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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9247
Philo Of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.33-1.43


nanBut some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit.


nanNow in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people.


nanWe must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences.


nanNow the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things inanimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature;


nanfor there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him?


nanSince how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended.


nanAnd God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the dominant portion of the body, so also is the mind the dominant portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power.


nanBy what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh.


nanFor of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul;


nanand Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV.


nanAnd God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

35 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.12-30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, a b c d\n0 "15.25" "15.25" "15 25"\n1 31.2 31.2 31 2 \n2 31.3 31.3 31 3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "1.26" "1.26" "1 26" \n1 "2.7" "2.7" "2 7" \n2 "5.24" "5.24" "5 24" \n3 1.2 1.2 1 2 \n4 1.26 1.26 1 26 \n5 1.27 1.27 1 27 \n6 1.28 1.28 1 28 \n7 12 12 12 None\n8 12.15 12.15 12 15 \n9 2.7 2.7 2 7 \n10 9.20 9.20 9 20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.6-5.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃ 5.7. וְאִם־לֹא תַגִּיע יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃ 5.8. וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ מִמּוּל עָרְפּוֹ וְלֹא יַבְדִּיל׃ 5.9. וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת עַל־קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בַּדָּם יִמָּצֵה אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 5.11. וְאִם־לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ לִשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת לְחַטָּאת לֹא־יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא׃ 5.12. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלוֹא קֻמְצוֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הִוא׃ 5.13. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָה׃ 5.14. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.15. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תִמְעֹל מַעַל וְחָטְאָה בִּשְׁגָגָה מִקָּדְשֵׁי יְהוָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּסֶף־שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְאָשָׁם׃ 5.16. וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם וְאֶת־חֲמִישִׁתוֹ יוֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן אֹתוֹ לַכֹּהֵן וְהַכֹּהֵן יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.6. and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin." 5.7. And if his means suffice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his forfeit for that wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering." 5.8. And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin-offering first, and pinch off its head close by its neck, but shall not divide it asunder." 5.9. And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin-offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar; it is a sin-offering." 5.10. And he shall prepare the second for a burnt-offering, according to the ordice; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin which he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven." 5.11. But if his means suffice not for two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he shall bring his offering for that wherein he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon; for it is a sin-offering." 5.12. And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; it is a sin-offering." 5.13. And the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in any of these things, and he shall be forgiven; and the remt shall be the priest’s, as the meal-offering." 5.14. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.15. If any one commit a trespass, and sin through error, in the holy things of the LORD, then he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation in silver by shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a guilt-offering." 5.16. And he shall make restitution for that which he hath done amiss in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest; and the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt-offering, and he shall be forgiven." 5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity."
5. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.26, 23.19-23.21 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.26. וַתִּזְנִי אֶל־בְּנֵי־מִצְרַיִם שְׁכֵנַיִךְ גִּדְלֵי בָשָׂר וַתַּרְבִּי אֶת־תַּזְנֻתֵךְ לְהַכְעִיסֵנִי׃ 23.19. וַתַּרְבֶּה אֶת־תַּזְנוּתֶיהָ לִזְכֹּר אֶת־יְמֵי נְעוּרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר זָנְתָה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 23.21. וַתִּפְקְדִי אֵת זִמַּת נְעוּרָיִךְ בַּעְשׂוֹת מִמִּצְרַיִם דַּדַּיִךְ לְמַעַן שְׁדֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ׃ 16.26. Thou hast also played the harlot with the Egyptians, thy neighbours, great of flesh; and hast multiplied thy harlotry, to provoke Me." 23.19. Yet she multiplied her harlotries, remembering the days of her youth, wherein she had played the harlot in the land of Egypt." 23.20. And she doted upon concubinage with them, whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and whose issue is like the issue of horses." 23.21. Thus thou didst call to remembrance the lewdness of thy youth, when they from Egypt bruised thy breasts for the bosom of thy youth."
6. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

