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Pausanias, Description Of Greece, 7.22.4

nanThere is a similar method of divination practised at the sanctuary of Apis in Egypt . At Pharae there is also a water sacred to Hermes. The name of the spring is Hermes' stream, and the fish in it are not caught, being considered sacred to the god. Quite close to the image stand square stones, about thirty in number. These the people of Pharae adore, calling each by the name of some god. At a more remote period all the Greeks alike worshipped uncarved stones instead of images of the gods.

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11 results
1. Aristophanes, Peace, 605 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

605. πρῶτα μὲν γὰρ †αὐτῆς ἦρξεν† Φειδίας πράξας κακῶς:
2. Herodotus, Histories, 1.131-1.132, 2.50-2.52, 2.51.4 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.131. As to the customs of the Persians, I know them to be these. It is not their custom to make and set up statues and temples and altars, but those who do such things they think foolish, because, I suppose, they have never believed the gods to be like men, as the Greeks do; ,but they call the whole circuit of heaven Zeus, and to him they sacrifice on the highest peaks of the mountains; they sacrifice also to the sun and moon and earth and fire and water and winds. ,From the beginning, these are the only gods to whom they have ever sacrificed; they learned later to sacrifice to the “heavenly” Aphrodite from the Assyrians and Arabians. She is called by the Assyrians Mylitta, by the Arabians Alilat, by the Persians Mitra. 1.132. And this is their method of sacrifice to the aforesaid gods: when about to sacrifice, they do not build altars or kindle fire, employ libations, or music, or fillets, or barley meal: when a man wishes to sacrifice to one of the gods, he leads a beast to an open space and then, wearing a wreath on his tiara, of myrtle usually, calls on the god. ,To pray for blessings for himself alone is not lawful for the sacrificer; rather, he prays that the king and all the Persians be well; for he reckons himself among them. He then cuts the victim limb from limb into portions, and, after boiling the flesh, spreads the softest grass, trefoil usually, and places all of it on this. ,When he has so arranged it, a Magus comes near and chants over it the song of the birth of the gods, as the Persian tradition relates it; for no sacrifice can be offered without a Magus. Then after a little while the sacrificer carries away the flesh and uses it as he pleases. 2.50. In fact, the names of nearly all the gods came to Hellas from Egypt . For I am convinced by inquiry that they have come from foreign parts, and I believe that they came chiefly from Egypt . ,Except the names of Poseidon and the Dioscuri, as I have already said, and Hera, and Hestia, and Themis, and the Graces, and the Nereids, the names of all the gods have always existed in Egypt . I only say what the Egyptians themselves say. The gods whose names they say they do not know were, as I think, named by the Pelasgians, except Poseidon, the knowledge of whom they learned from the Libyans. ,Alone of all nations the Libyans have had among them the name of Poseidon from the beginning, and they have always honored this god. The Egyptians, however, are not accustomed to pay any honors to heroes. 2.51. These customs, then, and others besides, which I shall indicate, were taken by the Greeks from the Egyptians. It was not so with the ithyphallic images of Hermes; the production of these came from the Pelasgians, from whom the Athenians were the first Greeks to take it, and then handed it on to others. ,For the Athenians were then already counted as Greeks when the Pelasgians came to live in the land with them and thereby began to be considered as Greeks. Whoever has been initiated into the rites of the Cabeiri, which the Samothracians learned from the Pelasgians and now practice, understands what my meaning is. ,Samothrace was formerly inhabited by those Pelasgians who came to live among the Athenians, and it is from them that the Samothracians take their rites. ,The Athenians, then, were the first Greeks to make ithyphallic images of Hermes, and they did this because the Pelasgians taught them. The Pelasgians told a certain sacred tale about this, which is set forth in the Samothracian mysteries. 2.51.4. The Athenians, then, were the first Greeks to make ithyphallic images of Hermes, and they did this because the Pelasgians taught them. The Pelasgians told a certain sacred tale about this, which is set forth in the Samothracian mysteries. 2.52. Formerly, in all their sacrifices, the Pelasgians called upon gods without giving name or appellation to any (I know this, because I was told at Dodona ); for as yet they had not heard of such. They called them gods from the fact that, besides setting everything in order, they maintained all the dispositions. ,Then, after a long while, first they learned the names of the rest of the gods, which came to them from Egypt, and, much later, the name of Dionysus; and presently they asked the oracle at Dodona about the names; for this place of divination, held to be the most ancient in Hellas, was at that time the only one. ,When the Pelasgians, then, asked at Dodona whether they should adopt the names that had come from foreign parts, the oracle told them to use the names. From that time onwards they used the names of the gods in their sacrifices; and the Greeks received these later from the Pelasgians.
3. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.1.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1.14. As some madmen have no fear of danger and others are afraid where there is nothing to be afraid of, as some will do or say anything in a crowd with no sense of shame, while others shrink even from going abroad among men, some respect neither temple nor altar nor any other sacred thing, others worship stocks and stones and beasts, so is it, he held, with those who worry with Universal Nature. Some hold that What is is one, others that it is infinite in number: some that all things are in perpetual motion, others that nothing can ever be moved at any time: some that all life is birth and decay, others that nothing can ever be born or ever die.
4. Theophrastus, Characters, 16.1-16.5 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 2.1169-2.1176 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1169. πασσυδίῃ δἤπειτα κίον μετὰ νηὸν Ἄρηος 2.1170. μῆλʼ ἱερευσόμενοι· περὶ δʼ ἐσχάρῃ ἐστήσαντο 2.1171. ἐσσυμένως, ἥ τʼ ἐκτὸς ἀνηρεφέος πέλε νηοῦ 2.1172. στιάων· εἴσω δὲ μέλας λίθος ἠρήρειστο 2.1173. ἱερός, ᾧ ποτε πᾶσαι Ἀμαζόνες εὐχετόωντο. 2.1174. οὐδέ σφιν θέμις ἦεν, ὅτʼ ἀντιπέρηθεν ἵκοιντο 2.1175. μήλων τʼ ἠδὲ βοῶν τῇδʼ ἐσχάρῃ ἱερὰ καίειν· 2.1176. ἀλλʼ ἵππους δαίτρευον, ἐπηετανὸν κομέουσαι.
6. Ovid, Fasti, 4.335-4.339 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

4.335. And crowned the stern, and sacrificed a heifer 4.336. Free of blemish, that had never known yoke or bull. 4.337. There’s a place where smooth-flowing Almo joins the Tiber 4.338. And the lesser flow loses its name in the greater: 4.339. There, a white-headed priest in purple robe
7. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 4.40 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Maximus of Tyre, Dialexeis, 2.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.19.1, 2.10.7, 2.25.8, 3.16.10-3.16.11, 3.22.1, 4.33.3, 7.22.2-7.22.3, 7.27.1, 8.31.7, 8.32.1, 8.32.4, 8.39.6, 8.48.6, 9.24.3, 9.27.1, 9.40.10-9.40.12, 10.12.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.19.1. Close to the temple of Olympian Zeus is a statue of the Pythian Apollo. There is further a sanctuary of Apollo surnamed Delphinius. The story has it that when the temple was finished with the exception of the roof Theseus arrived in the city, a stranger as yet to everybody. When he came to the temple of the Delphinian, wearing a tunic that reached to his feet and with his hair neatly plaited, those who were building the roof mockingly inquired what a marriageable virgin was doing wandering about by herself. The only answer that Theseus made was to loose, it is said, the oxen from the cart hard by, and to throw them higher than the roof of the temple they were building. 2.10.7. Ascending from here to the gymnasium you see in the right a sanctuary of Artemis Pheraea. It is said that the wooden image was brought from Pherae. This gymnasium was built for the Sicyonians by Cleinias, and they still train the youths here. White marble images are here, an Artemis wrought only to the waist, and a Heracles whose lower parts are similar to the square Hermae. 2.25.8. Going on from here and turning to the right, you come to the ruins of Tiryns . The Tirynthians also were removed by the Argives, who wished to make Argos more powerful by adding to the population. The hero Tiryns, from whom the city derived its name, is said to have been a son of Argus, a son of Zeus. The wall, which is the only part of the ruins still remaining, is a work of the Cyclopes made of unwrought stones, each stone being so big that a pair of mules could not move the smallest from its place to the slightest degree. Long ago small stones were so inserted that each of them binds the large blocks firmly together. 3.16.10. Whereat an oracle was delivered to them, that they should stain the altar with human blood. He used to be sacrificed upon whomsoever the lot fell, but Lycurgus changed the custom to a scourging of the lads, and so in this way the altar is stained with human blood. By them stands the priestess, holding the wooden image. Now it is small and light 3.16.11. but if ever the scourgers spare the lash because of a lad's beauty or high rank, then at once the priestess finds the image grow so heavy that she can hardly carry it. She lays the blame on the scourgers, and says that it is their fault that she is being weighed down. So the image ever since the sacrifices in the Tauric land keeps its fondness for human blood. They call it not only Orthia, but also Lygodesma (Willow-bound), because it was found in a thicket of willows, and the encircling willow made the image stand upright. 