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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9247
Philo Of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.38


nanSince how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

38 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.12-30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, a b c d\n0 "15.25" "15.25" "15 25" (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "1.26" "1.26" "1 26" \n1 "2.7" "2.7" "2 7" \n2 "5.24" "5.24" "5 24" \n3 1.2 1.2 1 2 \n4 1.26 1.26 1 26 \n5 1.27 1.27 1 27 \n6 1.28 1.28 1 28 \n7 2 2 2 None\n8 2.7 2.7 2 7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.6-5.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃ 5.7. וְאִם־לֹא תַגִּיע יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃ 5.8. וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ מִמּוּל עָרְפּוֹ וְלֹא יַבְדִּיל׃ 5.9. וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת עַל־קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בַּדָּם יִמָּצֵה אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 5.11. וְאִם־לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ לִשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת לְחַטָּאת לֹא־יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא׃ 5.12. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלוֹא קֻמְצוֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הִוא׃ 5.13. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָה׃ 5.14. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.15. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תִמְעֹל מַעַל וְחָטְאָה בִּשְׁגָגָה מִקָּדְשֵׁי יְהוָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּסֶף־שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְאָשָׁם׃ 5.16. וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם וְאֶת־חֲמִישִׁתוֹ יוֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן אֹתוֹ לַכֹּהֵן וְהַכֹּהֵן יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.6. and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin." 5.7. And if his means suffice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his forfeit for that wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering." 5.8. And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin-offering first, and pinch off its head close by its neck, but shall not divide it asunder." 5.9. And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin-offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar; it is a sin-offering." 5.10. And he shall prepare the second for a burnt-offering, according to the ordice; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin which he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven." 5.11. But if his means suffice not for two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he shall bring his offering for that wherein he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon; for it is a sin-offering." 5.12. And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; it is a sin-offering." 5.13. And the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in any of these things, and he shall be forgiven; and the remt shall be the priest’s, as the meal-offering." 5.14. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.15. If any one commit a trespass, and sin through error, in the holy things of the LORD, then he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation in silver by shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a guilt-offering." 5.16. And he shall make restitution for that which he hath done amiss in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest; and the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt-offering, and he shall be forgiven." 5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity."
5. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

109e. that by reason of feebleness and sluggishness, we are unable to attain to the upper surface of the air; for if anyone should come to the top of the air or should get wings and fly up, he could lift his head above it and see, as fishes lift their heads out of the water and see the things in our world, so he would see things in that upper world; and, if his nature were strong enough to bear the sight, he would recognize that that is the real heaven
6. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246c. and fully winged, it mounts upward and governs the whole world; but the soul which has lost its wings is borne along until it gets hold of something solid, when it settles down, taking upon itself an earthly body, which seems to be self-moving, because of the power of the soul within it; and the whole, compounded of soul and body, is called a living being, and is further designated as mortal. It is not immortal by any reasonable supposition, but we, though we have never seen
7. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.14-3.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.22-24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.22. Whoever obeys me will not be put to shame,and those who work with my help will not sin. 24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 9.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 66-67, 20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. And besides, the bad man runs about through the market-place, and theatres, and courts of justice, and council halls, and assemblies, and every meeting and collection of men whatever, like one who lives with and for curiosity, letting loose his tongue in immoderate, and interminable, and indiscriminate conversation, confusing and disturbing every thing, mixing up what is true and what is false, what is unspeakable with what is public, private with public things, things profane with things sacred, what is ridiculous with what is excellent, from never having been instructed in what is the most excellent thing in season, namely silence.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 135, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

134. And these men appear to be ignorant of the manner in which they are produced, since if they had not been, perhaps they would have been silent out of shame; but still there is no reason why we should not teach them; but there is nothing new in what is now said, neither are they our words but the ancient sayings of wise men, by whom nothing which was necessary for knowledge has been left uninvestigated;
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 97 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

97. For the eye of the living God does not need any other light to enable him to perceive things, but being himself archetypal light he pours forth innumerable rays, not one of which is capable of being comprehended by the outward sense, but they are all only intelligible to the intellect; in consequence of which God alone uses them who is only comprehensible to the intellect, and nothing that has any portion in creation uses them at all; for that which has been created is perceptible to the outward senses, but that nature which is only perceptible to the intellect cannot be comprehended by the outward sense. XXIX. 97. and there is an account of events recorded in the history of the creation of the world, comprising a sufficient relation of the cause of this ordice; for the sacred historian says, that the world was created in six days, and that on the seventh day God desisted from his works, and began to contemplate what he had so beautifully created;
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 187 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