68b. than in the other world grieve when he dies and not be glad to go there? We cannot think that, my friend, if he is really a philosopher; for he will confidently believe that he will find pure wisdom nowhere else than in the other world. And if this is so, would it not be very foolish for such a man to fear death? Very foolish, certainly, said he. Then is it not, said Socrates, a sufficient indication, when you see a man troubled because he is going to die, that he was not a lover of wisdom but a lover of the body?
7. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246c. and fully winged, it mounts upward and governs the whole world; but the soul which has lost its wings is borne along until it gets hold of something solid, when it settles down, taking upon itself an earthly body, which seems to be self-moving, because of the power of the soul within it; and the whole, compounded of soul and body, is called a living being, and is further designated as mortal. It is not immortal by any reasonable supposition, but we, though we have never seen
8. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.14-3.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.22-24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.22. Whoever obeys me will not be put to shame,and those who work with my help will not sin. 24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 9.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 67, 66 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

66. But this man with a few companions, or perhaps I might say by himself, as soon as he was commanded to do so, left his home, and set out on an expedition to a foreign country in his soul even before he started with his body, his regard for mortal things being overpowered by his love for heavenly things.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 69-71, 68 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

68. On this account, I imagine it is, that when Moses was speaking philosophically of the creation of the world, while he described everything else as having been created by God alone, he mentions man alone as having been made by him in conjunction with other assistants; for, says Moses, "God said, Let us make man in our Image." The expression, "let us make," indicating a plurality of makers.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 19-31, 33, 35, 43-45, 47-49, 52-56, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Since what shall we say? Must we not say that these animals which are terrestrial or aquatic live in air and spirit? What? Are not pestilential afflictions accustomed to exist when the air is tainted or corrupted, as if that were the cause of all such assuming vitality? Again, when the air is free from all taint and innocent, such as it is especially wont to be when the north wind prevails, does not the imbibing of a purer air tend to a more vigorous and more lasting duration of life?
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 152 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 177-195, 176 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

176. And "Abraham," says Moses, "was seventy-five years of age, when he departed out of Charren." Now concerning the number of seventy-five years (for this contains a calculation corresponding to what has been previously advanced,) we will enter into an accurate examination hereafter. But first of all we will examine what Charran is, and what is meant by the departure from this country to go and live in another.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 208-209, 228, 27-31, 33-38, 54, 56, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. And when the ruler has appeared, then he in a still greater degree benefits his disciple and beholder, saying, "I am thy God;" for I should say to him, "What is there of all the things which form a part of creation of which thou art not the God?" But his word, which is his interpreter, will teach me that he is not at present speaking of the world, of which he is by all means the creator and the God, but about the souls of men, which he has thought worthy of a different kind of care;
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 8, 9, "69" (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 19-20, 24, 44, 6, 8, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.30-1.33 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. Now then is the fourth element which exists within us, the domit mind, comprehensible to us in the same manner as these other divisions? Certainly not; for what do we think it to be in its essence? Do we look upon it as spirit, or as blood, or, in short, as any bodily substance! But it is not a substance, but must be pronounced incorporeal. Is it then a limit, or a species, or a number, or a continued act, or a harmony, or any existing thing whatever? 1.31. Is it, the very first moment that we are born, infused into us from without, or is it some warm nature in us which is cooled by the air which is diffused around us, like a piece of iron which has been heated at a forge, and then being plunged into cold water, is by that process tempered and hardened? (And perhaps it is from the cooling process [psyxis] to which it is thus submitted that the soul [heµ psycheµ] derives its name.) What more shall we say? When we die, is it extinguished and destroyed together with our bodies? or does it continue to live a long time? or, thirdly, is it wholly incorruptible and immortal? 1.32. Again, where, in what part does this mind lie hid? Has it received any settled habitation? For some men have dedicated it to our head, as the principal citadel, around which all the outward senses have their lairs; thinking it natural that its body-guards should be stationed near it, as near the palace of a mighty king. Some again contend earnestly in favour of the position which they assign it, believing that it is enshrined like a statue in the heart. 1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures?
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.33-1.35, 4.185 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.33. It has invariably happened that the works which they have made have been, in some degree, the proofs of the character of the workmen; for who is there who, when he looks upon statues or pictures, does not at once form an idea of the statuary or painter himself? And who, when he beholds a garment, or a ship, or a house, does not in a moment conceive a notion of the weaver, or shipbuilder, or architect, who has made them? And if any one comes into a well-ordered city, in which all parts of the constitution are exceedingly well arranged and regulated, what other idea will he entertain but that this city is governed by wise and virtuous rulers? 1.34. He, therefore, who comes into that which is truly the greatest of cities, namely, this world, and who beholds all the land, both the mountain and the champaign district full of animals, and plants, and the streams of rivers, both overflowing and depending on the wintry floods, and the steady flow of the sea, and the admirable temperature of the air, and the varieties and regular revolutions of the seasons of the year; and then too the sun and moon, the rulers of day and night, and the revolutions and regular motions of all the other planets and fixed stars, and of the whole heaven; would he not naturally, or I should rather say, of necessity, conceive a notion of the Father, and creator, and governor of all this system; 1.35. for there is no artificial work whatever which exists of its own accord? And the world is the most artificial and skilfully made of all works, as if it had been put together by some one who was altogether accomplished and most perfect in knowledge. It is in this way that we have received an idea of the existence of God.VII. 4.185. but those men who acquire great power and authority to the injury and damage of their subjects, ought to be entitled, not rulers, but enemies, inasmuch as they are acting the part of implacable foes. Not but what those who injure one treacherously are even more wicked than those who oppose one openly, since it is possible to repel the one without difficulty, as they display their hostility without disguise; but the evil-mindedness of the others is difficult to detect and hard to unveil, being like the conduct of men on the stage, who are clothed in a dress which does not belong to them, in order to conceal their real appearance.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