3.22.1. Just about three stades from Ciythium is an unwrought stone. Legend has it that when Orestes sat down upon it his madness left him. For this reason the stone was named in the Dorian tongue Zeus Cappotas. Before Gythium lies the island Cranae, and Homer Hom. Il. 3.445 says that when Alexander had carried off Helen he had intercourse with her there for the first time. On the mainland opposite the island is a sanctuary of Aphrodite Migonitis (Union), and the whole place is called Migonium. 4.33.3. At the Arcadian gate leading to Megalopolis is a Herm of Attic style; for the square form of Herm is Athenian, and the rest adopted it thence. After a descent of thirty stades from the gate is the watercourse of Balyra. The river is said to have got its name from Thamyris throwing (ballein) his lyre away here after his blinding. He was the son of Philammon and the nymph Argiope, who once dwelt on Parnassus, but settled among the Odrysae when pregt, for Philammon refused to take her into his house. Thamyris is called an Odrysian and Thracian on these grounds. The watercourses Leucasia and Amphitos unite to form one stream. 7.22.2. The market-place of Pharae is of wide extent after the ancient fashion, and in the middle of it is an image of Hermes, made of stone and bearded. Standing right on the earth, it is of square shape, and of no great size. On it is an inscription, saying that it was dedicated by Simylus the Messenian. It is called Hermes of the Market, and by it is established an oracle. In front of the image is placed a hearth, which also is of stone, and to the hearth bronze lamps are fastened with lead. 7.22.3. Coming at eventide, the inquirer of the god, having burnt incense upon the hearth, filled the lamps with oil and lighted them, puts on the altar on the right of the image a local coin, called a “copper,” and asks in the ear of the god the particular question he wishes to put to him. After that he stops his ears and leaves the marketplace. On coming outside he takes his hands from his ears, and whatever utterance he hears he considers oracular. 7.27.1. The city of Pellene is on a hill which rises to a sharp peak at its summit. This part then is precipitous, and therefore uninhabited, but on the lower slopes they have built their city, which is not continuous, but divided into two parts by the peak that rises up between. As you go to Pellene there is, by the roadside, an image of Hermes, who, in spite of his surname of Crafty, is ready to fulfill the prayers of men. He is of square shape and bearded, and on his head is carved a cap. 8.31.7. In a building stand statues also, those of Callignotus, Mentas, Sosigenes and Polus. These men are said to have been the first to establish at Megalopolis the mysteries of the Great Goddesses, and the ritual acts are a copy of those at Eleusis . Within the enclosure of the goddesses are the following images, which all have a square shape: Hermes, surnamed Agetor, Apollo, Athena, Poseidon, Sun too, surnamed Saviour, and Heracles. There has also been built for them a [sanctuary] of vast size, and here they celebrate the mysteries in honor of the goddesses. 8.32.1. Such are the notable things on this site. The southern portion, on the other side of the river, can boast of the largest theater in all Greece, and in it is a spring which never fails. Not far from the theater are left foundations of the council house built for the Ten Thousand Arcadians, and called Thersilium after the man who dedicated it. Hard by is a house, belonging to-day to a private person, which originally was built for Alexander, the son of Philip. By the house is an image of Ammon, like the square images of Hermes, with a ram's horns on his head. 8.32.4. There is also in this district a hill to the east, and on it a temple of Artemis Huntress this too was dedicated by Aristodemus. To the right of the Huntress is a precinct. Here there is a sanctuary of Asclepius, with images of the god and of Health, and a little lower down there are gods, also of square shape, surnamed Workers, Athena Worker and Apollo, God of Streets. To Hermes, Heracles and Eileithyia are attached traditions from the poems of Homer: that Hermes is the minister of Zeus and leads the souls of the departed down to Hades, Hom. Od. 24.1, Hom. Od. 24.10, Hom. Od. 24.l00 . and that Heracles accomplished many difficult tasks; Hom. Il. 8.362 foll. Eileithyia, he says in the Iliad, cares for the pangs of women. Hom. Il. 16.187 and Hom. Il. 19.103 . 