187. what is advantageous is recognised by a comparison with what is injurious, what is beautiful by a comparison with what is unseemly, what is just and generally good, by placing it in juxta-position with what is unjust and bad. And, indeed, if any one considers everything that there is in the world, he will be able to arrive at a proper estimate of its character, by taking it in the same manner; for each separate thing is by itself incomprehensible, but by a comparison with another thing, is easy to understand it.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 69-71, 68 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

68. On this account, I imagine it is, that when Moses was speaking philosophically of the creation of the world, while he described everything else as having been created by God alone, he mentions man alone as having been made by him in conjunction with other assistants; for, says Moses, "God said, Let us make man in our Image." The expression, "let us make," indicating a plurality of makers.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 20-29, 31, 33, 35, 43-45, 47-49, 52-56, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. And, in all such matters, it is impossible for the spirit of God to remain and to pass all its time, as the law-giver himself shows. "For," says Moses, "the Lord said, My spirit shall not remain among men for ever, because they are Flesh.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 177-195, 176 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

176. And "Abraham," says Moses, "was seventy-five years of age, when he departed out of Charren." Now concerning the number of seventy-five years (for this contains a calculation corresponding to what has been previously advanced,) we will enter into an accurate examination hereafter. But first of all we will examine what Charran is, and what is meant by the departure from this country to go and live in another.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 14-15, 179, 18, 228, 27-31, 33-38, 54, 56, 66-67, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. And what wonder is there if the living God is beyond the reach of the comprehension of man, when even the mind that is in each of us is unintelligible and unknown to us? Who has ever beheld the essence of the soul? the obscure nature of which has given rise to an infinite number of contests among the sophists who have brought forward opposite opinions, some of which are inconsistent with any kind of nature.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 126, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 70, 71, "69" (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 19-20, 24, 44, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 169, 15 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. When, therefore, the soul that loves God seeks to know what the one living God is according to his essence, it is entertaining upon an obscure and dark subject of investigation, from which the greatest benefit that arises to it is to comprehend that God, as to his essence, is utterly incomprehensible to any being, and also to be aware that he is invisible.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.15, 1.21, 1.23, 1.25, 1.30-1.33, 1.67, 1.191 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. May it not be that sacred historian here desires to represent, in a figurative manner, that as in the universe there are four elements of which this world is composed, and as there are an equal number in ourselves, of which we have been fashioned before we were moulded into our human shape, three of them are capable of being comprehended somehow or other, but the fourth is unintelligible to all who come forward as judges of it. 1.23. What, again, are we to say of the moon? Does she show us a light of her own, or a borrowed and illegitimate one, only reflected from the rays of the sun? or is neither of these things true, but has she something mixed, as it were, so as to be a sort of combination of her own light and of that which belongs to some other body? For all these things, and others like them, belonging to the fourth and most excellent of the bodies in the world, namely, the heaven, are uncertain and incomprehensible, and are spoken of in accordance with conjectures and guesses, and not with the solid, certain reasoning of truth 1.25. There are, then, four principal elements in us, the body, the external sense, the speech, and the mind. Now of these, three are not uncertain or unintelligible in every respect, but they contain some indication in themselves by which they are comprehended. 1.30. Now then is the fourth element which exists within us, the domit mind, comprehensible to us in the same manner as these other divisions? Certainly not; for what do we think it to be in its essence? Do we look upon it as spirit, or as blood, or, in short, as any bodily substance! But it is not a substance, but must be pronounced incorporeal. Is it then a limit, or a species, or a number, or a continued act, or a harmony, or any existing thing whatever? 1.31. Is it, the very first moment that we are born, infused into us from without, or is it some warm nature in us which is cooled by the air which is diffused around us, like a piece of iron which has been heated at a forge, and then being plunged into cold water, is by that process tempered and hardened? (And perhaps it is from the cooling process [psyxis] to which it is thus submitted that the soul [heµ psycheµ] derives its name.) What more shall we say? When we die, is it extinguished and destroyed together with our bodies? or does it continue to live a long time? or, thirdly, is it wholly incorruptible and immortal? 