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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Philo Of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.140
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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.14. וְאֹתִי צִוָּה יְהוָה בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים לַעֲשֹׂתְכֶם אֹתָם בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 4.14. And the LORD commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and ordices, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.3. וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה מִן־הָהָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמַר לְבֵית יַעֲקֹב וְתַגֵּיד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.3. And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:"
3. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.6, 7.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.6. הוּא עֶזְרָא עָלָה מִבָּבֶל וְהוּא־סֹפֵר מָהִיר בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּיַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו כֹּל בַּקָּשָׁתוֹ׃ 7.6. this Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the Law of Moses, which the LORD, the God of Israel, had given; and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him." 7.10. For Ezra had set his heart to seek the law of the LORD, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and ordices."
4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 217-223, 256-257, 26, 60, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. Since this is not the actual truth, but in order that one may when speaking keep as close to the truth as possible, the one in the middle is the Father of the universe, who in the sacred scriptures is called by his proper name, I am that I am; and the beings on each side are those most ancient powers which are always close to the living God, one of which is called his creative power, and the other his royal power. And the creative power is God, for it is by this that he made and arranged the universe; and the royal power is the Lord, for it is fitting that the Creator should lord it over and govern the creature.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 123 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

123. for it is always good to be beforehand in doing what is good, but to be slack in doing what is disgraceful: and, on the other hand, it is good to come close to the one, but to stand aloof from and to be as far as possible removed from the other. And that man is free from all disorder, to whom it happens to be removed at a distance from the errors of passion. Accordingly, Moses says that he is "awaiting the salvation which comes from God," in order that, as far as he is removed from committing iniquity, so far he may also advance in well-doing. XXVIII.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 79 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

79. and, indeed, in the same manner as the encyclical branches of education contribute to the proper comprehension of philosophy, so also does philosophy aid in the acquisition of wisdom; for philosophy is an attentive study of wisdom, and wisdom is the knowledge of all divine and human things, and of the respective causes of them. Therefore, just as encyclical accomplishments are the handmaidens of philosophy, so also is philosophy the handmaiden of wisdom;
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 150, 81, 98, 132 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 29-31, 82, 28 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. It is worth while, however, after having thus explained the literal account given to us of these events, to proceed to explain also the figurative meaning concealed under that account; for we say that nearly all, or that at all events, the greater part of the history of the giving of the law is full of allegories; now the disposition which we have at present under consideration, is called by the Hebrews Joseph; but the name being interpreted in the Greek language means, "the addition of the Lord," a name most felicitously given, and most appropriate to the account given of the person so called; for the democratic constitution in vogue among states is an addition of nature which has sovereign authority over everything;
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 150, 155, 53, 67, 124 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

124. Let us therefore pray that the mind may be in the soul like a pillar in a house, and, in like manner, that the just man may be firmly established in the human race for the relief of all diseases; for while he is in vigorous health, one must not abandon all hope of complete safety, as through the medium of him, I imagine God the Saviour extending his all-healing medicine, that is to say, his propitious and merciful power to his suppliants and worshippers, bids them employ it for the salvation of those who are sick; spreading it like a salve over the wounds of the soul, which folly, and injustice, and all the other multitude of vices, being sharpened up, have grievously inflicted upon it.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 76 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

76. This is the lesson which we have been taught concerning the man who in word indeed had his name changed, but who in reality changed his nature from the consideration of natural to that of moral philosophy, and who abandoned the contemplation of the world itself for the knowledge of the Being who created the world; by which knowledge he acquired piety, the most excellent of all possessions. XI.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 3, 77, 144 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

144. And who could these have been but rational divine natures, some of them incorporeal and perceptible only by intellect, and others not destitute of bodily substance, such in fact as the stars? And he who associated with and lived among them was naturally living in a state of unmixed happiness. And being akin and nearly related to the ruler of all, inasmuch as a great deal of the divine spirit had flowed into him, he was eager both to say and to do everything which might please his father and his king, following him step by step in the paths which the virtues prepare and make plain, as those in which those souls alone are permitted to proceed who consider the attaining a likeness to God who made them as the proper end of their existence. LI.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 47, 49, 46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

