legislative system, and thinking it too excellent and too divine to be limited as it were by any circle of things on earth; and therefore he has related the creation of that great metropolis, the world, thinking his laws the most fruitful image and likeness of the constitution of the whole world. 2.52. At all events if any one were inclined to examine with accuracy the powers of each individual and particular law, he will find them all aiming at the harmony of the universe, and corresponding to the law of eternal nature: 2.53. on which account those men who have had unbounded prosperity bestowed upon them, and all things tending to the production of health of body, and riches, and glory, and all other external parts of good fortune, but who have rejected virtue, and have chosen crafty wickedness, and all others kinds of vice, not through compulsion, but of their own spontaneous free will, looking upon that which is the greatest of all evils as the greatest possible advantage, he looks upon as enemies not of mankind only, but of the entire heaven and world, and says that they are awaiting, not any ordinary punishments, but new and extraordinary ones, which that constant assessor of God, justice, who detests wickedness, invents and inflicts terribly upon them, turning against them the most powerful elements of the universe, water and fire, so that at appointed times some are destroyed by deluges, others are burnt with fire, and perish in that manner. 2.54. The seas were raised up, and the rivers both such as flow everlastingly, and the winter torrents were swollen and washed away, and carried off all the cities in the plain; and those in the mountain country were destroyed by incessant and irresistible impetuosity of rain, ceasing neither by day nor by night 2.55. and when at a subsequent period the race of mankind had again increased from those who had been spared, and had become very numerous, since the succeeding generations did not take the calamities which had befallen their ancestors as a lesson to teach themselves wisdom and moderation, but turned to acts of intemperance and became studiers of evil practices, God determined to destroy them with fire. 2.56. Therefore on this occasion, as the holy scriptures tell us, thunderbolts fell from heaven, and burnt up those wicked men and their cities; and even to this day there are seen in Syria monuments of the unprecedented destruction that fell upon them, in the ruins, and ashes, and sulphur, and smoke, and dusky flame which still is sent up from the ground as of a fire smouldering beneath; 2.57. and in this way it came to pass that those wicked men were punished with the aforesaid chastisements, while those who were eminent for virtue and piety were well off, receiving rewards worthy of their virtue. 2.58. But when the whole of that district was thus burnt, inhabitants and all, by the impetuous rush of the heavenly fire, one single man in the country, a sojourner, was preserved by the providence of God because he had never shared in the transgressions of the natives, though sojourners in general were in the habit of adopting the customs of the foreign nations, among which they might be settled, for the sake of their own safety, since, if they despised them, they might be in danger from the inhabitants of the land. And yet this man had not attained to any perfection of wisdom, so as to be thought worthy of such an honour by reason of the perfect excellence of his nature; but he was spared only because he did not join the multitude who were inclined to luxury and effeminacy, and who pursued every kind of pleasure and indulged every kind of appetite, gratifying them abundantly, and inflaming them as one might inflame fire by heaping upon it plenty of rough fuel. 2.59. But in the great deluge I may almost say that the whole of the human race was destroyed, while the history tells us that the house of Noah alone was preserved free from all evil, inasmuch as the father and governor of the house was a man who had never committed any intentional or voluntary wickedness. And it is worth while to relate the manner of his preservation as the sacred scriptures deliver it to us, both on account of the extraordinary character of it, and also that it may lead to an improvement in our own dispositions and lives. 2.60. For he, being considered a fit man, not only to be exempted from the common calamity which was to overwhelm the world, but also to be himself the beginning of a second generation of men, in obedience to the divine commands which were conveyed to him by the word of God, built a most enormous fabric of wood, three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in width, and thirty in height, and having prepared a number of connected chambers within it, both on the ground floor and in the upper story, the whole building consisting of three, and in some parts of four stories, and having prepared food, brought into it some of every description of animals, beasts and also birds, both male and female, in order to preserve a means of propagating the different species in the times that should come hereafter; 2.61. for he knew that the nature of God was merciful, and that even if the subordinate species were destroyed, still there would be a germ in the entire genus which should be safe from destruction, for the sake of preserving a similitude to those animals which had hitherto existed, and of preventing anything that had been deliberately called into existence from being utterly destroyed. 