1.32. Again, where, in what part does this mind lie hid? Has it received any settled habitation? For some men have dedicated it to our head, as the principal citadel, around which all the outward senses have their lairs; thinking it natural that its body-guards should be stationed near it, as near the palace of a mighty king. Some again contend earnestly in favour of the position which they assign it, believing that it is enshrined like a statue in the heart. 1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures? 1.67. Perhaps, however, the historian, by this allegorical form of expression, does not here mean by his expression, "place," the Cause of all things; but the idea which he intends to convey may be something of this sort; --he came to the place, and looking up with his eyes he saw the very place to which he had come, which was a very long way from the God who may not be named nor spoken of, and who is in every way incomprehensible. XII. 1.191. consider, however, what comes afterwards. The sacred word enjoins some persons what they ought to do by positive command, like a king; to others it suggests what will be for their advantage, as a preceptor does to his pupils; to others again, it is like a counsellor suggesting the wisest plans; and in this way too, it is of great advantage to those who do not of themselves know what is expedient; to others it is like a friend, in a mild and persuasive manner, bringing forward many secret things which no uninitiated person may lawfully hear.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.37, 1.41-1.50, 1.207, 1.345, 3.178 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. And the witnesses of this fact are those who have not merely tasted philosophy with their outermost lips, but who have abundantly feasted on its reasonings and its doctrines; for the reasoning of these men, being raised on high far above the earth, roams in the air, and soaring aloft with the sun, and moon, and all the firmament of heaven, being eager to behold all the things that exist therein, finds its power of vision somewhat indistinct from a vast quantity of unalloyed light being poured over it, so that the eye of his soul becomes dazzled and confused by the splendour. 1.41. Which that interpreter of the divine word, Moses, the man most beloved by God, having a regard to, besought God and said, "Show me thyself"--all but urging him, and crying out in loud and distinct words--"that thou hast a real being and existence the whole world is my teacher, assuring me of the fact and instructing me as a son might of the existence of his father, or the work of the existence of the workman. But, though I am very desirous to know what thou art as to thy essence, I can find no one who is able to explain to me anything relating to this branch of learning in any part of the universe whatever. 1.42. On which account, I beg and entreat of thee to receive the supplication of a man who is thy suppliant and devoted to God's service, and desirous to serve thee alone; for as the light is not known by the agency of anything else, but is itself its own manifestation, so also thou must alone be able to manifest thyself. For which reason I hope to receive pardon, if, from want of any one to teach me, I am so bold as to flee to thee, desiring to receive instruction from thyself. 1.43. But God replied, "I receive, indeed, your eagerness, inasmuch as it is praiseworthy; but the request which you make is not fitting to be granted to any created being. And I only bestow such gifts as are appropriate to him who receives them; for it is not possible for a man to receive all that it is easy for me to give. On which account I give to him who is deserving of my favour all the gifts which he is able to receive. 1.44. But not only is the nature of mankind, but even the whole heaven and the whole world is unable to attain to an adequate comprehension of me. So know yourself, and be not carried away with impulses and desires beyond your power; and let not a desire of unattainable objects carry you away and keep you in suspense. For you shall not lack anything which may be possessed by you. 1.45. When Moses heard this he betook himself to a second supplication, and said, "I am persuaded by thy explanations that I should not have been able to receive the visible appearance of thy form. But I beseech thee that I may, at all events, behold the glory that is around thee. And I look upon thy glory to be the powers which attend thee as thy guards, the comprehension of which having escaped me up to the present time, worketh in me no slight desire of a thorough understanding of it. 1.46. But God replied and said, "The powers which you seek to behold are altogether invisible, and appreciable only by the intellect; since I myself am invisible and only appreciable by the intellect. And what I call appreciable only by the intellect are not those which are already comprehended by the mind, but those which, even if they could be so comprehended, are still such that the outward senses could not at all attain to them, but only the very purest intellect. 1.47. And though they are by nature incomprehensible in their essence, still they show a kind of impression or copy of their energy and operation; as seals among you, when any wax or similar kind of material is applied to them, make an innumerable quantity of figures and impressions, without being impaired as to any portion of themselves, but still remaining unaltered and as they were before; so also you must conceive that the powers which are around me invest those things which have no distinctive qualities with such qualities, and those which have no forms with precise forms, and that without having any portion of their own everlasting nature dismembered or weakened. 