46. And again, the name Lamech, which means humiliation, is a name of ambiguous meaning; for we are humiliated either when the vigour of our soul is relaxed, according to the diseases and infirmities which arise from the irrational passions, or in respect of our love for virtue, when we seek to restrain ourselves from swelling selfopinions.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 145 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

145. On this account it is, that God always judiciously limits and brings out with wise moderation his first benefits, stopping them before those who partake of them become wanton through satiety; and then he bestows others in their stead; and again a third class of advantages instead of the second set, and so on, continually substituting new blessings for those of older date, at one time giving such as are different from those which went before, and at another time such as are almost identical with them; for the creature is never wholly destitute of the blessings bestowed by God, since if he were he would be utterly destroyed; but he is unable to endure an unlimited and measureless abundance of them. On which account, as he is desirous that we should derive advantage from the benefits which he bestows upon us, he weighs out what he gives so as to proportion it to the strength of those who receive it. XLIV.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 32, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. These then, to speak with strict propriety are the prices to be paid for the preserving and ransoming of the soul which is desirous of freedom. And may we not say that in this way a very necessary doctrine is brought forward? Namely that every wise man is a ransom for a worthless one, who would not be able to last for even a short time, if the wise man by the exertion of mercy and prudence did not take thought for his lasting; as a physician opposing himself to the infirmities of an invalid, and either rendering them slighter, or altogether removing them unless the disease comes on with irresistible violence, and surmounts all the ingenuity of medical skill.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.103, 1.257, 1.269, 1.288, 2.138, 3.1, 4.80-4.82, 4.91 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.103. For it would be mere folly that some men should be excluded from the priesthood by reason of the scars which exist on their bodies from ancient wounds, which are the emblem of misfortune indeed, but not of wickedness; but that those persons who, not at all out of necessity but from their own deliberate choice, have made a market of their beauty, when at last they slowly repent, should at once after leaving their lovers become united to priests, and should come from brothels and be admitted into the sacred precincts. For the scars and impressions of their old offences remain not the less in the souls of those who repent. 1.257. The law chooses that a person who brings a sacrifice shall be pure, both in body and soul; --pure in soul from all passions, and diseases, and vices, which can be displayed either in word or deed; and pure in body from all such things as a body is usually defiled by. 1.269. And what figurative meanings he conceals under these orders as symbols, we have accurately explained in another treatise, in which we have discussed the allegories. It is necessary, therefore, for those who are about to go into the temple to partake of the sacrifice, to be cleansed as to their bodies and as to their souls before their bodies. For the soul is the mistress and the queen, and is superior in every thing, as having received a more divine nature. And the things which cleanse the mind are wisdom and the doctrines of wisdom, which lead to the contemplation of the world and the things in it; and the sacred chorus of the rest of the virtues, and honourable and very praiseworthy actions in accordance with the virtues. 1.288. On this soul the sacred fire is continually kept burning, preserved with care and unextinguishable. But the light of the mind is wisdom; as, on the contrary, the darkness of the soul is folly. For what the light discernible by the outward senses is to the eyes, that is knowledge to reason with a view to the contemplation of incorporeal things discernible only by the intellect, the light of which is continually shining and never extinguished.LIII. 2.138. Secondly, it shows mercy and compassion on those who have been treated unjustly, whose burden of distress it lightens by giving them a share in grace and gift; for the double portion of the inheriting son was no less likely to please the mother, who will be encouraged by the kindness of the law, which did not permit her and her offspring to be totally overcome by their enemies. 3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 4.80. But of all the passions there is not one so grievous as a covetous desire of what one has not got, of things which are in appearance good, but not in reality; a desire which produces grievous anxieties which are hard to satisfy; for such a passion puts the reason to flight, and banishes it to a great distance, involving the soul in great difficulties, while the object which is desired flies away contemptuously, retreating not with its back but with its face to one; 4.81. for when a person perceives this passion of covetousness after having started up rapidly, then resting for a short time, either with a view to spread out its alluring toils, or because it has learnt to entertain a hope of succeeding in its object, he then retires to a longer distance uttering reproaches against it; but the passion itself, being left behind and coming too late to succeed, struggles, bearing a Tantalus-like punishment in its miserable future; for it is said that Tantalus, when he desired to obtain any liquor to drink, was not able to do so, as the water retreated from his lips, {14}{the story of Tantalus is told in Homer, Od. 11.581 (as it is translated by Pope 4.82. for as those implacable and inexorable mistresses of the body, thirst and hunger, do very often strain it more, or at all events not less, than those unhappy persons are strained who are racked by the torture even to death, unless when they have become violent some one appeases them with meat and drink; in like manner, covetous desire, having first rendered the soul empty through its forgetfulness of what is present and its recollection of what is removed to a great distance, fills it with impetuosity and madness, and introduces into it masters worse than even its former tyrants, but having the same names with them, namely, hunger and thirst, not, however, now of those things which conduce to the enjoyment of the belly, but of money, and glory, and authority, and beauty, and of innumerable other things which appear to be objects of desire and contention in human life. 4.91. When it affects the parts about the belly it makes men gluttonous, insatiable, intemperate, debauched, admirers of a profligate life, delighting in drunkenness, and epicurism, slaves to strong wine, and fish, and meat, pursuers of feasts and tables, wallowing like greedy dogs; owing to all which things their lives are rendered miserable and accursed, and they are reduced to an existence more grievous than any death.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 177, 51, 144 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

