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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9247
Philo Of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.4
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1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28, 2.7, 2.18-2.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.19. וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.18. And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’" 2.19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof."
2. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 37 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.14-3.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 41, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 135, 151-169, 66-67, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

134. After this, Moses says that "God made man, having taken clay from the earth, and he breathed into his face the breath of life." And by this expression he shows most clearly that there is a vast difference between man as generated now, and the first man who was made according to the image of God. For man as formed now is perceptible to the external senses, partaking of qualities, consisting of body and soul, man or woman, by nature mortal. But man, made according to the image of God, was an idea, or a genus, or a seal, perceptible only by the intellect, incorporeal, neither male nor female, imperishable by nature.
6. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.19-1.20, 1.31-1.42, 2.1-2.3, 2.5-2.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth, when they were Created." This is perfect reason, which is put in motion in accordance with the number seven, being the beginning of the creation of that mind which was arranged according to the ideas, and also of the sensation arranged according to the ideas, and perceptible only by the intellect, if one can speak in such a manner. And Moses calls the word of God a book, in which it is come to pass that the formations of other things are written down and engraved. 1.20. But, lest you should imagine that the Deity does anything according to definite periods of time, while you should rather think that everything done by him is inscrutable in its nature, uncertain, unknown to, and incomprehensible by the race of mortal men. Moses adds the words, "when they were created," not defining the time when by any exact limitation, for what has been made by the Author of all things has no limitation. And in this way the idea is excluded, that the universe was created in six days. IX. 1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV.
7. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.8, 1.51, 2.56 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 56, 55 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

55. For since the soul is spoken of in two ways, first of all as a whole, secondly, as to the domit part of it, which, to speak properly, is the soul of the soul, just as the eye is both the whole orb, and also the most important part of that orb, that namely by which we see; it seemed good to the law-giver that the essence of the soul should likewise be two-fold; blood being the essence of the entire soul, and the divine Spirit being the essence of the domit part of it; accordingly he says, in express words, "The soul of all flesh is the blood Thereof.
9. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.45-15.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven.
10. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. New Testament, Colossians, 3.1-3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry;
12. New Testament, Galatians, 2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me.
13. New Testament, Philippians, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
14. New Testament, Romans, 8.9-8.13, 8.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body.
15. New Testament, John, 3.6, 3.12-3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3.12. If I told you earthly things and you don't believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven.
16. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 14.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.8. מִן הָאֲדָמָה (בראשית ב, ז), רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמְרוּ, מִמָּקוֹם כַּפָּרָתוֹ נִבְרָא, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, כז): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִמְּקוֹם כַּפָּרָתוֹ וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו (בראשית ב, ז), מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוֹ גֹּלֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ וְעַד הָרָקִיעַ, וְזָרַק בּוֹ אֶת הַנְּשָׁמָה, לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בִּנְפִיחָה, לְפִיכָךְ מֵת, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד בִּנְתִינָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לז, יד): וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָּכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם. 14.8. ... ‘And He blew into his nostrils’—This teaches that He stood him up as a golem stretching from earth to the firmament and then threw breath/n’shamah into him."
17. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of The Egyptians, 59.4, 59.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. Nag Hammadi, Trimorphic Protennoia, 40.22-40.25 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

19. Epiphanius, Panarion, 26 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20. Zoroastrian Literature, Yasna, 30.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam/adam, as seal Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
adam/adam, new or second Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
adam/adam, the first Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
adam Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
allegorical commentary Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
allegory Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
archon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
aristotelian tradition Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
body, views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
body Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
corinthians Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161
creation, priestly account of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
creator archons, archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
creator archons, yhwh ( Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
dualism Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
dust Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
earth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
flesh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
god, creating/creativity of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
god, image of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
hellenistic judaism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
herodotus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
image Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
john, fourth gospel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
judaism and christianity Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
law, god's" "151.0_310.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
life, of virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
life, spirit/breath of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161
light, adam of light Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
likeness Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
literal sense Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
logos, philo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161
logos Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
man (anthropos) barbelo, first/immortal man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
manual of instruction Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
moses Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
ophites, the diagram Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
passion Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
paul Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
paul (saul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
plutarch Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
pneuma, see also spirit Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161
pneumatic, see also spiritual Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161
psychic adam/eve/body, essence Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161
psychic adam/eve/body Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
question and answer, format Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
questions and answers Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
resurrection, ancient views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
seth, person Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
social status' Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
sons, of deceit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
sons, of justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
sophia, see also prunicus, wisdom, zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
spirit, characterizations as, soul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, characterizations as, truth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, divine Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161, 170
spirit, effects of, life itself Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
spirit, effects of, virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310, 387
spirits, two (lqs 3-4) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spiritual, class Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161
spiritual Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
synagogue Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
text criticism Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
wisdom, jewish Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 161