60. and if thou lookest upon them also as unfit, having a greater regard for the whole nation than for thy nearest and dearest relations, still thou hast an irreproachable friend who has given a proof of his perfect virtue to you who art all-wise and capable to judge of it. Why, then, do thou not think fit to show your approbation of him, if thy object is not to select one on account of his family but on account of his virtue?
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, a b c d\n0 "2.188" "2.188" "2 188" (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. but they, for they persisted in their ill-will, being reconciled with him only in words and in appearance, but in their actions and in their hearts they bore him incurable enmity, and though only pretending a genuine friendship towards him, like actors in a theatre, they drew him over wholly to their side; and so the governor became a subject, and the subjects became the governor, advancing the most unprofitable opinions, and immediately confirming and insisting upon them;
26. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.32, 1.34-1.43, 2.4, 2.14-2.15, 2.24, 3.47, 3.161 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV. 1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement.
27. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 172, 55-57, 171 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

171. The fifth commandment is about the honour due to parents. For this also is a sacred command; having reference not to men, but to him who is the cause of birth and existence of the universe, in accordance with whom it is that fathers and mothers appear to generate children; not generating them themselves, but only being the instruments of generation in his hands.
29. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 120, 161-162, 19, 80, 119 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

119. But to the impious Cain, neither does the earth contribute anything to give him vigour, even though he never concerns himself about anything which is exterior to it; on which account, in the next sentence, he is found "groaning and trembling upon the Earth," that is to say, under the influence of grief and terror; and such also is the miserable life of a wicked man, who has received for his inheritance the most painful of the four passions, pain and terror; the one being equivalent to groaning, and the other to trembling; for it is inevitable, that some evil should either be present to or impending over such a man. Now the expectation of impending evil causes fear, but the suffering of present evil causes pain.
30. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 111 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