144. And if any one should desire to dress flesh with milk, let him do so without incurring the double reproach of inhumanity and impiety. There are innumerable herds of cattle in every direction, and some are every day milked by the cowherds, or goatherds, or shepherds, since, indeed, the milk is the greatest source of profit to all breeders of stock, being partly used in a liquid state and partly allowed to coagulate and solidify, so as to make cheese. So that, as there is the greatest abundance of lambs, and kids, and all other kinds of animals, the man who seethes the flesh of any one of them in the milk of its own mother is exhibiting a terrible perversity of disposition, and exhibits himself as wholly destitute of that feeling which, of all others, is the most indispensable to, and most nearly akin to, a rational soul, namely, compassion. XXVII.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.158-1.159, 2.51, 2.139, 2.181, 2.211, 2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.158. What more shall I say? Has he not also enjoyed an even greater communion with the Father and Creator of the universe, being thought unworthy of being called by the same appellation? For he also was called the god and king of the whole nation, and he is said to have entered into the darkness where God was; that is to say, into the invisible, and shapeless, and incorporeal world, the essence, which is the model of all existing things, where he beheld things invisible to mortal nature; for, having brought himself and his own life into the middle, as an excellently wrought picture, he established himself as a most beautiful and Godlike work, to be a model for all those who were inclined to imitate him. 1.159. And happy are they who have been able to take, or have even diligently laboured to take, a faithful copy of this excellence in their own souls; for let the mind, above all other parts, take the perfect appearance of virtue, and if that cannot be, at all events let it feel an unhesitating and unvarying desire to acquire that appearance; 2.51. For both in his commandments and also in his prohibitions he suggests and recommends rather than commands, endeavouring with many prefaces and perorations to suggest the greater part of the precepts that he desires to enforce, desiring rather to allure men to virtue than to drive them to it, and looking upon the foundation and beginning of a city made with hands, which he has made the commencement of his work a commencement beneath the dignity of his laws, looking rather with the most accurate eye of his mind at the importance and beauty of his whole legislative system, and thinking it too excellent and too divine to be limited as it were by any circle of things on earth; and therefore he has related the creation of that great metropolis, the world, thinking his laws the most fruitful image and likeness of the constitution of the whole world. 2.139. Let him remember, says he, let him who is about to be sprinkled with the water of purification from this laver, remember that the materials of which this vessel was composed were mirrors, that he himself may look into his own mind as into a mirror; and if there is perceptible in it any deformity arising from some agitation unconnected with reason or from any pleasure which would excite us, and raise us up in hostility to reason, or from any pain which might mislead us and turn us from our purpose of proceeding by the straight road, or from any desire alluring us and even dragging us by force to the pursuit of present pleasures, he seeks to relieve and cure that, desiring only that beauty which is genuine and unadulterated. 2.181. by which perfect virtue is figuratively indicated. For as in the almond the beginning and the end are the same, the beginning as far as it is seed, and the end as far as it is fruit; so also is it the case with the virtues; for each one of them is at the same time both beginning and end, a beginning, because it proceeds not from any other power, but from itself; and an end, because the life in accordance with nature hastens towards it. 2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses. 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. for if the sight of elders, or instructors, or rulers, or parents, excites those who behold them to reverence and orderly conduct, and to an admiration of and desire for a life of moderation and temperance, how great a bulwark of virtue and excellence must we not expect to find in those souls which, after having investigated the nature of every created thing, have learnt to contemplate the uncreated and Divine Being, the first good of all, the one beautiful, and happy, and glorious, and blessed being; better, if one is to tell the plain truth, than the good itself; more beautiful than the beautiful itself; more happy than happiness itself; more blessed than blessedness itself; and, in short, if anything else in the world is so, more perfect than any one of the abovementioned things.
19. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.8, 2.50-2.52, 2.71-2.108, 3.107, 3.110, 3.113-3.116, 3.118, 3.126, 3.128-3.139, 3.141-3.147, 3.151-3.152, 3.155 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.177 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 246 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

