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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Philo Of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.131-3.132
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1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.9, 9.20, 13.9, 18.12-18.15, 23.6, 37.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 13.9. הֲלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ לְפָנֶיךָ הִפָּרֶד נָא מֵעָלָי אִם־הַשְּׂמֹאל וְאֵימִנָה וְאִם־הַיָּמִין וְאַשְׂמְאִילָה׃ 18.12. וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּהּ לֵאמֹר אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה־לִּי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן׃ 18.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם לָמָּה זֶּה צָחֲקָה שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר הַאַף אֻמְנָם אֵלֵד וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי׃ 18.14. הֲיִפָּלֵא מֵיְהוָה דָּבָר לַמּוֹעֵד אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וּלְשָׂרָה בֵן׃ 18.15. וַתְּכַחֵשׁ שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר לֹא צָחַקְתִּי כִּי יָרֵאָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ׃ 23.6. שְׁמָעֵנוּ אֲדֹנִי נְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה בְּתוֹכֵנוּ בְּמִבְחַר קְבָרֵינוּ קְבֹר אֶת־מֵתֶךָ אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־קִבְרוֹ לֹא־יִכְלֶה מִמְּךָ מִקְּבֹר מֵתֶךָ׃ 37.15. וַיִּמְצָאֵהוּ אִישׁ וְהִנֵּה תֹעֶה בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיִּשְׁאָלֵהוּ הָאִישׁ לֵאמֹר מַה־תְּבַקֵּשׁ׃ 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 13.9. Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me; if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou take the right hand, then I will go to the left.’" 18.12. And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: ‘After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?’" 18.13. And the LORD said unto Abraham: ‘Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I of a surety bear a child, who am old?" 18.14. Is any thing too hard for the LORD. At the set time I will return unto thee, when the season cometh round, and Sarah shall have a son.’" 18.15. Then Sarah denied, saying: ‘I laughed not’; for she was afraid. And He said: ‘Nay; but thou didst laugh.’" 23.6. ’Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead.’" 37.15. And a certain man found him, and, behold, he was wandering in the field. And the man asked him, saying: ‘What seekest thou?’"
2. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.83 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.83. Hoc detracto, quod totum est voluntarium, aegritudo erit sublata illa ilia ita G 1 maerens, morsus tamen tamen tantum Bentl. sed cf. p. 323, 11 quo Cic. hic respicit et contractiuncula quaedam contractiuncuculae quaedam (quadam G quandam V 1 ) relinquentur W Non. (relincuntur) corr. Bentl. cf. 9 hanc et Sen. ad Marc. 7, 1 animi relinquetur. hoc... 9 relinquentur Non. 92, 24 hanc dicant sane naturalem, dum aegritudinis nomen absit grave taetrum funestum, quod cum sapientia esse atque, ut ita dicam, habitare nullo modo possit. At quae at quae Bentl. atque stirpes sunt aegritudinis, quam multae, quam amarae! quae ipso ipso om. V trunco everso omnes eligendae elidendae R 2 sunt et, si necesse erit, singulis disputationibus. superest enim nobis hoc, cuicuimodi cuicuimodi cuiusmodi V 3 est, otium. sed ratio una omnium est aegritudinum, plura sed plura H nomina. nam et invidere aegritudinis est et aemulari et obtrectare et misereri et angi, lugere, maerere, aerumna adfici, lamentari, sollicitari, sollicitari add. G 2 dolere, dolore V in molestia esse, adflictari, desperare.
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 217-223, 256-257, 60, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. Since this is not the actual truth, but in order that one may when speaking keep as close to the truth as possible, the one in the middle is the Father of the universe, who in the sacred scriptures is called by his proper name, I am that I am; and the beings on each side are those most ancient powers which are always close to the living God, one of which is called his creative power, and the other his royal power. And the creative power is God, for it is by this that he made and arranged the universe; and the royal power is the Lord, for it is fitting that the Creator should lord it over and govern the creature.
4. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 11, 123, 6, 8-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. By means of this husbandry, all the trees of the passions and vices, which soot forth and grow up to a height, bringing forth pernicious fruits, are rooted up, and cut down, and cleared away, so that not even the smallest fragment of them is left, from which any new shoots of evil actions can subsequently spring up.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 13, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Now the first example of an enemy placed directly in front of one is derived from what is said in the case of Cain, that "he went out from the face of God, and dwelt in the land of Nod, in the front of Eden." Now Nod being interpreted means commotion, and Eden means delight. The one therefore is a symbol of wickedness agitating the soul, and the other of virtue which creates for the soul a state of tranquillity and happiness, not meaning by happiness that effeminate luxury which is derived from the indulgence of the irrational passion of pleasure, but a joy free from toil and free from hardship, which is enjoyed with great tranquillity. 12. in this manner those who are skilful in the art of medicine, save their patients; for they do not think it advisable to give food before they have removed the causes of their diseases; for while the diseases remain, food is useless, being the pernicious materials of their sufferings. III.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 150, 132 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 29-31, 28 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. It is worth while, however, after having thus explained the literal account given to us of these events, to proceed to explain also the figurative meaning concealed under that account; for we say that nearly all, or that at all events, the greater part of the history of the giving of the law is full of allegories; now the disposition which we have at present under consideration, is called by the Hebrews Joseph; but the name being interpreted in the Greek language means, "the addition of the Lord," a name most felicitously given, and most appropriate to the account given of the person so called; for the democratic constitution in vogue among states is an addition of nature which has sovereign authority over everything;
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 128, 155, 67, 69, 124 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

124. Let us therefore pray that the mind may be in the soul like a pillar in a house, and, in like manner, that the just man may be firmly established in the human race for the relief of all diseases; for while he is in vigorous health, one must not abandon all hope of complete safety, as through the medium of him, I imagine God the Saviour extending his all-healing medicine, that is to say, his propitious and merciful power to his suppliants and worshippers, bids them employ it for the salvation of those who are sick; spreading it like a salve over the wounds of the soul, which folly, and injustice, and all the other multitude of vices, being sharpened up, have grievously inflicted upon it.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 122, 167, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. Thus much we have thought fit to say on this subject. But, moreover, Moses also changes the name of Hosea into that of Joshua; displaying by his new name the distinctive qualities of his character;
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 159, 163, 3, 158 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

158. And the man devoted to pleasure is free form none of the aforementioned evils; for it is with difficulty that he can raise his head, being weighed down and dragged down, since intemperance trips him up and keeps him down. And he feeds, not on heavenly food, which wisdom offers to contemplative men by means of discourses and opinions; but on that which is put forth by the earth in the varying seasons of the year, from which arise drunkenness and voracity, and licentiousness, breaking through and inflaming the appetites of the belly, and enslaving them in subjection to gluttony, by which they strengthen the impetuous passions, the seat of which is beneath the belly; and make them break forth. And they lick up the result of the labours of cooks and tavern-keepers; and at times some of them in ecstasy with the flavour of the delicious food, moves about his head and reaches forward, being desirous to participate in the sight. And when he sees an expensively furnished table, he throws himself bodily upon the delicacies which are abundantly prepared, and devotes himself to them, wishing to be filled with them all together, and so to depart, having no other end in view than that he should allow nothing of such a sumptuous preparation to be wasted. Owing to which conduct, he too, carries about poison in his teeth, no less than the serpent does;
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 47, 49, 46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

46. And again, the name Lamech, which means humiliation, is a name of ambiguous meaning; for we are humiliated either when the vigour of our soul is relaxed, according to the diseases and infirmities which arise from the irrational passions, or in respect of our love for virtue, when we seek to restrain ourselves from swelling selfopinions.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 145 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

145. On this account it is, that God always judiciously limits and brings out with wise moderation his first benefits, stopping them before those who partake of them become wanton through satiety; and then he bestows others in their stead; and again a third class of advantages instead of the second set, and so on, continually substituting new blessings for those of older date, at one time giving such as are different from those which went before, and at another time such as are almost identical with them; for the creature is never wholly destitute of the blessings bestowed by God, since if he were he would be utterly destroyed; but he is unable to endure an unlimited and measureless abundance of them. On which account, as he is desirous that we should derive advantage from the benefits which he bestows upon us, he weighs out what he gives so as to proportion it to the strength of those who receive it. XLIV.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 32, 103 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