1.48. And some of your race, speaking with sufficient correctness, call them ideas (ideai 1.49. Do not, then, ever expect to be able to comprehend me nor any one of my powers, in respect of our essence. But, as I have said, I willingly and cheerfully grant unto you such things as you may receive. And this gift is to call you to the beholding of the world and all the things that are in it, which must be comprehended, not indeed by the eyes of the body, but by the sleepless vision of the soul. 1.50. The desire of wisdom alone is continual and incessant, and it fills all its pupils and disciples with famous and most beautiful doctrines." When Moses heard this he did not cease from his desire, but he still burned with a longing for the understanding of invisible things. [...]{7}{mangey thinks that there is a considerable hiatus here. What follows relates to the regulations respecting proselytes, which as the text stands is in no way connected with what has gone before about the worship of God.}IX. 1.207. And by the command that the feet of the victim should be washed, it is figuratively shown that we must no longer walk upon the earth, but soar aloft and traverse the air. For the soul of the man who is devoted to God, being eager for truth, springs upward and mounts from earth to heaven; and, being borne on wings, traverses the expanse of the air, being eager to be classed with and to move in concert with the sun, and moon, and all the rest of the most sacred and most harmonious company of the stars, under the immediate command and government of God, who has a kingly authority without any rival, and of which he can never be deprived, in accordance with which he justly governs the universe. 1.345. But we who are the followers and disciples of the prophet Moses, will never abandon our investigation into the nature of the true God; looking upon the knowledge of him as the true end of happiness; and thinking that the true everlasting life, as the law says, {49}{#de 4:4.} is to live in obedience to and worship of God; in which precept it gives us a most important and philosophical lesson; for in real truth those who are atheists are dead as to their souls, but those who are marshalled in the ranks of the true living God, as his servants, enjoy an everlasting Life.{50}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Commandment that the Wages of a Harlot Are Not To Be Received in the Sacred Treasury. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. but they take up their abode outside of walls, or gardens, or solitary lands, seeking for a desert place, not because of any ill-natured misanthropy to which they have learnt to devote themselves, but because of the associations with people of wholly dissimilar dispositions to which they would otherwise be compelled, and which they know to be unprofitable and mischievous. III.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, a b c d\n0 "2.188" "2.188" "2 188" (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.20, 1.31-1.37, 1.39-1.43, 1.90, 1.106, 2.4, 2.14-2.15, 2.24, 3.161 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. But, lest you should imagine that the Deity does anything according to definite periods of time, while you should rather think that everything done by him is inscrutable in its nature, uncertain, unknown to, and incomprehensible by the race of mortal men. Moses adds the words, "when they were created," not defining the time when by any exact limitation, for what has been made by the Author of all things has no limitation. And in this way the idea is excluded, that the universe was created in six days. IX. 1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV. 1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement. 1.90. And the Lord God commanded Adam, saying, of every tree that is in the Paradise thou mayest freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil ye shall not eat; but in the day on which ye eat of it ye shall die the death." A question may arise here to what kind of Adam he gave this command and who, this Adam was. For Moses has not made any mention of him before; but now is the first time that he has named him. Are we then to think that he is desirous to supply you with the name of the factitious man? "And he calls him," continues Moses, "Earth." For this is the interpretation of the name of Adam. Accordingly, when you hear the name Adam, you must think that he is an earthly and perishable being; for he is made according to an image, being not earthly but heavenly. 1.106. and consequently God calls that not merely "to die," but "to die the death;" showing that he is speaking not of common death, but of that peculiar and especial death which is the death of the soul, buried in its passions and in all kinds of evil. And we may almost say that one kind of death is opposed to the other kind. For the one is the separation of what was previously existing in combination, namely, of body and soul. But this other death, on the contrary, is a combination of them both, the inferior one, the body, having the predomice, and the superior one, the soul, being made subject to it.
28. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 171-172, 209, 246, 54-57, 62-64, 170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