246. But the attacks and conflicts of those powers which are not irreconcilable resemble the frequent effect of the discussions and quarrels about doctrines which arise among the Sophists. For inasmuch as they all labour for one end, namely the contemplation of the things of nature, they may be said to be friends; but inasmuch as they do not agree in their particular investigations they may be said to be in a state of domestic sedition; as, for instance, those who affirm the universe to be uncreated are at variance with those who insist upon its creation; and again those who urge that it will be destroyed are at strife with those who affirm that it is indeed perishable by nature but that it never will be destroyed, because it is held together by a more powerful chain, the will of the Creator. And again, those who affirm that there is nothing self-existent, but that everything has been created, are at variance with those who are of a contrary opinion. Those too, who say that man is the measure of all things, differ from those who would restrain the judicial faculties of the outward senses and of the intellect. And, in short, to sum up all these differences in a few words, those who represent everything as incomprehensible are at variance with those who say that a great number of things are properly understood.
22. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. It is therefore nothing extraordinary, that these men being in the habit of indulging an unbridled tongue, should be full of self-sufficiency and boldness, displaying all the folly which they have from the first beginning cherished. But it is better to trust to those who, like skilful physicians, have a knowledge of the means of healing the diseases and evil affections of the soul, until God provides an excellent interpreter, and displays to and pours upon him the fountains of his eloquence. XIV.
23. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.291 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.291. 42. As to the laws themselves, more words are unnecessary, for they are visible in their own nature, and appear to teach not impiety, but the truest piety in the world. They do not make men hate one another, but encourage people to communicate what they have to one another freely; they are enemies to injustice, they take care of righteousness, they banish idleness and expensive living, and instruct men to be content with what they have and to be laborious in their callings;
24. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 6.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

26. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.6. 6.Chaeremon the Stoic, therefore, in his narration of the Egyptian priests, who, he says, were considered by the Egyptians as philosophers, informs us, that they chose temples, as the places in which they might philosophize. For to dwell with the statues of the Gods is a thing allied to the whole desire, by which the soul tends to the contemplation of their divinities. And from the divine veneration indeed, which was paid to them through dwelling in temples, they obtained security, all men honouring these philosophers, as if they were certain sacred animals. They also led a solitary life, as they only mingled with other men in solemn sacrifices and festivals. But at other times the priests were almost inaccessible to any one who wished to converse with them. For it was requisite that he who approached to them should be first purified, and abstain from many things; and this is as it were a common sacred law respecting the Egyptian priests. But these [philosophic priests], |116 having relinquished every other employment, and human labours,7 gave up the whole of their life to the contemplation and worship of divine natures and to divine inspiration; through the latter, indeed, procuring for themselves, honour, security, and piety; but through contemplation, science; and through both, a certain occult exercise of manners, worthy of antiquity8. For to be always conversant with divine knowledge and inspiration, removes those who are so from all avarice, suppresses the passions, and excites to an intellectual life. But they were studious of frugality in their diet and apparel, and also of continence and endurance, and in all things were attentive to justice and equity. They likewise were rendered venerable, through rarely mingling with other men. For during the time of what are called purifications, they scarcely mingled with their nearest kindred, and those of their own order, nor were they to be seen by anyone, unless it was requisite for the necessary purposes of purification. For the sanctuary was inaccessible to those who were not purified, and they dwelt in holy places for the purpose of performing divine works; but at all other times they associated more freely with those who lived like themselves. They did not, however, associate with any one who was not a religious character. But they were always seen near to the Gods, or the statues of the Gods, the latter of which they were beheld either carrying, or preceding in a sacred procession, or disposing in an orderly manner, with modesty and gravity; each of which operations was not the effect of pride, but an indication of some physical reason. Their venerable gravity also was apparent from their manners. For their walking was orderly, and their aspect sedate; and they were so studious of preserving this gravity of countece, that they did not even wink, when at any time they were unwilling to do so; and they seldom laughed, and when they did, their laughter proceeded no farther than to a smile. But they always kept their hands within their garments. Each likewise bore about him a symbol indicative of the order which he was allotted in sacred concerns; for there were many orders of priests. Their diet also was slender and simple. For, with respect to wine, some of them did not at all drink it, but others drank very little of it, on account of its being injurious to the |117 nerves, oppressive to the head, an impediment to invention, and an incentive to venereal desires. In many other things also they conducted themselves with caution; neither using bread at all in purifications, and at those times in which they were not employed in purifying themselves, they were accustomed to eat bread with hyssop, cut into small pieces. For it is said, that hyssop very much purifies the power of bread. But they, for the most part, abstained from oil, the greater number of them entirely; and if at any time they used it with pot-herbs, they took very little of it, and only as much as was sufficient to mitigate the taste of the herbs. SPAN
28. Cassian, Conferences, 5.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