103. But of the ideas which are brought forth by the mind, some are male and some female, as in the case of animals. Now the female offspring of the soul are wickedness and passion, by which we are made effeminate in every one of our pursuits; but a healthy state of the passions and virtue is male, by which we are excited and invigorated. Now of these, whatever belongs to the fellowship of men must be attributed to God, and everything that relates to the similarity to women must be imputed to one's self, on which account the command was delivered, "of everything which openeth the womb the males belong to the Lord." XXXII.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 33 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.109 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.109. On which account the scripture adds, "This is the only covering of his nakedness;" for what can so becomingly overshadow and conceal the reproaches and disgraces of life, as speech? For ignorance is a disgrace akin to irrational nature, but education is the brother of speech, and an ornament properly belonging to man.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.257, 4.80-4.82, 4.91 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.257. The law chooses that a person who brings a sacrifice shall be pure, both in body and soul; --pure in soul from all passions, and diseases, and vices, which can be displayed either in word or deed; and pure in body from all such things as a body is usually defiled by. 4.80. But of all the passions there is not one so grievous as a covetous desire of what one has not got, of things which are in appearance good, but not in reality; a desire which produces grievous anxieties which are hard to satisfy; for such a passion puts the reason to flight, and banishes it to a great distance, involving the soul in great difficulties, while the object which is desired flies away contemptuously, retreating not with its back but with its face to one; 4.81. for when a person perceives this passion of covetousness after having started up rapidly, then resting for a short time, either with a view to spread out its alluring toils, or because it has learnt to entertain a hope of succeeding in its object, he then retires to a longer distance uttering reproaches against it; but the passion itself, being left behind and coming too late to succeed, struggles, bearing a Tantalus-like punishment in its miserable future; for it is said that Tantalus, when he desired to obtain any liquor to drink, was not able to do so, as the water retreated from his lips, {14}{the story of Tantalus is told in Homer, Od. 11.581 (as it is translated by Pope 4.82. for as those implacable and inexorable mistresses of the body, thirst and hunger, do very often strain it more, or at all events not less, than those unhappy persons are strained who are racked by the torture even to death, unless when they have become violent some one appeases them with meat and drink; in like manner, covetous desire, having first rendered the soul empty through its forgetfulness of what is present and its recollection of what is removed to a great distance, fills it with impetuosity and madness, and introduces into it masters worse than even its former tyrants, but having the same names with them, namely, hunger and thirst, not, however, now of those things which conduce to the enjoyment of the belly, but of money, and glory, and authority, and beauty, and of innumerable other things which appear to be objects of desire and contention in human life. 4.91. When it affects the parts about the belly it makes men gluttonous, insatiable, intemperate, debauched, admirers of a profligate life, delighting in drunkenness, and epicurism, slaves to strong wine, and fish, and meat, pursuers of feasts and tables, wallowing like greedy dogs; owing to all which things their lives are rendered miserable and accursed, and they are reduced to an existence more grievous than any death.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 195 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

195. On which account, I imagine, that nobility herself, if God were to invest her with the form and organs of a man, would stand before those obstinate and unworthy descendants and speak thus: "Relationship is not measured by blood alone, where truth is the judge, but by a similarity of actions, and by a careful imitation of the conduct of your ancestors. But you have pursued an opposite line of conduct, thinking hateful such actions as are dear to me, and loving such deeds as are hateful to me; for in my eyes modesty, and truth, and moderation, and a due government of the passions, and simplicity, and innocence, are honourable, but in your opinion they are dishonourable; and to me all shameless behaviour is hateful, and all falsehood, and all immoderate indulgence of the passions, and all pride, and all wickedness. But you look upon these things as near and dear to you.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.51, 2.139, 2.181, 2.211 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.51. For both in his commandments and also in his prohibitions he suggests and recommends rather than commands, endeavouring with many prefaces and perorations to suggest the greater part of the precepts that he desires to enforce, desiring rather to allure men to virtue than to drive them to it, and looking upon the foundation and beginning of a city made with hands, which he has made the commencement of his work a commencement beneath the dignity of his laws, looking rather with the most accurate eye of his mind at the importance and beauty of his whole legislative system, and thinking it too excellent and too divine to be limited as it were by any circle of things on earth; and therefore he has related the creation of that great metropolis, the world, thinking his laws the most fruitful image and likeness of the constitution of the whole world. 2.139. Let him remember, says he, let him who is about to be sprinkled with the water of purification from this laver, remember that the materials of which this vessel was composed were mirrors, that he himself may look into his own mind as into a mirror; and if there is perceptible in it any deformity arising from some agitation unconnected with reason or from any pleasure which would excite us, and raise us up in hostility to reason, or from any pain which might mislead us and turn us from our purpose of proceeding by the straight road, or from any desire alluring us and even dragging us by force to the pursuit of present pleasures, he seeks to relieve and cure that, desiring only that beauty which is genuine and unadulterated. 2.181. by which perfect virtue is figuratively indicated. For as in the almond the beginning and the end are the same, the beginning as far as it is seed, and the end as far as it is fruit; so also is it the case with the virtues; for each one of them is at the same time both beginning and end, a beginning, because it proceeds not from any other power, but from itself; and an end, because the life in accordance with nature hastens towards it. 2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses.
19. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.49, 2.50-2.52, 2.71-2.108, 3.107, 3.110, 3.113-3.116, 3.118, 3.126, 3.128-3.130, 3.132-3.147, 3.151-3.152, 3.155, 3.217-3.219 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.49. But the selfish and atheistical mind, thinking itself equal with God while it appears to be doing something, is found in reality to be rather suffering. And though God sows and plants good things in the soul, the mind which says, "I plant," is acting impiously. You shall not plant therefore where God is planting: but if, O mind, you fix plants in the soul, take care to plant only such trees as bear fruit, and not a grove; for in a grove there are trees of a character to bear cultivation, and also wild trees. But to plant vice, which is unproductive in the soul, along with cultivated and fertile virtue, is the act of a doublenatured and confused leprosy.
20. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.57, 4.177 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 94-95, 44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. It is therefore nothing extraordinary, that these men being in the habit of indulging an unbridled tongue, should be full of self-sufficiency and boldness, displaying all the folly which they have from the first beginning cherished. But it is better to trust to those who, like skilful physicians, have a knowledge of the means of healing the diseases and evil affections of the soul, until God provides an excellent interpreter, and displays to and pours upon him the fountains of his eloquence. XIV.
22. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.87-7.88 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.87. This is why Zeno was the first (in his treatise On the Nature of Man) to designate as the end life in agreement with nature (or living agreeably to nature), which is the same as a virtuous life, virtue being the goal towards which nature guides us. So too Cleanthes in his treatise On Pleasure, as also Posidonius, and Hecato in his work On Ends. Again, living virtuously is equivalent to living in accordance with experience of the actual course of nature, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his De finibus; for our individual natures are parts of the nature of the whole universe. 7.88. And this is why the end may be defined as life in accordance with nature, or, in other words, in accordance with our own human nature as well as that of the universe, a life in which we refrain from every action forbidden by the law common to all things, that is to say, the right reason which pervades all things, and is identical with this Zeus, lord and ruler of all that is. And this very thing constitutes the virtue of the happy man and the smooth current of life, when all actions promote the harmony of the spirit dwelling in the individual man with the will of him who orders the universe. Diogenes then expressly declares the end to be to act with good reason in the selection of what is natural. Archedemus says the end is to live in the performance of all befitting actions.
23. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.6. 6.Chaeremon the Stoic, therefore, in his narration of the Egyptian priests, who, he says, were considered by the Egyptians as philosophers, informs us, that they chose temples, as the places in which they might philosophize. For to dwell with the statues of the Gods is a thing allied to the whole desire, by which the soul tends to the contemplation of their divinities. And from the divine veneration indeed, which was paid to them through dwelling in temples, they obtained security, all men honouring these philosophers, as if they were certain sacred animals. They also led a solitary life, as they only mingled with other men in solemn sacrifices and festivals. But at other times the priests were almost inaccessible to any one who wished to converse with them. For it was requisite that he who approached to them should be first purified, and abstain from many things; and this is as it were a common sacred law respecting the Egyptian priests. But these [philosophic priests], |116 having relinquished every other employment, and human labours,7 gave up the whole of their life to the contemplation and worship of divine natures and to divine inspiration; through the latter, indeed, procuring for themselves, honour, security, and piety; but through contemplation, science; and through both, a certain occult exercise of manners, worthy of antiquity8. For to be always conversant with divine knowledge and inspiration, removes those who are so from all avarice, suppresses the passions, and excites to an intellectual life. But they were studious of frugality in their diet and apparel, and also of continence and endurance, and in all things were attentive to justice and equity. They likewise were rendered venerable, through rarely mingling with other men. For during the time of what are called purifications, they scarcely mingled with their nearest kindred, and those of their own order, nor were they to be seen by anyone, unless it was requisite for the necessary purposes of purification. For the sanctuary was inaccessible to those who were not purified, and they dwelt in holy places for the purpose of performing divine works; but at all other times they associated more freely with those who lived like themselves. They did not, however, associate with any one who was not a religious character. But they were always seen near to the Gods, or the statues of the Gods, the latter of which they were beheld either carrying, or preceding in a sacred procession, or disposing in an orderly manner, with modesty and gravity; each of which operations was not the effect of pride, but an indication of some physical reason. Their venerable gravity also was apparent from their manners. For their walking was orderly, and their aspect sedate; and they were so studious of preserving this gravity of countece, that they did not even wink, when at any time they were unwilling to do so; and they seldom laughed, and when they did, their laughter proceeded no farther than to a smile. But they always kept their hands within their garments. Each likewise bore about him a symbol indicative of the order which he was allotted in sacred concerns; for there were many orders of priests. Their diet also was slender and simple. For, with respect to wine, some of them did not at all drink it, but others drank very little of it, on account of its being injurious to the |117 nerves, oppressive to the head, an impediment to invention, and an incentive to venereal desires. In many other things also they conducted themselves with caution; neither using bread at all in purifications, and at those times in which they were not employed in purifying themselves, they were accustomed to eat bread with hyssop, cut into small pieces. For it is said, that hyssop very much purifies the power of bread. But they, for the most part, abstained from oil, the greater number of them entirely; and if at any time they used it with pot-herbs, they took very little of it, and only as much as was sufficient to mitigate the taste of the herbs. SPAN
24. Heraclitus, Allegoriae, 70



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron, with moderated emotion Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
aaron Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327, 343, 387; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 243; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
abraham, humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343, 387
abraham, kingship of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
abraham, moderation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
abraham, wealth of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
abraham, wise Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation) Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