2.62. and after they had all entered into the ark, if any one had beheld the entire collection, he would not have been wrong if he had said that it was a representation of the whole earth, containing, as it did, every kind of animal, of which the whole earth had previously produced innumerable species, and will hereafter produce such again. 2.63. And what was expected happened at no long period after; for the evil abated, and the destruction caused by the deluge was diminished every day, the rain being checked, and the water which had been spread over the whole earth, being partly dried up by the flame of the sun, and partly returning into the chasms and rivers, and other channels and receptacles in the earth; for, as if God had issued a command to that effect, every nature received back, as a necessary repayment of a loan, what it had lent, that is, every sea, and fountain, and river, received back their waters; and every stream returned into its appropriate channel. 2.64. But after the purification, in this way, of all the things beneath the moon, the earth being thus washed and appearing new again, and such as it appeared to be when it was at first created, along with the entire universe, Noah came forth out of his wooden edifice, himself and his wife, and his sons and their wives, and with his family there came forth likewise, in one company, all the races of animals which had gone in with them, in order to the generation and propagation of similar creatures in future. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb
20. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.83-3.87, 3.203-3.208, 3.217-3.219 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 91-94, 90 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

90. Therefore it is a necessary addition which is subjoined, "Abraham believed in God," to the praise of him who did thus believe. And yet, perhaps, some one may say, "Do you judge this worthy of praise? who would not give his attention to God when saying or promising anything, even if he were the most wicked and impious of all men?
22. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 124-126, 130-137, 123 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

123. But by this is meant wickedness, which is established in the souls of foolish men; the remedy for which (as one seeks for remedies for a severe disease) is found to be the just man, who is in possession of the panacea, justice. When, therefore, he has repelled these evils he is filled with joy, as also is Sarah; for she says, "The Lord hath caused me laughter;" and she adds further, "so that whosoever hears it shall rejoice with Me.
23. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. For the appropriate progeny of God are the perfect virtues, but that offspring which is akin to the wicked, is unregulated wickedness. But learn thou, if thou wilt, O my mind, not to bear children to thyself, after the example of that perfect man Abraham, who offered up to God "The beloved and only legitimate offspring of his soul,"2 the most conspicuous image of self-taught wisdom, by name Isaac; and who gave him up with all cheerfulness to be a necessary and fitting offering to God. "Having bound,"3 as the scripture says, this new kind of victim, either because he, having once tasted of the divine inspiration, did not condescend any longer to tread on any mortal truth, or because he saw that the creature was unstable and moveable, while he recognised the unhesitating firmness existing in the living God, on whom he is said to have believed.4 II.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.194, 14.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.194. for these reasons I will that Hyrcanus, the son of Alexander, and his children, be ethnarchs of the Jews, and have the high priesthood of the Jews for ever, according to the customs of their forefathers, and that he and his sons be our confederates; and that besides this, everyone of them be reckoned among our particular friends. 14.216. Accordingly, when I forbid other Bacchanal rioters, I permit these Jews to gather themselves together, according to the customs and laws of their forefathers, and to persist therein. It will be therefore good for you, that if you have made any decree against these our friends and confederates, to abrogate the same, by reason of their virtue and kind disposition towards us.”
25. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.193 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.193. 24. There ought also to be but one temple for one God; for likeness is the constant foundation of agreement. This temple ought to be common to all men, because he is the common God of all men. His priests are to be continually about his worship, over whom he that is the first by his birth is to be their ruler perpetually.
26. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 49.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

49.9. חָלִלָה לְּךָ (בראשית יח, כה), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן חָלִלָה הוּא לְךָ בַּרְיָה הוּא לְךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא חָלִלָה חָלִלָה שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים, חִלּוּל שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם יֵשׁ בַּדָּבָר. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא מֵעֲשׂת דָּבָר אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא מֵעֲשׂת כַּדָּבָר, לֹא הִיא וְלֹא דִּכְוָתָהּ, וְלֹא דִּפְחוּתָה מִנָּהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם אָמְרוּ דָּבָר אֶחָד, אַבְרָהָם וְאִיּוֹב, אַבְרָהָם אָמַר חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם רָשָׁע. אִיּוֹב אָמַר (איוב ט, כב): אַחַת הִיא עַל כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי תָּם וְרָשָׁע הוּא מְכַלֶּה, אַבְרָהָם נָטַל עָלֶיהָ שָׂכָר, אִיּוֹב נֶעֱנַשׁ עָלֶיהָ. אַבְרָהָם אָמַר בִּשּׁוּלָה, אִיּוֹב אָמַר פַּגָה, אַחַת הִיא עַל כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי תָּם וְרָשָׁע הוּא מְכַלֶּה. רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר עִרְבּוּבֵי שְׁאֵלוֹת יֵשׁ כָּאן, אַבְרָהָם אָמַר: חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם רָשָׁע, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר: וְהָיָה כַּצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע, יִתְלֶה לָרְשָׁעִים בִּשְׁבִיל צַדִּיקִים, הַלְּוַאי צַדִּיקִים דְּהָא אֵינָם אֶלָּא צַדִּיקִים נִבְלֵי, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כָּל צַדִּיקִים שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בִּסְדוֹם צַדִּיקִם כְּתִיב, הִיא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (יהושע ט, יא): וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלֵינוּ זְקֵינֵינוּ וְכָל ישְׁבֵי אַרְצֵנוּ, זְקָנֵנוּ כְּתִיב, זִקְנֵי אַשְׁמָה, הַיְנוּ סָבָא דְּבַהֲתָא. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר אַבְרָהָם צָרֵף מַעֲשַׂי וְיַעֲלוּ לְמִנְיַן חֲמִשִּׁים. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן לֹא אַתְּ הוּא צַדִּיקוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, צָרֵף עַצְמְךָ עִמָּהֶם וְיַעֲלוּ לְמִנְיַן חֲמִשִּׁים. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן כָּךְ אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבְרָהָם, מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם תּוֹלִין לוֹ אַנְקְלִיטוֹן מִדּוּכוֹס לְאִפַּרְכּוֹס, מֵאִפַּרְכּוֹס לְאִסְטְרָלִיטוֹס, וְאַתְּ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֵין לְךָ מִי שֶׁיִּתְלֶה לְךָ אַנְקְלִיטוֹן, לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן כְּשֶׁבִּקַּשְׁתָּ לָדוּן אֶת עוֹלָמְךָ מָסַרְתָּ אוֹתוֹ בְּיַד שְׁנַיִם, רוֹמוֹס וְרוֹמִילוֹס, שֶׁאִם בִּקֵּשׁ אֶחָד מֵהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר חֲבֵרוֹ מְעַכֵּב עַל יָדוֹ, וְאַתְּ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֵין לְךָ מִי שֶׁיְעַכֵּב עַל יָדְךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט. אָמַר רַב אַדָא נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ שֶׁאֵין אַתָּה מֵבִיא מַבּוּל לָעוֹלָם, מָה אַתְּ מַעֲרִים עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה, מַבּוּל שֶׁל מַיִם אֵין אַתָּה מֵבִיא, מַבּוּל שֶׁל אֵשׁ אַתְּ מֵבִיא, אִם כֵּן לֹא יָצָאתָ יְדֵי שְׁבוּעָה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי (בראשית יח, כה): הֲשׁפֵט כָּל הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט, אִם עוֹלָם אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ אֵין דִּין, וְאִם דִּין אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ לֵית עוֹלָם, אַתְּ תָּפֵיס חַבְלָא בִּתְרֵין רָאשִׁין, בָּעֵי עָלְמָא וּבָעֵי דִינָא, אִם לֵית אַתְּ מְוַתֵּר צִבְחַר, לֵית עָלְמָא יָכֵיל קָאֵים. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַבְרָהָם (תהלים מה, ח): אָהַבְתָּ צֶדֶק וַתִּשְׂנָא רֶשַׁע, אָהַבְתָּ לְצַדֵּק אֶת בְּרִיּוֹתַי, וַתִּשְׂנָא רֶשַׁע, מֵאַנְתָּ לְחַיְיבָן, (תהלים מה, ח): עַל כֵּן מְשָׁחֲךָ אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן מֵחֲבֵרֶיךָ, מַהוּ מֵחֲבֵרֶיךָ, מִנֹּחַ וְעַד אֶצְלְךָ עֲשָׂרָה דוֹרוֹת וּמִכֻּלָּם לֹא דִּבַּרְתִּי עִם אֶחָד מֵהֶם אֶלָּא עִמָּךְ (בראשית יב, א): וַיּאֹמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם לֶךְ לְךָ.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, as a law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
abraham, as an elder Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
abraham, encomia on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
abraham, faith of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7, 408
abraham, praise of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
abraham Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 416
abram/abraham, faith and doubt of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 456, 463
adam Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 416
ancestral Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 224
apion Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 224
apostates Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
archetypes Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
athletics imagery Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191, 201
calendar Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
childishness Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
circumcision, citizenship, language of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 224
circumcision Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
copies Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
creation, in the exposition Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
creation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
cult, temple Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
de abrahamo, greek title of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
de abrahamo, prologue of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
diaspora, jewish Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 224
diaspora Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
doubt Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 456, 463
edom Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
education Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 456
egypt, jews in Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