29. Anon., 4 Ezra, 14.42

14.42. And the Most High gave understanding to the five men, and by turns they wrote what was dictated, in characters which they did not know. They sat forty days, and wrote during the daytime, and ate their bread at night.
30. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 3.389, 3.394



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation) Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
anger, anger natural or necessary among christians Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
animals Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; alternative ideals, though apatheia represents progress Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385, 386
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; clement of alexandria Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; for philo, repentance and pity Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; origen Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
appetite (epithumia), natural or necessary among certain christians Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
arrogance Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
assimilation Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 93
augustine, attack on stoic apatheia, misrepresents stoic acceptance of first movements as acceptance of emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
body Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90
cassian, john, founder of monastery at monte cassino, some emotions natural Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
chaeremon the stoic, on the egyptian priests Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 114
chaeremon the stoic Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 114
clement of alexandria, church father Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
climacus, christian ascetic, some emotions natural Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
contemplation Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90, 93
drink Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90
emotions (passio, perturbatio), therapy of Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
epistula ad menoch, ἐπιθυµία Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
ezra (the scribe) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 93
food Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90
frank, dan Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
gluttony, natural or necessary among certain christians Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
gregory of nyssa, church father, apatheia an ideal, but metriopatheia can sometimes be apatheia in a secondary sense Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
humanity Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
immortality Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90
isaiah the solitary, st, some emotions natural Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
leniency Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
liminality Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90
lust, natural or necessary among certain christians Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
maimonides, jewish philosopher, apatheia and metriopatheia alternative ideals Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
maimonides, jewish philosopher, pride and anger excluded from both Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; natural and/or necessary emotions Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; natural and/or necessary pleasures Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; natural thoughts Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; not all emotions acceptable Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; philo Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
mimesis Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90
mind Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90, 93
moses Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 93; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90, 93
natural, necessary, emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
natural, necessary, pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
natural, necessary, thoughts Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
nature Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
origen Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
passions Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
pedagogy Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 93
philo, clement of alexandria, basil Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
philo of alexandria, jewish philosopher, apatheia and metriopatheia alternative ideals but apatheia is progress Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385, 386
philo of alexandria, jewish philosopher, emotions helpful Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
philo of alexandria, jewish philosopher, pity valued and compatible with apatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
philo of alexandria, jewish philosopher, repentance valued Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
philo of alexandria, jewish philosopher, some pleasures necessary Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
piety Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
plato, some desires and pleasures necessary Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
pleasure, natural and/or necessary pleasures Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
pleasure Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
pleasure (uoluptas, delectatio) Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
progressing Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385, 386
ps.-makarios (makarios, desert father, mentor of evagrius) , some thoughts natural rather than bad' Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
reason Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
rüther, theodore Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
scribe Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 93
serpent Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
soul, (platonic) parts of Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
spanneut, michel Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
stoicism Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 313
telos Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 90, 93
terminology of desire Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
theodoret, christian, some emotion necessary and useful Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
torah Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 93
tosefta Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 93
ware, kallistos Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 386
wisdom (sophia), lower wisdom (achamoth) Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 250
worship Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 93
zeno of citium, stoic, hence different conception of freedom from emotion(apatheia) Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385, 386