8.39.6. The image of Hermes in the gymnasium is like to one dressed in a cloak; but the statue does not end in feet, but in the square shape. A temple also of Dionysus is here, who by the inhabitants is surnamed Acratophorus, but the lower part of the image cannot be seen for laurel-leaves and ivy. As much of it as can be seen is painted . . . with cinnabar to shine. It is said to be found by the Iberians along with the gold. 8.48.6. There is also an altar of Zeus Teleius (Full-grown), with a square image, a shape of which the Arcadians seem to me to be exceedingly fond. There are also here tombs of Tegeates, the son of Lycaon, and of Maera, the wife of Tegeates. They say that Maera was a daughter of Atlas, and Homer makes mention of her in the passage Hom. Od. 11.326 where Odysseus tells to Alcinous his journey to Hades, and of those whose ghosts he beheld there. 9.24.3. On the left of Copae about twelve stades from it is Olmones, and some seven stades distant from Olmones is Hyettus both right from their foundation to the present day have been villages. In my view Hyettus, as well as the Athamantian plain, belongs to the district of Orchomenus . All the stories I heard about Hyettus the Argive and Olmus, the son of Sisyphus, I shall include in my history of Orchomenus . Paus. 9.34.10 and Paus. 9.36.6 . In Olmones they did not show me anything that was in the least worth seeing, but in Hyettus is a temple of Heracles, from whom the sick may get cures. There is an image not carefully carved, but of unwrought stone after the ancient fashion. 9.27.1. of the gods the Thespians have from the beginning honored Love most, and they have a very ancient image of him, an unwrought stone. Who established among the Thespians the custom of worshipping Love more than any other god I do not know. He is worshipped equally by the people of Parium on the Hellespont, who were originally colonists from Erythrae in Ionia, but to-day are subject to the Romans. 9.40.10. As you approach the city you see a common grave of the Thebans who were killed in the struggle against Philip. It has no inscription, but is surmounted by a lion, probably a reference to the spirit of the men. That there is no inscription is, in my opinion, because their courage was not favoured by appropriate good fortune. 9.40.11. of the gods, the people of Chaeroneia honor most the scepter which Homer says Hom. Il. 2.101 foll. Hephaestus made for Zeus, Hermes received from Zeus and gave to Pelops, Pelops left to Atreus, Atreus to Thyestes, and Agamemnon had from Thyestes. This scepter, then, they worship, calling it Spear. That there is something peculiarly divine about this scepter is most clearly shown by the fame it brings to the Chaeroneans. 9.40.12. They say that it was discovered on the border of their own country and of Panopeus in Phocis, that with it the Phocians discovered gold, and that they were glad themselves to get the scepter instead of the gold. I am of opinion that it was brought to Phocis by Agamemnon's daughter Electra. It has no public temple made for it, but its priest keeps the scepter for one year in a house. Sacrifices are offered to it every day, and by its side stands a table full of meats and cakes of all sorts. 10.12.6. However, death came upon her in the Troad, and her tomb is in the grove of the Sminthian with these elegiac verses inscribed upon the tomb-stone:— Here I am, the plain-speaking Sibyl of Phoebus, Hidden beneath this stone tomb. A maiden once gifted with voice, but now for ever voiceless, By hard fate doomed to this fetter. But I am buried near the nymphs and this Hermes, Enjoying in the world below a part of the kingdom I had then. The Hermes stands by the side of the tomb, a square-shaped figure of stone. On the left is water running down into a well, and the images of the nymphs.
11. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.18 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.18. 18.On this account also, earthen, wooden, and wicker vessels were formerly used, and especially in public sacrifices, the ancients being persuaded that divinity is delighted with things of this kind. Whence, even now, the most ancient vessels, and which are made of wood, are thought to be more divine, both on account of the matter and the simplicity of the art by which they were fashioned. It is said, therefore, that Aeschylus, on his brother's asking him to write a Paean in honour of Apollo, replied, that the best Paean was written by Tynnichus8; and that if his composition were to be compared with that of Tynnichus, the same thing would take place as if new were compared with ancient statues. For the latter, though they are simple in their formation, are conceived to be divine; but the former, though they are most accurately elaborated, produce indeed admiration, but are not believed to possess so much of a divine nature. Hence Hesiod, praising the law of ancient sacrifices, very properly says, |55 Your country's rites in sacrifice observe: [In pious works] the ancient law is best 9. SPAN

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
agalmata Steiner (2001) 82
agyieus Naiden (2013) 41
aniconism,,and development of greek religion Gaifman (2012) 20, 233, 305
aniconism,,and the figural Gaifman (2012) 233
aniconism,,historiography of Gaifman (2012) 20, 233
anthropomorphism,partial Gaifman (2012) 233
apollo agyieus Gaifman (2012) 68
ares Gaifman (2012) 118, 305
argoi lithoi Gaifman (2012) 20, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54
arkadia Gaifman (2012) 68
arnobius Steiner (2001) 82
athena (goddess),statues in athens Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
athens,acropolis Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
athens,crossroads shrine Gaifman (2012) 305
athens,images of the gods Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
athens,palladion Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
athens,parthenon Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
athens,religious practices Gaifman (2012) 305
athens,statues/images of athena Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
athens Gaifman (2012) 68
attica Gaifman (2012) 68
baituloi Steiner (2001) 82
black stone Gaifman (2012) 118
callimachus Gaifman (2012) 305
chaeronea Naiden (2013) 41
christianity Gaifman (2012) 20
cult images,aniconic Steiner (2001) 82
cult images Steiner (2001) 82
cultic ritual practice,gifts to the gods Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
cyrene Gaifman (2012) 305
damascius Steiner (2001) 82
dionysos kadmos,mask of Gaifman (2012) 233
dionysus Naiden (2013) 41; Steiner (2001) 82
donohue,alice a. Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
dushara Gaifman (2012) 118
egypt Gaifman (2012) 53, 54
eikon,elagabalus,stone of Gaifman (2012) 118, 305
evidence,standing stone as Gaifman (2012) 181
evidence,text as Gaifman (2012) 49, 50
evidence Gaifman (2012) 20
gaifman,milette Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
gods and goddesses,depiction/imagery of Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
hecate Naiden (2013) 41
hera Gaifman (2012) 305
herm,function Gaifman (2012) 305
herm Gaifman (2012) 54, 68, 233
hermes Gaifman (2012) 68; Steiner (2001) 82
herodotos Gaifman (2012) 68, 181, 233, 305
ithomatas Naiden (2013) 41
ivory Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
kommos Gaifman (2012) 305
ktesios Naiden (2013) 41
kybeles rock Gaifman (2012) 305
lapatin,k. d. s. Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
levant Gaifman (2012) 305
maenads Naiden (2013) 41
megalopolis Gaifman (2012) 68
messene Naiden (2013) 41
metapontum Gaifman (2012) 305
myths,aetiological Steiner (2001) 82
nabatea Gaifman (2012) 118
near east Gaifman (2012) 118
overbeck,johannes adolph Gaifman (2012) 20
pausanias,and argoi lithoi Gaifman (2012) 50, 51, 52, 53, 54
pausanias,as source Gaifman (2012) 49, 50
pausanias,on the herm Gaifman (2012) 68
pausanias,on the past Gaifman (2012) 52, 53, 54, 305
pausanias Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171; Naiden (2013) 41
pelasgians Gaifman (2012) 68, 233
persian wars Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
pheidias (sculptor) Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
platt,verity Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
sacrifice Gaifman (2012) 118
selinous Gaifman (2012) 233
silenus Naiden (2013) 41
socrates Gaifman (2012) 118
statuary' Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
steiner,d. t. Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
suda Gaifman (2012) 118
syria Gaifman (2012) 118
theophrastus Gaifman (2012) 305; Naiden (2013) 41
thera Gaifman (2012) 139
tropaios Naiden (2013) 41
von gaertringen,friedrich hiller Gaifman (2012) 139
winckelmann,j. j. Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 171
winckelmann,johannes joachim Gaifman (2012) 50, 233
xenophon Naiden (2013) 41
xoana Steiner (2001) 82
zeus meilichios Gaifman (2012) 233