allegorical interpretation, suited to the few Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
allegory Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 67
antiochus of ascalon Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; alternative ideals, though apatheia represents progress Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
aristotle Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
augustine, attack on stoic apatheia, misrepresents stoic acceptance of first movements as acceptance of emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
chaeremon the stoic, on the egyptian priests Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 114
chaeremon the stoic Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 114
cherubim, chet, sons of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
child sacrifice Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
cleanthes Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
consolatory literature Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
cosmos, gods house/temple Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
diogenes laertius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
dionysius of halicarnassus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
dispute between abraham and lot, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
dispute between abraham and lot Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
emotions, good Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
emotions, lack of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
emotions, moderation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
emotions (passio, perturbatio), therapy of Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
epistula ad menoch, ἐπιθυµία Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
equable states (εὐπάθειαι) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
excellence, (moral) Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
external goods, virtue vs. Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
fear, of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
felicity Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
frank, dan Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
god, joy and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
gomorrah, goods, kinds of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
gomorrah, the soul and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
grief and mourning Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
heraclitus, allegorist Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
heraclitus of efese Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
homer Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343, 387
imagery, bearing fruit Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
imagery, sowing/planting Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
israel Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 243; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
joseph Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
joy, of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
joy, sacrifice of isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
joy Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
justice Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
laughter, of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
laughter, sarahs denial of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
laughter Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
leprosy Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
maimonides, jewish philosopher, apatheia and metriopatheia alternative ideals Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
metaphorical language, use of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
moderation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327, 387
moses, as a perfected sage Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327, 343
mourning customs Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
names, improper (catachresis) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
niehoff, m. Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
noah Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 243
odysseus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
origen Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
passions, freedom from Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327, 387
passions, freedom of/impassibility Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165, 215
passions, stoicism and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
passions, struggle against Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
passions, trees of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 243
philo of alexandria, jewish philosopher, apatheia and metriopatheia alternative ideals but apatheia is progress Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
platonism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
pleasure (uoluptas, delectatio) Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
polybius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
progress, moral Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 243; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
progressing Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
reptiles Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 67
right reason Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
road of moral insight/virtue/wisdom Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
sacrifice of isaac, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
sacrifice of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
sarah, abraham mourning Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
sarah, death of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
sarah, laughter of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
senses, five Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
serpent Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
soul, (platonic) parts of Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
soul, abraham vs. lot as types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
soul, types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
soul Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 243
stoa/stoic/stoicism, aim of life Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165
stoa/stoic/stoicism, apatheia Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 165, 215
stoicism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428
stoics, classification of goods and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
stoics, grief and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
terminology of desire Nisula, Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence (2012) 205
the cosmos, contemplation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
the sage, abraham as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
the sage, passions and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327, 343, 387
vices Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 215
virtue, acquisition of' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 243
virtue, vs. wealth or external goods Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 428; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 243
wealth, of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
zeno of citium, stoic, hence different conception of freedom from emotion(apatheia) Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 385
δόγματα Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 343
εὐπάθεια Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 387
μετριοπάθεια Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327, 343, 387
νόμος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
χαρά Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327
ἀπάθεια Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327, 343, 387
ῥητός Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 327