111. But another mind attached to the body and the slave of the passions, having been sold as slave to the chief cook, 27 that is to say to the pleasure of our compound being, and being castrated and mutilated of all the masculine and generative parts of the soul, being afflicted with a want of all good practices, and being incapable of receiving the divine voice, being also separated and cut off from the sacred assembly, in which conferences and discussions about virtue are continually being brought up, is conducted into the prison of the passions, and finds grace, (a grace more inglorious than dishonour), with the keeper of the prison.28
31. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 19-20, 22-25, 27-28, 36-37, 39-40, 43, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. But the others who say that our mind is a portion of the ethereal nature, have by this assertion attributed to man a kindred with the air; but the great Moses has not named the species of the rational soul by a title resembling that of any created being, but has pronounced it an image of the divine and invisible being, making it a coin as it were of sterling metal, stamped and impressed with the seal of God, the impression of which is the eternal word.
32. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.17, 5.1, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, Romans, 13.8-13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law.
34. New Testament, Mark, 12.28-12.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that.
35. Zoroastrian Literature, Yasna, 30.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abram/abraham, and socrates (terah) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227
abram/abraham, covenant with Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
abram/abraham, fall Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227, 229
abram/abraham, gods human being Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365
abram/abraham, merit of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217, 229
abram/abraham, migration Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
abram/abraham, perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
abram/abraham, prayer for ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535, 537
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 193, 212
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186, 217, 227, 362, 368, 535; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 180
allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
allegory, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
allegory/allegoresis, cosmological Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
allegory/allegoresis, ethical/moral Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 183
allegory/allegoresis, of the soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
allegory/allegoresis, trigger words Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227
allegory/allegoresis Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 180
aporiae Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 537
aristobulus Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 268
arithmology, five Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
arithmology, one Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
bees, r. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
besnier, b. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
body Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 186, 212; Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
breath, as pneuma Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
breath Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
caleb Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362
chaldaeans, philos understanding of Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
covenant Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 186
death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
dillon, j. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
dualism Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
egypt, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
egypt, as land of the body Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
egypt, sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
emotions, bad Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 229
emotions, good Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
enoch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183, 193
epicurus Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
erler, m. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
eschatology Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 183
ethics Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
etymology, greek Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 180
exposition of the law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535
fall, epistemic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227, 229
fall Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
flesh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
furnish, v. p. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
gnosticism Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
god, as director Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
god, as hating Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
god, creating/creativity of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
god, ungenerated Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
god, who is Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
god and the divine Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
grace Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 183, 217
hadas–lebel, m. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
herodotus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
hexameter Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
homer Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 537
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
intellect (nous) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535
israel, nation/people Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365, 535
israel, twelve tribes of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362
jaeger, w. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
jerusalem Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 180
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
john, fourth gospel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
joy Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212, 217
judaism, moses as sophos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 218
judaism, nous Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
judaism, pneuma (spirit) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
judaism, pneuma and wisdom Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 218
judaism, rabbinic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217
judaism, soul, creation of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 218
judaism, spirit of god, divine spirit Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
judaism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193, 217
judaism in egypt, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
law, god's" '151.0_387.0@life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535
lawgiver Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186, 365, 368
le boulluec, a. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
levison, j. r. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
life, of virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
logos Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 186, 193, 368
lévy, c. Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
many-named Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365, 368
marriage, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
mind, flight of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
moses, as author Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365
moses, gods human being Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 186, 365
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 183, 365, 368, 535
mourning customs, the multitude Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
myth of er, nature (physis) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
myth of er, of the gods Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362, 365, 368
nothingness Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227
offering, sin Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 535, 537
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 365
perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 217, 362, 537
pharaoh, as body-loving Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
pharaoh, punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
pharaoh Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186, 365, 368
philo Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 180
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
philo of alexandria Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251; Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
piety Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
plato Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251; Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
platonism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179, 180, 212, 217, 362; Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
plutarch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
pneuma Del Lucchese, Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture (2019) 251
priest Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362, 537
promises, divine Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
ps.-phocylides Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
qge Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 186
relation (category) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 179
rhetoric Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 227
sarah, as virtue Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
socrates Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 227
sons, of deceit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
sons, of justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
soul, as house/temple Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362
soul, as wax tablet Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 535
soul, eye of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
soul, fall of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
soul, flight of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212, 229, 362
soul (psyche) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, characterizations as, soul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, characterizations as, truth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, divine' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
spirit, effects of, virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 214, 218
spirits, two (lqs 3-4) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
stoicism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212, 368, 537
stoics Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 284
temple Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 180
the body, love of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
theatre imagery Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
tithe, levitical Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 537
torah Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 180
unity, of soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 362
virtue, as torture Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
virtue, cardinal Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 212
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 368
wisdom Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 180, 193
wisdom of solomon, and platonism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
wisdom of solomon, and stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 216
zeus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 126
νοῦς Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246
φιλοσώματος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 246