elder, abraham as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
encomia, on abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
encyclical studies, hagar representing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
enoch Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
eve, excellence, patriarchs as types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
exiles, ingathering Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
exposition of the law, categories within Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
exposition of the law, organization of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
exposition of the law, programmatic and transitional statements in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
exposition of the law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7, 11
faith Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 456, 463
five, the number, sodoms destruction parallel to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
food metaphors Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
games imagery Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
genealogical section of the pentateuch Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
genealogy of virtues, genesis, title of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
geography Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 224
god, oath of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
god, trust in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
grief Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 416
hagar, as encyclical studies Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
homer Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 456
hope Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 463
horus, identity Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
isaac, nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
isaac Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7, 11; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 416
jacob, as an athlete Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
jacob, at the jabbok ford Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191, 201
jacob, practice and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
jacob Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7, 11, 149; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 416
jerusalem, pilgrimage to Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
laughter Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 463
law of nature, mosaic laws consonant with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
law of nature Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
laws, biblical figures as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7, 11, 149
laws, types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
laws, written Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
learning and teaching, abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
marriage Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
messianic age Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
mixing Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
mosaic law, law of nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
mosaic law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11, 149
moses, as a living law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
moses, genesis as title ascribed to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 456, 463
names of god, masculine participle Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
names of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
nature, isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
noah, the flood and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 416
nobility Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 416
oath of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
pentateuch, parts of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
perception of god, by abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 456
philo of alexandria Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
pilgrimages Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
practice, jacob and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
pretentiousness Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 416
prologue of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
promises, divine Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 463
proselytes Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
race, jews as Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 224
reward and punishment Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7, 11
rewards of abraham, faith as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
rewards of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
sabbath Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 117
sacrifice' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 200
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 463
sight, god as object of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
sodom, flood parallel to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
temple Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 224
triads, as laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
triads, higher vs. lower Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191, 201
triads, second Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191, 201
triads Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
virtue, law and, interconnectedness of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
virtue Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11, 191; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 463
written laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11, 149
βίος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11
εἰκών Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 7
νόμος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 11, 149
σύγκρισις Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
ψυχή Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 191
ἔπαινος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 408
ἱεροὶ νόμοι Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 149
ὁ ὤν Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201