170. The third law is one about the name of the Lord, not about that name which has not yet reached his creatures; for that name is unspeakable, but about the name which is constantly applied to him as displayed in his powers; for it is commanded that we shall not take his name in vain. The fourth commandment is concerning the seventh day, always virgin, and without any mother, in order that creation, taking care that it may be always free from labour, may in this way come to a recollection of him who does everything without being seen.
30. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 120, 161-162, 175-176, 80, 86-87, 89, 119 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

119. But to the impious Cain, neither does the earth contribute anything to give him vigour, even though he never concerns himself about anything which is exterior to it; on which account, in the next sentence, he is found "groaning and trembling upon the Earth," that is to say, under the influence of grief and terror; and such also is the miserable life of a wicked man, who has received for his inheritance the most painful of the four passions, pain and terror; the one being equivalent to groaning, and the other to trembling; for it is inevitable, that some evil should either be present to or impending over such a man. Now the expectation of impending evil causes fear, but the suffering of present evil causes pain.
31. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 108 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

108. Therefore, the one being hung up and violently stretched for the sake of making him divulge some secret, showed himself mightier than fire or iron, though they are the strongest things in nature, and biting off his tongue with his teeth, spit it at his torturer, that he might not involuntarily utter what he ought to bury in silence, under the influence of agony;
32. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 19-20, 22-25, 27-28, 36-37, 39-40, 43, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. But the others who say that our mind is a portion of the ethereal nature, have by this assertion attributed to man a kindred with the air; but the great Moses has not named the species of the rational soul by a title resembling that of any created being, but has pronounced it an image of the divine and invisible being, making it a coin as it were of sterling metal, stamped and impressed with the seal of God, the impression of which is the eternal word.
33. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.17, 5.1, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34. New Testament, Romans, 13.8-13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law.
35. New Testament, Mark, 12.28-12.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that.
36. Justin, First Apology, 26.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Tertullian, On The Soul, 50 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Zoroastrian Literature, Yasna, 30.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abram/abraham, and socrates (terah) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227
abram/abraham, covenant with Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
abram/abraham, fall Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227, 229
abram/abraham, gods human being Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365
abram/abraham, merit of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217, 229
abram/abraham, migration Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
abram/abraham, perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
abram/abraham, prayer for ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535, 537
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 193, 212
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186, 217, 227, 362, 368, 535
allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
allegory, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
allegory/allegoresis, cosmological Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
allegory/allegoresis, ethical/moral Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 183
allegory/allegoresis, of the soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
allegory/allegoresis, trigger words Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227
allegory/allegoresis Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 180
aporiae Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 537
aristobulus Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 268
arithmology, five Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
arithmology, one Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
ascend, ascension, ascent Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
body, bodily Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
body Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 186, 212; Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
breath, as pneuma Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
breath Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
caleb Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362
celsus Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197
chaldaeans, philos understanding of Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
covenant Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 186
death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
desire (epithumia) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197
dillon, j. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
divine, breath Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
divine, image Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
dualism Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
earth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
emotions, bad Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 229
emotions, good Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
enoch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 193
eschatology Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183
etymology, greek Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 180
exegesis Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
exposition of the law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535
fall, epistemic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227, 229
fall Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
flesh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
flight Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
furnish, v. p. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197
god, breath/inbreathing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
god, creating/creativity of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
god, destruction/punishment of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
god, gift of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
god, ungenerated Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
god, who is Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
grace Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 183, 217
ground, from the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
heavenly person Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
herodotus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
hexameter Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
homer Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 537
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197
initiation Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
intellect (nous) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535
israel, nation/people Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365, 535
israel, twelve tribes of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
john, fourth gospel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
joy Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212, 217
judaism, nous Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
judaism, pneuma (spirit) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
judaism, rabbinic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
judaism, spirit of god, divine spirit Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
judaism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193, 217
judaism in egypt, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
justice' "151.0_387.0@law, god's" "151.0_149.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535
lawgiver Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186, 365, 368
levison, j. r. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
life, of virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
logos Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 186, 193, 368
lucilius balbus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
many-named Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365, 368
middle platonism Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197
mind, flight of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
moses, as author Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365
moses, gods human being Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 186, 365
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 183, 365, 368, 535; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197
mysteries, mystery, lesemysterium Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
mystic, mystical, mysticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
myth of er, nature (physis) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
myth of er, of the gods Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362, 365, 368
nothingness Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227
offering, sin Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535, 537
origen Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197
passion Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365
perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217, 362, 537
pharaoh Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186, 365, 368
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
philo of alexandria, on scriptural interpretations Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197
philo of alexandria Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 197; Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
philosopher, philosophical, philosophy Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
physical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
piety Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
plato, platonic, platonism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
plato/platonic/platonism/neo-platonism Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
plato Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 219; Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
platonism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 180, 212, 217, 362; Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
plutarch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
priest Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362, 537
promises, divine Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
ps.-phocylides Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
qge Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
relation (category) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179
rhetoric Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227
ritual Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
secret Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 89
seneca Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
socrates Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 227
sons, of deceit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
sons, of justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
soul, as house/temple Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362
soul, as wax tablet Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 535
soul, eye of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
soul, fall of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
soul, flight of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212, 229, 362
soul (psyche) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
spirit, characterizations as, holy Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
spirit, characterizations as, soul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
spirit, characterizations as, stoic pneuma Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
spirit, characterizations as, truth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, divine' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
spirit, effects of, life itself Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
spirit, effects of, mind enlightened Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
spirit, effects of, virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149, 387
spirit, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214
spirit, uplifting Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
spirit Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
spirits, two (lqs 3-4) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
stoicism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212, 368, 537
stoics Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
tithe, levitical Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 537
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
tradition/ religion/beliefs Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 149
unity, of soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362
virtue, cardinal Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 368
wisdom Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 193
wisdom of solomon, and platonism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
wisdom of solomon, and stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
wise Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 78
zeus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126